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Encyclopedia > Inclusive we

Inclusive we is a pronoun that indicates the speaker, the addressee, and perhaps other people, as opposed to the exclusive we that excludes the addressee. In all European languages, as in English, there is but one pronoun for the speaker plus other people, regardless of who's included. In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a pro-form that substitutes a noun or noun phrase with or without a determiner, such as you and they in English. ... Exclusive we is a pronoun that indicates the speaker and perhaps other people, but excludes the addressee, as opposed to the inclusive we that includes the addressee. ...

In Malay, the pronoun kami is inclusive, and kita is exclusive. That is, you may say "We (kita) will go shopping, and then we (kami) will eat," making it clear that your guest is not to accompany you to the store, but is invited to dinner. What you cannot do is be ambiguous as to whether or not your guest is included, as you can in English. The Malay language, also known locally as Bahasa Melayu, is an Austronesian language spoken by the Malay people who are native to the Malay peninsula, southern Thailand, Singapore, central eastern Sumatra, the Riau islands, and parts of the coast of Borneo. ...

Tagalog is very similar, except that the form kitá (or katá) is dual; that is, "just you and me", while the plural forms are kamí and táyo. Tagalog also has an affectionate expression based on the inclusive dual pronoun, mahakita ("dear us", or perhaps "I love you"). Tagálog is one of the major languages of the Republic of the Philippines. ... Dual is the grammatical number used for two referents. ...

In standard Mandarin, the pronoun wǒmen 我們 "we", which is the plural of the pronoun 我 "I", is indefinite like its English counterpart. However, in northern Mandarin dialects there is an additional pronoun, zámen 咱們, which is inclusive. In these dialects, wǒmen 我們 is exclusive. Mandarin   listen?(Traditional: 北方話, Simplified: 北方话, Hanyu Pinyin: BÄ›ifānghuà, lit. ...

Taiwanese is similar. Exclusive goán is the plural of goá "I", while inclusive lán is a separate root also with the plural suffix. Lán may be used to express politeness or solidarity, as in asking a stranger "where do we live?" to mean "where do you live?". Taiwanese (Chinese: 台語, 台灣話 or 福佬話; Taiwanese Pe̍h-oÄ“-jÄ«: Tâi-oân-oÄ“ or Hō-ló-oÄ“; Hanyu Pinyin: TáiyÇ” or Táiwānhuà) is the primary spoken language of 70% of the Taiwanese population. ...

This is a common pattern, where the plural form of "I" is the exclusive pronoun. It is also common for the inclusive pronoun to be composed of the pronouns for "I" and "you". Both are the case in the English creoles Tok Pisin and Bislama, where the inclusive pronoun is a variant of yumi (two people, that is, you + me) or yumipla (for more than two people; -pla or -pela is a plural suffix), and the exclusive pronoun is the plural of "me": mipla. The term Creole is used with different meanings in different contexts, which can generate confusion. ... Tok Pisin (tok means word or speech, pisin means pidgin) is the creole spoken in Papua New Guinea (PNG). ... Bislama is a Melanesian creole language, one of the official languages of Vanuatu. ...

In Quechua, both forms, inclusive ñuqanchik and exclusive ñuqayku, are clearly based on the first-person singular pronoun ñuqa, but it is not immediatley clear how they relate historically to the second-person pronoun qan or the plural suffix -kuna. Quechua (Runasimi in Quechua; Runa, People + Simi, speech, literally mouth) is a Native American language of South America. ...

In Telugu, the forms are inclusive మనము manamu and exclusive మేము memu. Telugu (తెలుగు) belongs to the family of Dravidian languages and is the official language of the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. ...

The inclusive-exclusive distinction is nearly universal among the Austronesian languages and the languages of northern Australia, but rare in the Papuan languages in between. It is widespread among the Dravidian languages, the Munda languages, and the languages of eastern Siberia, such as Evenki, though it has been lost from some. In America it is found in about half the languages, with no clear geographic or genealogical pattern. It is also found in a few languages of the Caucasus and Sub-Saharan Africa, such as Laal. The Austronesian languages are a family of languages widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia. ... The term Papuan languages refers to those languages of the western Pacific which are neither Austronesian nor Australian. ... The Dravidian family of languages includes approximately 26 languages that are mainly spoken in southern India and Sri Lanka, as well as certain areas in Pakistan, Nepal, and eastern and central India. ... Munda Languages are spoken in north east India. ... Siberia Siberia (Russian: , common English transliterations: Sibir’, Sibir; from the Tatar for “sleeping land”) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting almost all of northern Asia. ... The Evenk language (Evenki language) (SIL: EVN, ISO 639-2: tut) is the largest of the northern group of the Manchu-Tungus languages, a group which also includes the Even and Negidal languages. ... Indigenous languages of the Americas (or Amerindian Languages) are spoken by indigenous peoples from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland, encompassing the land masses which constitute the Americas. ... The term Caucasian languages is loosely used to refer to a large and extremely varied array of languages spoken by more than 7 million people in the Caucasus region of Eastern Europe, between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. ... The term African languages refers to the approximately 1800 languages spoken in Africa. ... The Laal language is a still-unclassified language spoken by about 300 people in three villages in the Moyen-Chari prefecture of Chad on opposite banks of the Chari River, called Gori (lá), Damtar (ɓual), and Mailao. ...

Where verbs are inflected for person, as in Australia and much of America, the inclusive-exclusive distinction is made there as well. For example, in Passamaquoddy "I/we have it" is expressed ntíhin (singular; first person prefix n-), ntíhinèn (exclusive; plural suffix -èn), ktíhinèn (inclusive; inclusive prefix k-). Grammatical person, in linguistics, is deictic reference to the participant role of a referent, such as the speaker, the addressee, and others. ... The Passamaquoddy are a Native American/First Nations people who live in northeastern North America, primarily in Maine and New Brunswick. ...

There is an interesting twist with inclusive pronouns in Samoan. In this language, as in the related languages Malay and Tagalog, there are two separate roots for "we", inclusive ’ita and exclusive ’ima. Unlike in those languages, the Samoan pronouns must be used with the dual suffix -’ua or the plural suffix -tou to mean "we". However, the inclusive pronoun ’ita may also occur on its own as a singular pronoun. In this case it means "I", but with a connotation of appealing or asking for indulgence, rather like the concept of amae in Japanese. That is, by using ’ita instead of the normal word for "I", a’u, you are involving the other person in statements about yourself. Amae (甘え), a Japanese word meaning indulgent dependence is part of the child rearing culture of Japan. ...

  Results from FactBites:
Inclusive and exclusive we - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1035 words)
Inclusive we is a pronoun or verb conjugation that indicates the inclusion of the speaker, the addressee, and perhaps other people, as opposed to exclusive we, which specifically excludes the addressee.
It is also common for the inclusive pronoun to be composed of the pronouns for "I" and "you".
In Quechua, both forms, inclusive ñuqanchik and exclusive ñuqayku, are clearly based on the first-person singular pronoun ñuqa, but it is not immediately clear how they relate historically to the second-person pronoun qan or the plural suffix -kuna.
All-Inclusive Christ — Quotations from Witness Lee (15440 words)
The all-inclusive Christ as the embodiment of the redeeming God is the city of refuge where we are safeguarded, covered, and concealed.
We are sent by the Lord to preach Christ either as the Savior to the sinners or as the all-inclusive Christ to the saints.
We have seen that the all-inclusive Christ, the Triune God embodied in humanity as the source of life, is signified by the tree of life (Gen. 2:9; Rev. 2:7; 22:2).
  More results at FactBites »



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