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Encyclopedia > Increase Mather
Increase Mather

Increase Mather in 1688, when he was in London. Portrait by John van der Spriett
Born June 21, 1639
Dorchester, Massachusetts
Died August 23, 1723
Boston, Massachusetts
Occupation Minister
Spouse Maria Cotton and Ann Cotton

The Reverend Increase Mather (June 21, 1639August 23, 1723) was a major figure in the early history of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and Province of Massachusetts Bay (now the Federal state of Massachusetts). He was a Puritan minister who was involved with the government of the colony, the administration of Harvard College, and most notoriously, the Salem witch trials. He was the father of the influential Cotton Mather. Public domain from 1688 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 14 - Connecticuts first constitution, the Fundamental Orders, is adopted. ... 1888 German map of Boston Harbor showing Dorchester in the lower left hand corner. ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 16 - Louis XV of France attains his majority Births February 24 - John Burgoyne, British general (d. ... Nickname: Location in Massachusetts, USA Coordinates: , Country United States State Massachusetts County Suffolk County Settled 1630 Incorporated (city) 1822 Government  - Mayor Thomas M. Menino (D) Area  - City  89. ... In most Protestant churches, a minister is a member of the ordained clergy who leads a congregation; such a person may also be called a Pastor, Preacher, or Elder. ... The Reverend is an honorary prefix added to the names of Christian clergy and ministers. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 14 - Connecticuts first constitution, the Fundamental Orders, is adopted. ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 16 - Louis XV of France attains his majority Births February 24 - John Burgoyne, British general (d. ... A map of the Massachusetts Bay Colony Capital Charlestown, Boston History  - Established 1629  - New England Confederation 1643  - Dominion of New England 1686  - Province of Massachusetts Bay 1692  - Disestablished 1692 The Massachusetts Bay Colony (sometimes called the Massachusetts Bay Company, for the institution that founded it) was an English settlement on... A map of the Province of Massachusetts Bay. ... A U.S. state is any one of the 50 states which have membership of the federation known as the United States of America (USA or U.S.). The separate state governments and the U.S. federal government share sovereignty. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ... The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ... In most Protestant churches, a minister is a member of the ordained clergy who leads a congregation; such a person may also be called a Pastor, Preacher, or Elder. ... Harvard Yard Harvard College is the undergraduate section and oldest school of Harvard University, founded in 1636. ... 1876 illustration of the courtroom; the central figure is usually identified as Mary Walcott The Salem witch trials, which began in 1692 (also known as the Salem witch hunt and the Salem witchcraft episode), resulted in a number of convictions and executions for witchcraft in both Salem Village and Salem... Cotton Mather (February 12, 1663 – February 13, 1728). ...

Contents

Biography

Early life

Mather was born in Dorchester, Massachusetts[1] on June 21, 1639 to Rev. Richard Mather and Kathrine Holt Mather[2] following their participation in the Great Migration from England due to nonconformity with the Church of England.[3] He was the youngest of six[4] brothers: Samuel, Nathaniel, Eleazar, Joseph, Timothy.[4] 1888 German map of Boston Harbor showing Dorchester in the lower left hand corner. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 14 - Connecticuts first constitution, the Fundamental Orders, is adopted. ... Richard Mather Richard Mather (1596 - 1669), American Congregational clergyman, was born in Lowton, in the parish of Winwick, near Liverpool, England, of a family which was in reduced circumstances but entitled to bear a coat-of-arms. ... was when erikson martinez was rich ... Nonconformism is the refusal to conform to common standards, conventions, rules, traditions or laws. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ...


His parents were highly religious[5], and three of his brothers (Samuel, Nathaniel and Eleazar) also became ministers[6].


Education

In 1651 Mather was admitted to Harvard where he roomed with and studied under John Norton.[5][2] When he graduated (1656) with a B.A.[2], he began to train for the ministry and gave his first sermon on his eighteenth birthday[7]. He quickly left Massachusetts and went to Ireland, where he studied at Trinity College in Dublin for a M.A..[5] He graduated with it in 1659[1] and spent the next 3 years as a chaplain attached to a garrison in the Channel Islands[5]. John Norton Olympic medalist John Norton creator of the webcomic George Comics Categories: Disambiguation ... A B.A. issused as a certificate Bachelor of Arts (B.A., BA or A.B.), from the Latin Artium Baccalaureus is an undergraduate bachelors degree awarded for either a course or a program in the liberal arts or the sciences, or both. ... The term ministry can refer to the following: A ministry is a department of a government. ... Trinity College, Dublin TCD, corporately designated as the Provost, Fellows and Scholars of the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, was founded in 1592 by Elizabeth I, and is the only constituent college of the University of Dublin, Irelands oldest university. ... Dublin city centre at night WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Leinster County: Dáil Éireann: Dublin Central, Dublin North Central, Dublin North East, Dublin North West, Dublin South Central, Dublin South East European Parliament: Dublin Dialling Code: 01, +353 1 Postal District(s): D1-24, D6W Area: 114. ... A Master of Arts is a postgraduate academic masters degree awarded by universities in North America and the United Kingdom (excluding the ancient universities of Scotland and Oxbridge. ... // Events May 25 - Richard Cromwell resigns as Lord Protector of England following the restoration of the Long Parliament, beginning a second brief period of the republican government called the Commonwealth. ... A chaplain in the 45th Infantry Division leads a religious service in an unknown location during World War II. US Navy Chaplain Kenneth Medve conducts Catholic Mass onboard the Ronald Reagan (2006) A chaplain is typically a priest, ordained deacon or other member of the clergy serving a group of... This article is about the British dependencies. ...


Harvard was to later award him the first honorary degree in the New World, a S.T.D., in 1692[2]. An honorary degree (Latin: honoris causa ad gradum, not to be confused with an honors degree) is an academic degree awarded to an individual as a decoration, rather than as the result of matriculating and studying for several years. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... The Doctor of Sacred Theology (S.T.D. = Sacrae Theologiae Doctor) is the final degree in the Pontifical University System of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Events February 13 - Massacre of Glencoe March 1 - The Salem witch trials begin in Salem Village, Massachusetts Bay Colony with the charging of three women with witchcraft. ...


Establishing himself in Massachusetts

In 1661, with the advent of the English Restoration and resurgence of Anglicanism, Increase returned to Massachusetts, where he married Maria Cotton.[5] She was his stepsister[5] by virtue of his father's marriage to Sarah Hankredge, the widow of John Cotton and mother of Maria.[7] She gave birth to Cotton Mather in February.[5] 1661 (MDCLXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Anglicanism is the term used to encapsulate... John Cotton (1585–1652) The Reverend John Cotton (December 4, 1585 – December 23, 1652) was a highly regarded principal among the New England Puritan ministers, who also included John Winthrop, Thomas Hooker, Increase Mather (who became his son-in-law), John Davenport, and Thomas Shepard. ... Cotton Mather (February 12, 1663 – February 13, 1728). ...


He published in 1676 A Brief History of the Warr with the Indians in New-England, a contemporary account of King Philip's War. Attack King Philips War was an armed conflict between Indian inhabitants of present-day southern New England and English colonists and their Indian allies from 1675–1676. ...


He was ordained as minister of the Old North Church (the original Old North meetinghouse), whose congregation included many of the upper class and governing class,[5] on May 27, 1664. He held this post until he died.[1] By virtue of his position he quickly became one of the most influential people in the colony, both religiously and politically.[5] Ordination is the process in which clergy become authorized by their religious denomination and/or seminary to perform religious rituals and ceremonies. ... Image of the North End, Boston neighborhood. ... Upper class refers to the group of people at the top of a social hierarchy. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 12 - New Jersey becomes a colony of England. ...


Harvard

In June 11, 1685 he became the Acting President of Harvard University (then Harvard College) and steadily advanced: A little over a year later on July 23, 1686 he was appointed the Rector. On June 27, 1692 he became the President of Harvard, a position which he held until September 6, 1701.[2] is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1686 (MDCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The word rector (ruler, from the Latin regere) has a number of different meanings, but all of them indicate someone who is in charge of something. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 13 - Massacre of Glencoe March 1 - The Salem witch trials begin in Salem Village, Massachusetts Bay Colony with the charging of three women with witchcraft. ... The President is the chief administrator of Harvard University. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia. ...


He was rarely present on campus or in the town,[1] especially during his term of Rector as he was out of the Colony for all but two years of his term in that office.[2] Despite his absences he did make some changes: reimplementation of Greek and Hebrew instruction, replacement of classical Roman authors with Biblical and Christian authors in ethics classes, enactment of requirements that students attend classes regularly, live and eat on campus and that seniors not haze other students.[2] “Hebrew” redirects here. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Ethics (via Latin from the Ancient Greek moral philosophy, from the adjective of ēthos custom, habit), a major branch of philosophy, is the study of values and customs of a person or group. ... Hazing is an often ritualistic test, which may constitute harassment, abuse or humiliation with requirements to perform meaningless tasks, sometimes as a way of initiation into a social group. ...


Involvement in politics

While politics and Puritan religion were closely related during Increase's life time, his first direct involvement with politics occurred as a result of James II of England's manipulation of the New England governments. In 1686 James revoked the Charter of Massachusetts in the process of creating the unresponsible Dominion of New England.[1]. James II of England (also known as James VII of Scotland; 14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... 1686 (MDCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Responsible government is a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability which is the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy. ... The Dominion of New England was the name of a short-lived administrative union of English colonies in the New England region of North America. ...


The Dominion was headed by Edmund Andros, who not only disliked puritanism and was haughty[2], but ruled as a near absolute dictator: Town meetings were outlawed, leaving the Dominion without consent of the government was outlawed, marriage was removed from the clergy and the Old South Church was temporarily appropriated for Anglican services.[8] Also disliked by the Puritan status quo was the 1687 Declaration of Indulgence, prohibiting discrimination against Catholics.[5] When Mather successfully roused opposition to the charter revokation, he was nearly framed for treason. He then traveled to London (eluding spies out to catch him) to petition the King.[7] Sir Edmund Andros Sir Edmund Andros (December 6, 1637 - February 24, 1714), was an early colonial governor in North America, and head of the short-lived Dominion of New England. ... José Mourinho José Mário dos Santos Mourinho Félix (pron. ... A town meeting is a meeting where an entire geographic area is invited to participate in a gathering, often for a political or administrative purpose. ... Northwest corner of Copley Square showing Charles Follen McKims Boston Public Library on the left, and Chalres Amos Cummings Old South Church to the right. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Anglicanism is the term used to encapsulate... Status Quo are an English rock band whose music is characterised by a strong boogie line. ... Events March 19 - The men under explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle murder him while searching for the mouth of the Mississippi River. ... The Declaration of Indulgence (or the declaration for the liberty of conscience) was made by King James II of England, on the April 4, 1687. ... Traitor redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


While engaged in petitioning he published pieces to build popular support for his positions, such as A Narrative of the Miseries of New-England, By Reason of an Arbitrary Government Erected there Under Sir Edmund Andros (1688) and A Brief Relation for the Confirmation of Charter Privileges (1691).[7] Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ...


While there he attempted to get the old charter restored[1] and a royal charter for Harvard[2]; however, he abandoned that course and changed his petitions to a new charter not lacking any of the rights previously granted.[2] Following the Glorious Revolution and subsequent overthrow of Andros, a new charter was granted to the colony.[2] The 1692 charter was a major departure from its predecessor, granting sweeping home rule, establishing an elective legislature, enfranchising all freeholders (previously only men admitted to a congregation could vote), and uniting the Massachusetts Bay Colony and Plymouth Colony.[2] Following Andros' deposition and arrest[8], he had William Phips appointed as Royal Governor and they returned to Massachusetts, arriving on May 14 1692.[9] The Revolution of 1688, commonly known as the Glorious Revolution, was the overthrow of James II of England in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange). ... Devolution or Home rule is the pooling of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... Fee simple, also known as fee simple absolute or allodial, is a term of art in common law. ... Seal of Plymouth Colony Map of Plymouth Colony showing town locations Capital Plymouth Language(s) English Religion Puritan, Separatist Government Monarchy Legislature General Court History  - Established 1620  - First Thanksgiving 1621  - Pequot War 1637  - King Philips War 1675–1676  - Part of the Dominion of New England 1686–1688  - Disestablished 1691... Sir William Phips (or Phipps) (February 2, 1651 – February 18, 1695) was a colonial governor of Massachusetts. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Following his return, the administration of Harvard grew increasingly insistent that he reside nearer to the institution. Not wanting to leave his Second Church, he didn't, eventually resigning the Presidency.[2].


Involvement in the Salem witch trials

As an influential member of the community, Increase was involved in the notorious witch hysteria of Salem, Massachusetts. As the court of oyer and terminer was beginning to hear cases of suspected witchcraft, Increase published "The Return of Several Ministers Consulted", which urged moderation in the use and credence of "spectral evidence".[10] In June and July 1692 as the trials and executions began to increase, Increase made a number of sermons interpreted as a plea to cool the heated atmosphere.[10] In September he published Cases of Conscience Concerning Evil Spirits Personating Men, Witchcrafts, infallible Proofs of Guilt in such as are accused with that Crime (more commonly known as just "Cases of conscience concerning evil spirits"), which defended the judges and trials, but strongly denounced the spectral evidence used by them. It contained his famous version of Blackstone's formulation, that "It were better that Ten Suspected Witches should escape, than that one Innocent Person should be Condemned". Afterwards, his reputation was not improved by his involvement and association with the trials, nor by his subsequent refusal to denounce them. His refusal to repudiate was likely because of his longtime frienship with the judges involved.[9] He was also defamed[9] by Robert Calef in his harshly critical More Wonders of the Invisible World[11] (referred to as More Wonders of the Spiritual World by the Encyclopedia Britannica Eleventh Edition[7]). Nickname: Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country United States State Massachusetts County Essex County Settled 1626 Incorporated 1626 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Kimberley Driscoll Area  - City  18. ... Oyer redirects here. ... One of the great injustices of the Salem Witchcraft Trials was the admission of spectral evidence. ... In criminal law, Blackstones formulation (also known as Blackstones ratio or the Blackstone ratio) is the principle that it is better that ten guilty persons escape than that one innocent suffer. Named after the English jurist William Blackstone, the principle expressed in the formulation is much older, being... “Libel” redirects here. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ...


Later life and death

Following Maria's death in August 1714, he remarried.[5] On September 27, 1722 he fainted and was bedridden thereafter.[5] In August of 1723 he suffered bladder failure[5] and died three weeks later on August 23, 1723 in Boston.[12] is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Abraham De Moivre states De Moivres theorem connecting trigonometric functions and complex numbers Publication of the first book of Bachs Well-Tempered Clavier Fall of Persias Safavid dynasty during a bloody revolt of the Afghani people. ... Unconsciousness, more appropriately referred to as loss of consciousness or lack of consciousness, is a dramatic alteration of mental state that involves complete or near-complete lack of responsiveness to people and other environmental stimuli. ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 16 - Louis XV of France attains his majority Births February 24 - John Burgoyne, British general (d. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ...


Beliefs

Throughout his life Mather was a staunch Puritan, opposing anything openly contradictory to, mutually exclusive with, or potentially "distracting" from his religious beliefs. He supported suppression of intoxication, unnecessary effort on Sundays and ostentatious clothing. He was initially opposed to the Half-Way Covenant but later supported it.[7] He firmly believed in the direct appearance of God's disfavor in everyday life, e.g. the weather, political situations, attacks by "Indians", fires and floods, etc.[9][7] ... Sumptuary laws (from Latin sumptuariae leges) were laws that regulated and reinforced social hierarchies and morals through restrictions on clothing, food, and luxury expenditures. ... In 1662, the Half-Way Covenant was created by New England Puritans, in particular Solomon Stoddard, who felt that the people of their colonies were drifting away from their original religious purpose. ...


He was strenuous in attempting to keep people to his idea of morality,[2] making strong use of jeremiads to try and prevent indifference and especially to try and get government officials to enforce public morality.[5] A Jeremiad is a long literary work, usually in prose, but sometimes in poetry, that bitterly laments the state of society and its morals in a serious tone of sustained invective, and often contains a prophecy of its coming downfall. ...


During his tenure at Harvard he regularly stamped out any relaxation of Puritan strictness, such as latitudinarianism, which had flourished during his overseas absence.[2] Latitudinarian was initially a pejorative term applied to a group of 17th century British theologians who believed in conforming to official Church of England practices but who felt that matters of doctrine, liturgical practice, and ecclesiastical organization were of relatively little importance. ...


Following his acceptance of the Covenant, Solomon Stoddard and others attempted to further liberalize Puritanism by baptism of children who had nonmember parents[2] and admittance of all but the openly immoral to services.[7] To try and stop this, he had a synod called in an attempt to outlaw similar measures. A declaration was adopted, but never made binding.[7] Following this, reform-minded members were sent to the body and it took on a less conservative tone, bitterly disappointing Mather.[5] Reverend Solomon Stoddard (September 27, 1643 - February 11, 1728/9) was the American colonial minister who succeeded Rev. ... Baptism in early Christian art. ... A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church, convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application. ...


Given name

The stated reason for his first name was "...the never-to-be-forgotten increase, of every sort, wherewith God favoured the country about the time of his nativity."[7] A given name specifies and differentiates between members of a group of individuals, especially a family, all of whose members usually share the same family name. ...


Works

Among his more than 125 published works, the following are most notable:

  • The Mystery of Israel’s Salvation (1669)
  • The Life and Death of That Reverend Man of God, Mr. Richard Mather (1670)
  • Wo to Drunkards: Two sermons Testifying against the Sin of Drunkenness (1673)
  • The Day of Trouble Is Near (1674)
  • A Discourse concerning the Subject of Baptisme (1675)
  • The Wicked Mans Portion (1675)
  • A Brief History of the Warr With the Indians in New-England (1676) Online text
  • An Earnest Exhortation To the Inhabitants of New-England (1676) Online text
  • A Relation of the Troubles which Have Hapned in New-England by Reason of the Indians There from the Year 1614 to the Year 1675 (1677)
  • A Discourse concerning the Danger of Apostasy (1679)
  • The Divine Right of Infant-Baptisme Asserted and Proved from Scripture and Antiquity (1680)
  • A Confession of Faith Owned and Consented unto by the Elders and Messengers of the Churches Assembled at Boston (1680)
  • Heavens Alarm to the World (1681)
  • Diatriba de signo Filii Hominis, et de secundo Messiæadventu; ubi de modo futuræ judæorum conversionis; nec non de signis novissimi diei, disseritur (1682)
  • Kometographia, or, A Discourse concerning Comets (1683)
  • An Essay for the Recording of Illustrious Providences (1684)
  • An Arrow against Profane and Promiscuous Dancing Drawn out of the Quiver of Scriptures (1684)
  • The Mystery of Christ Opened and Applyed in Several Sermons concerning the Person, Office, and Glory of Jesus Christ (1686)
  • De successu evangelij apud Indos in Novâ-Angliâ epistola (1688)
  • A Narrative of the Miseries of New-England, by Reason of an Arbitrary Government Erected There under Sir Edmond Andross (1688)
  • Cases of Conscience Concerning Evil Spirits Personating Men (1693)
  • A Further Account of the Tryals of the New-England Witches (1693)
  • Angelographia, or, A Discourse concerning the Nature and Power of the Holy Angels (1696)
  • The Order of the Gospel, Professed and Practised by the Churches of Christ in New-England (1700)
  • The Blessed Hope, and the Glorious Appearing of the Great God our Saviour, Jesus Christ (1701)
  • Ichabod: or, The Glory Departing (1702)
  • Soul-saving Gospel Truths (1703)
  • A Discourse concerning Earthquakes (1706)
  • A Dissertation concerning the Future Conversion of the Jewish Nation (1709)
  • Meditations on the Glory of the Heavenly World (1711)
  • A Disquisition concerning Ecclesiastical Councils (1716)

Works About

  • Kenneth B. Murdock. Increase Mather: The Foremost American Puritan. Cambridge, Mass., 1925.
  • Thomas James Holmes. Increase Mather: a Bibliography of his Works. Cleveland, 1931.
  • Robert Middlekauf. The Mathers: Three Generations of Puritan Intellectuals, 1596-1728. New York, 1971.
  • Mason I. Lowance. Increase Mather. New York, 1974.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Mather, Increase. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05.. Bartleby.com. Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Mather, Increase, 1639-1723. Papers of Increase Mather: an inventory. Harvard University. Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  3. ^ Dorchester Atheneum. Dorchester Atheneum: Richard Mather. Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  4. ^ a b (1904) The Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans. Boston: The Biographical Society.  — The relevant excerpt can be seen here: http://members.tripod.com/clipclop/LM/mather/richard.html (Warning: Ads)
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Andrew Mitchell. A Brief Biographical Sketch of the Reverend Increase Mather (Microsoft Word (.DOC)). Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  6. ^ Richard Mather - LoveToKnow1911. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Increase Mather - LoveToKnow1911. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  8. ^ a b Interactive State House. Governors of Massachusetts. Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Retrieved on 2006-12-14.
  9. ^ a b c d Biography of Increase Mather. Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  10. ^ a b Mathew Madden. Salem Witch Trials: Increase Mather. Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  11. ^ MORE WONDERS of the INVISIBLE WORLD. University of Virginia. Retrieved on 2006-12-09.
  12. ^ MHS Increase Mather Papers, 1659-1721 Guide to the Microfilm Edition. The Massachusetts Historical Society.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Microsoft Office Word is Microsofts flagship word processing software. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... State nickname: Bay State Other U.S. States Capital Boston Largest city Boston Governor Mitt Romney Official languages English Area 27,360 km² (44th)  - Land 20,317 km²  - Water 7,043 km² (25. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Massachusetts Historical Society is a a major historical archive specializing in early American, Massachusetts, and New England history. ...

See also

Academic offices
Preceded by
John Rogers
President of Harvard College
1685–1686, acting
1686–1692, Rector
1692–1701
Succeeded by
Samuel Willard, acting
Religious titles
Preceded by
John Mayo
Old North Church
1673–1723
Succeeded by
Cotton Mather
Persondata
NAME Increase Mather
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Increaſe Mather
SHORT DESCRIPTION Puritan minister
DATE OF BIRTH June 21, 1639
PLACE OF BIRTH Dorchester, Massachusetts
DATE OF DEATH August 23, 1723
PLACE OF DEATH Boston, Massachusetts

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Increase Mather - LoveToKnow 1911 (1008 words)
INCREASE MATHER (1639-1723), American Congregational minister, was born in Dorchester, Massachusetts, on the 21st of June 1639, the youngest son of Richard Mather.' He entered Harvard in 1651, and graduated in 1656.
Mather had expressed strong dissatisfaction with the clause giving the governor the right of veto, and regretted the less theocratic tone of the charter which made all freemen (and not merely church members) electors.
Increase Mather was a great preacher with a simple style and a splendid voice, which had a "Tonitruous Cogency," to quote his son's phrase.
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