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Encyclopedia > Independence

Independence is the self-government of a nation, country, or state by its residents and population, generally exercising sovereignty. Self-governance is an abstract concept that refers to several scales of organization. ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... In political geography and international politics a country is a geographical entity, a territory, most commonly associated with the notions of state or nation. ... A state is a political association with effective dominion over a geographic area. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e. ...


The term independence is used in contrast to subjugation, which refers to a region as a "territory" —subject to the political and military control of an external government. The word is sometimes used in a weaker sense to contrast with hegemony, the indirect control of one nation by another, more powerful nation. Hegemony (pronounced or ) (Greek: ) is the dominance of one group over other groups, with or without the threat of force, to the extent that, for instance, the dominant party can dictate the terms of trade to its advantage; more broadly, cultural perspectives become skewed to favor the dominant group. ...


Independence can be the initial status of an emerging nation (often filling a political void), but is often an emancipation from some dominating power. It can be argued that independence is a negative definition: the state of not being controlled by another power through colonialism, expansionism or imperialism. Independence may be obtained by decolonization, or by separation or dismemberment. Although the last three can often coincide with it, they are not to be confused with revolution, which typically refers to the violent overthrow of a ruling authority. This sometimes only aims to redistribute power—with or without an element of emancipation, such as in democratizationwithin a state, which as such may remain unaltered. The Russian October Revolution, for example, was not intended to seek national independence; the United States Revolutionary War, however, was. One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... Expansionism is the doctrine of expanding the territorial base (or economic influence) of a country, usually by means of military aggression. ... // Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... Colonialism in 1945 Decolonization refers to the achievement of independence by the various Western colonies and protectorates in Asia and Africa following World War II. This conforms with an intellectual movement known as Post-Colonialism. ... Dismemberment is the act of cutting, tearing, pulling, wrenching or otherwise removing, the limbs of a living thing. ... The storming of the Bastille, 14 July 1789 during the French Revolution. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Democratization (British English: Democratisation) is the transition from an authoritarian or a semi-authoritarian political system to a democratic political system. ... “Red October” redirects here. ... The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a war fought primarily between Great Britain and revolutionaries within thirteen of her North American colonies. ...


Autonomy (in slight contrast) refers to a kind of independence which has been granted by an overseeing authority that itself still retains ultimate authority over that territory (see Devolution). A protectorate refers to an autonomous region that depends upon a larger government, for its protection as an autonomous region. The dates of established independence (or, to a lesser degree, the commencement of revolution), are typically celebrated as a national holiday known as an independence day. An autonomous (subnational) entity is a subnational entity that has a certain amount of autonomy. ... Devolution or home rule is the statutory granting of powers from the central government of a state to government at national, regional or local level. ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... Bold text This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... An Independence Day is an annual celebration commemorating the anniversary of a nations assumption of independent statehood, usually after ceasing to be a colony or part of another state. ...


Sometimes, a state wishing to achieve independence from a dominating power will issue a declaration of independence, the earliest surviving example being Scotland's Declaration of Arbroath, and the most famous of which is the U.S. Declaration of Independence issued in 1776. A declaration of independence is an assertion of the independence of an aspiring state or states. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic)1 Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime... The Declaration of Arbroath was a declaration of Scottish independence, and set out to confirm Scotlands status as an independent, sovereign state and its use of military action when unjustly attacked. ... U.S. Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence is the document in which the Thirteen Colonies declared themselves independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain and explained their justifications for doing so. ... Year 1776 (MDCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Independence may also be a gradual process marked by many separate developments, no single one of which establishes a definitive end-point. Canada's increasing independence from the UK is an example.


Causes for a country or province wishing to seek independence are many. Disillusionment rising from the establishment is a cause widely used in separatist movements, but it is usually severe economic difficulties that trigger these groups into action. The means can extend from peaceful demonstrations, like in the case of the Indian independence movement, to a violent civil war. The Indian independence movement incorporated the efforts by Indians to liberate the region from British rule and form the nation-state of India. ... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ...


See also

example: mexico's independence is 16 September 1810(declared) and 27 September (Mexico realized) Below is a list of nations in chronological order of their date of independence. ... The term War of Independence is generally use to describe a war occurring after a territory that has declared independence. ... Independence constitution is the name commonly given by African political scientists to originating constitutions (many of which are extant) of former British colonies, primarily in Africa, which gained their independence approximately 1960-1990. ... Independence referendum is a type of referendum in which citizens of one territory would decide whether this territory should become independent country. ...


Article note


  Results from FactBites:
 
Declaration of Independence (379 words)
Drafted by Thomas Jefferson between June 11 and June 28, 1776, the Declaration of Independence is at once the nation's most cherished symbol of liberty and Jefferson's most enduring monument.
The article "The Declaration of Independence: A History," provides a detailed account of the Declaration, from its drafting through its preservation today at the National Archives.
"The Stylistic Artistry of the Declaration of Independence" by Stephen Lucas.
U.S. Navy - A Brief History of Aircraft Carriers - USS Independence (CV 62) (1909 words)
Independence, along with USS John F. Kennedy (CV 67), USS Saratoga (CV 60), and seven other U.S. Navy ships, were put on standby in case U.S. military protection was needed for the evacuation of U.S. citizens and as a counterbalance to the Soviet Union's Mediterranean fleet.
Independence's port visit was the last U.S. naval port visit to the territory before its reversion to China on 1 July 1997.
Independence was decommissioned in ceremonies at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard in Bremeerton, Wash., on 30 September 1998.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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