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Encyclopedia > Inclusive classroom
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The phrase inclusive classroom is a scheme for social improvement, which advocates the improvement of schools. The goals have variously been to create happier learning environments for all students and to include special education students in all aspects of school-life.[citation needed] Students in special schools may not benefit from an inclusive classroom because their needs are too intensive.[citation needed]The "inclusive classroom" is an idealistic class that practices inclusive education.[citation needed]For example, in inclusive models, the general education teacher is the main teacher responsible for the student's education with support provided by special education staff.[1] Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... A special school is a school catering to students who have special educational needs (SEN), for example, because of learning difficulties or physical disabilities. ...


Inclusive education

Inclusion is really about school change to improve the educational system for all students. It means changes in the curriculum, changes in how teachers teach and how students learn, as well as changes in how students with and without disability labels interact with and relate to one another. Inclusive education practices reflect the changing culture of contemporary schools with emphasis on active learning, authentic assessment practices, applied curriculum, multi-level instructional approaches, and increased attention to diverse student needs and individualization. The reality is that schools, centers of learning and educational systems must change so that they become caring, nurturing, and supportive educational communities where the needs of all students and teachers are truly met. Therefore in order to achieve this, inclusive education no longer provide "regular education" and "special education" but provide a service which includes every student, no matter what he or she needs at the time.[2] In other words, it is open to all students, and that ensure that all students learn and participate. For this to happen, teachers, schools and systems may need to change so that they can better accommodate the diversity of needs that pupils have and that they are included in all aspects of school-life. It also means identifying any barriers within and around the school that hinder learning and participation, and reducing or removing these barriers. Inclusive education is a process of enabling all students, including previously excluded groups, to learn and participate effectively within mainstream school systems. Placing excluded students within a mainstream setting does not of itself achieve inclusion.[3] Inclusive education must be underpinned by key principles and practices:


  • Every student has an inherent right to education on basis of equality of opportunity[citation needed]
  • No student is excluded from, or discriminated within education on grounds of race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, disability, birth, poverty or other status[citation needed]
  • All students can learn and benefit from education[citation needed]
  • Schools adapt to the needs of students, rather than students adapting to the needs of the school[citation needed]
  • The student’s views are listened to and taken seriously[citation needed]
  • Individual differences between students are a source of richness and diversity, and not a problem[citation needed]
  • The diversity of needs and pace of development of students are addressed through a wide and flexible range of responses[citation needed]


The practice of developing inclusive schools involves:

  • Understanding inclusion as a continuing process, not a one-time event[citation needed]
  • Strengthening and sustaining the participation of students, teachers, parents and community members in the work of the school[citation needed]
  • Restructuring the cultures, policies and practices in schools to respond to the diversity of pupils within their locality. Inclusive settings focus on identifying and then reducing the barriers to learning and participation, rather than on what is ‘special’ about the individual student or group of students, and targeting services to address the ‘problem’[citation needed]
  • Providing an accessible curriculum, appropriate training programs for teachers, and for all students, the provision of fully accessible information, environments and support[citation needed]
  • Identifying and providing support for staff as well as students[citation needed]


It is general practice that students in an inclusive classroom are with their chronological age-mates.[citation needed]Also, to encourage a sense of belonging, emphasis is placed on the value of friendships.[citation needed]Teachers often nurture a relationship between a student with special needs and a peer without need.[citation needed]Another common practice is the assignment of a buddy to accompany a student with special needs at all times (for example in the cafeteria, on the playground, on the bus and so on).[citation needed] Look up Buddy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Buddy may refer to: Friend Buddy (Looney Tunes), an animated cartoon character in the Warner Bros. ...

In principle, several factors can determine the success of inclusive classrooms:

  • Family-school partnerships
  • Collaboration between general and special educators
  • Well-constructed Individualized Education Program plans
  • Team planning and communication
  • Integrated service delivery
  • Ongoing training and staff development

Teachers use a number of techniques to help build classroom communities:

  • Games designed to build community
  • Involving students in solving problems
  • Songs and books that teach community
  • Openly dealing with individual differences
  • Assigning classroom jobs that build community
  • Teaching students to look for ways to help each other
  • Utilizing physical therapy equipment such as standing frames, so students who typically use wheelchairs can stand when the other students are standing and more actively participate in activities

Physical therapy (or physiotherapy[1]) is the provision of services to people and populations to develop, maintain and restore maximum movement and functional ability throughout the lifespan. ... A standing frame (also known as a stand, stander, standing technology, standing aid, standing device, standing box, tilt table) is assistive technology used by a child or adult who uses a wheelchair for mobility. ...


The neutrality of this article is disputed.
Please see the discussion on the talk page.

Inclusive education has many benefits for the students. Instructional time with non-disabled peers helps the learners to learn strategies taught by the teacher. Teachers bring in different ways to teach a lesson for disabled students and non-disabled students. All of the students in the classroom benefit from this. The students can now learn from the lesson how to help each other. Socialization in the school allows the students to learn communication skills and interaction skills from each other. Students can build friendships from these interactions. The students can also learn about hobbies from each other. A friendship in school is important for the development of learning. When a student has a friend the student can relate to a member of the classroom. Students’ being able to relate to each other gives them a better learning environment. Involving non-disabled peers with disabled peers gives the students a positive attitude towards each other. The students are the next generation to be in the workforce; the time in the classroom with the disabled and non-disabled peers will allow them to communicate in the real world someday. Disabled students are included in all aspects of school-life. For example, homeroom, specials such as art and gym, lunch, recess, and assemblies. Disabled students involved in these classrooms will give them the time they need to participate in activities with their non-disabled peers. Awareness should be taught to students that will be in the classroom with the disabled peers. The teacher can do a puppet show, show a movie, or have the student talk to the class. The teacher could also read a book to help the student describe his or her disability. The class can ask questions about what they learned and what they want to know. This will help when the students are together in the classroom. Positive modeling is important for the students in the classroom. Positive modeling is the teacher showing a good example towards both disabled and non-disabled students this will help the students to get along more. [opinion needs balancing] Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... POV, as opposed to NPOV, in an article means that it is affected by an editors point of view. ...

Source: Teaching Students with Severe Disabilities third edition by: David L. Westling and Lise Fox


Opponents of inclusive classroom believe that individual differences will slow the progress of normal students. Therefore, this will create problems for general education teachers. Some argue that inclusive classrooms are not a cost-effective response when compared to cheaper or more effective interventions, such as special education. They argue that special education helps "fix" the special needs students by providing individualized and personalized instruction to meet their unique needs. This is to help students with special needs adjust as quickly as possible to the mainstream of the school and community. Proponents counter that students with special needs are not fully into the mainstream of student life because they are secluded to special education. Some argue that isolating students with singular needs or disabilities may lower their self-esteem and may reduce their ability to deal with other people. In addition, normal students can learn much about personal courage and perseverance from students with singular needs or disabilities.


  • "Children who learn together, live together"
  • "There are many ways to do something"
  • "All means all" Forest & Pearpoint
  • "If we are to achieve a richer culture, rich in contrasting values, we must recognize the whole gamut of human potentialities and so we weave a less arbitrary social fabric, one in which each diverse human gift will find a fitting place" Margaret Mead

See also

Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Starting from the idea that teaching is a political act that is never neutral, teaching for social justice is the act of teaching with a focus on creating equity and changing systems of oppression. ...


  • Inclusive Education:

Ainscow M., Booth T. (2003) The Index for Inclusion: Developing Learning & Participation in Schools. Bristol: Center for Studies in Inclusive Education


  1. ^ Scheyer et al. (1996). The Inclusive Classroom Teacher Created Materials, Inc. The Inclusive Classroom
  2. ^ Scheyer et al. (1996). The Inclusive Classroom Teacher Created Materials, Inc. The Inclusive Classroom
  3. ^ http://armlawreview.org/guide/Hamazasp%20Harutyunyan.doc

External links

  • Kids Together, Inc. An All-volunteer non-profit 501(c)3 that promotes inclusive communities where all people belongs. Tons of information, perspectives and links to resources for creating inclusion are available, along with a monthly newsletter, and national listserv dedicated only to inclusive education.
  • **New Resource** Inclusive Education in Primary Schools: supporting students with social, emotional and behavioral difficulties by Karen Knamiller and Mary Duffy, with Jayne Allan, Louise Hill, and Susie Warden published by Barnardos [1] This resource is full of practical techniques helping in mainstream teachers and staff to develop new skills and confidence to support students with additional needs.

  Results from FactBites:
Inclusive classroom - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1173 words)
An inclusive education refers to schools, centres of learning and educational systems that are open to all children, and that ensure that all children learn and participate.
It is general practice that children in an inclusive classroom be with their chronological age-mates.
A child with special needs may require transition from a regular classroom to the special needs classroom, and may be shadowed by an educational assistant throughout the day.
  More results at FactBites »



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