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Encyclopedia > Independence Day (United States)
Independence Day
Independence Day
Displays of fireworks, such as these over the Washington Monument, are an example of the celebrations that take place nationwide.
Also called The Fourth of July
The Glorious Fourth
The Fourth
Observed by United States
Type National
Significance The day the Declaration of Independence was first adopted by the Continental Congress.
Date July 4
Celebrations Fireworks, Family reunions, Concerts, Barbecues, Picnics, Parades, Baseball games

In the United States, Independence Day, commonly known as the Fourth of July, is a federal holiday commemorating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, declaring independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain. Congress approved the wording of the Declaration on July 4 and then sent it to the printer. Whether John Hancock, as the elected President of the Second Continental Congress, or anyone else signed the document that day is unknown, because that document has been lost — presumably destroyed in the printing process.[1] Hancock's name and that of a witness do appear on the typeset broadside that was published within a few days. On August 2 in the following month, an engrossed document in script form[2] was signed by Hancock and other delegates. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1652x2732, 1254 KB) This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... This article is about the monument in Washington, D.C. For other monuments dedicated to George Washington, see Washington Monuments (world). ... The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Fireworks (disambiguation). ... Family Reunion is a 35 second song by blink-182 consisting entirely of profanity. ... For other uses, see Concert (disambiguation). ... A barbecue on a trailer at a block party in Kansas City. ... Friends and family gather for a picnic in a public park in Columbus, Ohio, c. ... United States Marines on parade. ... This article is about the sport. ... 4th of July can refer to: The Fourth of July, Independence Day of United States Fourth of July, a Galaxie 500 song 4th of July (Soundgarden song) 4th of July (U2 song) 4th of July (TUGS episode) 4th of July (novel) The fourth day in the month of July Born... Independence Day (also known by its promotional abbreviation ID4) is a 1996 Academy Award-winning science fiction film directed by Roland Emmerich. ... In the United States, a Federal holiday is a holiday recognized by the United States Government. ... The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1776 (disambiguation). ... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... John Hancock (January 23 [O.S. January 12] 1737– October 8, 1793) was President of the Second Continental Congress and of the Congress of the Confederation, the first Governor of Massachusetts, and the first person to sign the United States Declaration of Independence. ... The President of the Continental Congress was the presiding officer of the Continental Congress. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence depicts the five-man drafting committee presenting the first draft of the Declaration of Independence to the Second Continental Congress. ... A Dunlap broadside is one of 25 original printings of the United States Declaration of Independence. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Independence Day is commonly associated with fireworks, parades, barbecues, carnivals, picnics, baseball games, and various other public and private events celebrating the history, government, and traditions of the United States, but is often also viewed as simply a summer festival, apart from its patriotic overtones. For other uses, see Fireworks (disambiguation). ... United States Marines on parade. ... A barbecue on a trailer at a block party in Kansas City. ... For other uses, see Carnival (disambiguation). ... Friends and family gather for a picnic in a public park in Columbus, Ohio, c. ... This article is about the sport. ...

Contents

Observance

  • In 1776, John Adams declared, "The second day of July, 1776, will be the most memorable epocha in the history of America. I am apt to believe that it will be celebrated by succeeding generations as the great anniversary festival. It ought to be commemorated as the day of deliverance, by solemn acts of devotion to God Almighty. It ought to be solemnized with pomp and parade, with shows, games, sports, guns, bells, bonfires, and illuminations, from one end of this continent to the other, from this time forward forevermore."[3]
  • In 1777, thirteen guns were fired, once at morning and again as evening fell, on July 4 in Bristol, Rhode Island. Philadelphia celebrated the first anniversary in a manner a modern American would find quite familiar: an official dinner for the Continental Congress, toasts, 13-gun salutes, speeches, prayers, music, parades, troop reviews, and fireworks. Ships were decked with red, white, and blue bunting.
  • In 1778, General George Washington marked Independence Day with a double ration of rum for his soldiers and an artillery salute. Across the Atlantic Ocean, ambassadors John Adams and Benjamin Franklin held a dinner for their fellow Americans in Paris, France.
  • In 1779, July 4 fell on a Sunday. The holiday was celebrated on Monday, July 5.
  • In 1781, the Massachusetts General Court became the first state legislature to recognize Independence Day as a state celebration.
  • In 1783, Moravians in Salem, North Carolina, held the first celebration of Independence Day in the country with a challenging music program assembled by Johann Friedrich Peter. This work was titled "The Psalm of Joy".
  • In 1791 was the first recorded use of the name "Independence Day".
  • In 1870, the U.S. Congress made Independence Day an unpaid holiday for federal employees.[4]
  • In 1941, Congress changed Independence Day to a paid federal holiday. The residents of Vicksburg, Mississippi, celebrated Independence Day for the first time since July 4, 1863, when the Siege of Vicksburg ended with a Union victory during the American Civil War.

For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Motto: Official website: http://www. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Caribbean rum, circa 1941 Rum is a distilled beverage made from sugarcane by-products such as molasses and sugarcane juice by a process of fermentation and distillation. ... For other uses, see Ambassador (disambiguation). ... This article is about the American political figure. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Massachusetts General Court is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Massachusetts. ... State legislatures are the lawmaking bodies of the 50 states in the United States of America. ... Winston-Salem is a city located in Forsyth County, North Carolina. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... The historic Mississippi River Commission Building in Vicksburg, constructed in 1894 Vicksburg is a city in Warren County, Mississippi. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Battle of Vicksburg Conflict American Civil War Date May 18 - July 4, 1863 Place Warren County, Mississippi Result Union victory The Battle of Vicksburg was an American Civil War siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi, on a well-fortified west-facing cliff on the Mississippi River. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...

Customs

Celebration with fireworks over Miami, Florida, USA on American Independence Day. Bank of America Tower is also lit with the red, white and blue color scheme.
Celebration with fireworks over Miami, Florida, USA on American Independence Day. Bank of America Tower is also lit with the red, white and blue color scheme.

Independence Day, the only holiday that celebrates the United States, is a national holiday marked by patriotic displays. Similar to other summer-themed events, Independence Day celebrations often take place outdoors. Independence Day is a federal holiday, so all non-essential federal institutions (like the postal service and federal courts) are closed on that day. Many politicians make it a point on this day to appear at a public event to praise the nation's heritage, laws, history, society, and people. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 2. ... For other uses, see Fireworks (disambiguation). ... Miami redirects here. ... The Bank of America Tower (formerly the CenTrust Tower) is a 47-story, landmark office tower in Miami, Florida. ... A color scheme is the choice of colors used in design for a range of media. ... Defence of the fatherland is a commonplace of patriotism: The statue in the courtyard of École polytechnique, Paris, commemorating the students involvement in defending France against the 1814 invasion of the Coalition. ... USPS and Usps redirect here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The United States federal courts are the system of courts organized under the... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ...


Families often celebrate Independence Day with a picnic or barbecue, and take advantage of the day off and in some years, long weekend to gather with relatives. Decorations (e.g., streamers, balloons, and clothing) are generally colored red, white, and blue, the colors of the American flag. Parades often are in the morning, while fireworks displays occur in the evening at such places as parks, fairgrounds, or town squares. A streamer is a variant on a parachute which uses a strip of material instead of a canopy. ... For other uses, see Balloon (disambiguation). ... A baby wearing many items of winter clothing: headband, cap, fur-lined coat, shawl and sweater. ... Union Jack. ...


Independence Day fireworks are often accompanied by patriotic songs such as the national anthem ("The Star-Spangled Banner"), "God Bless America", "America the Beautiful", "My Country, 'Tis of Thee", "This Land Is Your Land", "Stars and Stripes Forever", and, regionally, "Yankee Doodle" in northeastern states and "Dixie" in southern states. Some of the lyrics recall images of the Revolutionary War or the War of 1812. For other uses, see Fireworks (disambiguation). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... The Star Spangled Banner is the national anthem of the United States. ... God Bless America is an American patriotic song originally written by Irving Berlin in 1918 and revised by him in 1938. ... America the Beautiful is an American patriotic song. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: America My Country, Tis of Thee, also known as America, is an American patriotic song. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: This Land Is Your Land This Land Is Your Land is one of the United States most famous folk songs. ... The Stars and Stripes Forever is a patriotic American march. ... Yankee Doodle is a well-known US song, often sung patriotically today. ... Dixie, also known as I Wish I Was in Dixie, Dixies Land and other titles, is a popular American song. ... The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a war fought primarily between Great Britain and revolutionaries within thirteen of her North American colonies. ... This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ...


Firework shows are held in many states, and many fireworks are sold for personal use or as an alternative to a public show. Safety concerns have led some states to ban fireworks or limit the sizes and types allowed. Illicit traffic transfers many fireworks from less restrictive states. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Major displays are held in New York on the East River, in Chicago on Lake Michigan, Boston on the Charles River, in St. Louis on the Mississippi River, and on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. During the annual Windsor-Detroit International Freedom Festival, Detroit, Michigan, and Windsor, Ontario host one of the world's largest fireworks displays, over the Detroit River, to celebrate both American Independence Day and Canada Day. This article is about the state. ... New York City waterways: 1. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America, and the only one located entirely within the United States. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... The Gateway Arch, shown here behind the Old Courthouse, is the most recognizable part of the St. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... Facing east across the Mall with ones back towards the Lincoln Memorial. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... After poor management and inclement weather caused great losses in 2003, this festival no longer exists in its usual form on the Windsor side of the border. ... Detroit redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... -1... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Landsat satellite photo, showing Lake Saint Clair, as well as St. ... Canada Day (French: Fête du Canada), formerly Dominion Day, is Canadas national holiday, marking the establishment of Canada as new federation with its own constitution on July 1, 1867. ...


While the official observance always falls on July 4th, participation levels may vary dependent upon which day of the week the 4th falls. If the holiday falls in the middle of the week, some fireworks displays and celebrations may take place during the weekend for convenience, again, varying by region.


Other events

Main article: July 4
  • America's Freedom Festival at Provo, in Utah, is one of the largest freedom festivals. It includes one of the largest Independence Day parades, and the Stadium of Fire.[citation needed]
  • Every year in the U.S.A., the Rainbow Family gather for prayer for World Peace. With attendance ranging from 10,000 to 25,000 or more participants, most refer to it as Interdependance Day as all live in primitive conditions by choice, in State Forests and rely upon one another for the first week of July. Participants on Independence Day pray, meditate, or are silent on the morning of Independence Day, ending in a verbal group expression, Aum or Om. The Rainbow Gathering takes place annually for the first week of July.
  • The Midwest's largest fireworks display, called "Red, White and Boom", happens on the last weekday before Independence Day in Downtown Columbus, Ohio. An estimated crowd of 500,000 to 750,000 attend and thousands more people view the fireworks display in HD on NBC Columbus, which is synchronized to music by 97.9 WNCI.
  • The town of Bristol, Rhode Island, is noted for having the oldest, continuous Independence Day celebration in the United States (since 1785).
  • James River Assembly in Ozark, Missouri, hosts the annual "I Love America" Celebration at the Springfield Underground. In 1997, 13,000 people showed up for the first event. In 2006, 120,000 people attended the celebration. Highlights include the choir's "Living Flag", the "Concert in the Sky", nearly 100 games and activities, and a four-hour air show.
  • A colorful Independence Day event is the Nathan's Hot Dog Eating Contest in Coney Island, Brooklyn, New York City, which supposedly started on July 4, 1916 as a way to settle a dispute among four immigrants as to who was the most patriotic. It was estimated that Americans would consume about 150 million hot dogs on July 4, 2006, or almost one hot dog for every other person in the United States.
  • New York City also hosts the famous Macy's Fireworks Display over the East River televised nationwide.
  • In Boston, a fireworks show is held over the Charles River Esplanade with the Boston Pops playing in the background. In recent years it too is televised nationwide.
  • Major League Baseball games are also played on Independence Day. Since 1959, NASCAR has held the Coke Zero 400 (formerly the "Firecracker 400") on July 4 or the Saturday of Independence Day weekend.
  • On the Capitol lawn in Washington, D.C., a free concert, "A Capitol Fourth", precedes the fireworks and attracts over half a million people annually.
  • In a remarkable series of coincidences, both John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, two founding fathers of the U.S., and the only two men who signed the Declaration of Independence to become President of the United States, died on the same day: July 4, 1826, which was the United States' 50th anniversary. President James Monroe died exactly five years later, on July 4, 1831, though he did not sign the Declaration of Independence.
  • The City of Urbandale, Iowa celebrates the biggest nationwide celebration in a location with a population less than 50,000
  • Seward, Nebraska is known for its Independence Day celebration. Dating back to 1868 they have honored and celebrated Independence Day, the 2008 celebration will mark its 140th celebration.
  • The annual 10 kilometer Peachtree Road Race is held in Atlanta.

is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Americas Freedom Festival at Provo or sometimes Americas Freedom Festival or Provo Freedom Festival, or even the Freedom Festival is said to be one of the largest Fourth of July celebrations in the world[citation needed]. Many events are a part of it, most notably, the Stadium of... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Stadium of Fire in an annual event held in the Brigham Young Universitys LaVell Edwards Stadium on the 4th of July. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Rainbow Gathering. ... Welcome home and We love you are common greetings at the Rainbow Gathering. ... Nickname: Motto: Official website: http://www. ... For other uses, see Independence Day (disambiguation). ... Nathans Wall of Fame of contest winners. ... For other uses, see Coney Island (disambiguation). ... This article is about the New York City borough, or Kings County, New York. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the R. H. Macy & Co. ... For other uses, see Fireworks (disambiguation). ... Only meanings of encyclopedic scope are listed here for disambiguation purposes. ... New York City waterways: 1. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... The Charles River from the Boston side, facing Cambridge and the main campus of Harvard University. ... The Boston Pops Orchestra was founded in 1885 as a subsection of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. ... Major Leagues redirects here. ... Jeff Burton (99), Elliott Sadler (38), Ricky Rudd (21), Dale Jarrett (88), Sterling Marlin (40), Jimmie Johnson (48), and Casey Mears (41) practice for the 2004 Daytona 500 The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) is the largest sanctioning body of motorsports in the United States. ... The United States Capitol is the capitol building that serves as the seat of government for the United States Congress, the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government. ... A Capitol Fourth is a free annual concert performed on the west lawn of the United States Capitol Building in Washington, D.C., in celebration of the Fourth of July. ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy. ... The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825). ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Urbandale is a city located in Polk County, and partially in Dallas County, in the state of Iowa. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Seward is a city located in Seward County, Nebraska. ... For other uses, see Independence Day (disambiguation). ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... The Peachtree Road Race, founded in 1970, is the largest, and arguably the best and most famous, 10 kilometer running event in the world, boasting a field of 55,000 participants annually. ... This article is about the state capital of Georgia. ...

See also

The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to... Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy. ... A declaration of independence is an assertion of the independence of an aspiring state or states. ... 1776 is the title of a 1969 Broadway musical and its 1972 film adaptation. ... Constitution Day (or Citizenship Day) is an American federal holiday that recognizes the ratification of the United States Constitution. ...

References

  1. ^ Julian P. Boyd, "The Declaration of Independence: The Mystery of the Lost Original". Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 100, number 4 (October 1976) , 438–467.
  2. ^ Julian P. Boyd (October 1976). The Declaration of Independence: The Mystery of the Lost Original 100. The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, 450. 
    Here, Boyd speculates on the whether a fair copy was available for signing on the 4th.
  3. ^ Letter to Abigail Adams
  4. ^ Independence Day Celebrations Database. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
For other universities known as American University, see American University (disambiguation). ... In the United States, a Federal holiday is a holiday recognized by the United States Government. ... This article is about the date January 1 in the Gregorian calendar. ... Martin Luther King Jr. ... Inauguration Day 2005 of President George W. Bush on the west steps of the U.S. Capitol. ... Presidents Day (or Presidents Day), is the common name for the federal holiday officially designated as Linclon Birthday, and both variants are among the official names of a number of coinciding state holidays. ... This article is about the holiday in the United States. ... This article is about the holiday in the United States. ... Columbus Day is a holiday celebrating the anniversary of Christopher Columbuss arrival in the Americas, which happened on the October 12, 1492 in the Julian calendar, or October 21, 1492 in the modern Gregorian calendar. ... For Veterans Day in the United Kingdom, see Veterans Day UK. President Eisenhower signs HR7786, officially changing Armistice Day to Veterans Day. ... For the Canadian holiday, see Thanksgiving (Canada). ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Independence Day (United States) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2087 words)
In the United States, Independence Day (commonly known as "the Fourth of July" or simply "the Fourth") is a federal holiday celebrating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence on 4 July 1776, declaring independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Independence Day is commonly associated with parades, barbecues, beer, picnics, baseball games, and various other public and private events celebrating the history, government, and traditions of the United States.
Despite the genesis of Independence Day, it is largely uncommon for Americans to express anti-British sentiment on the day or to view it as a celebration of anti-colonialism (it is also unusual to remember the aid given to the Americans by European powers such as France and the Dutch Republic).
United States - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (7699 words)
The United States of America, also known as the United States, the U.S., the U.S.A., the U.S. of A., the States, and America, is a country in North America.
The Northern states were opposed to the expansion of slavery whereas the Southern states saw the opposition as an attack on their way of life, since their economy was dependent on slave labor.
The economic history of the United States is a story of economic growth that began with marginally successful colonial economies and progressed to the largest industrial economy in the world in the 20th and early 21st century.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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