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Encyclopedia > Incineration
Spittelau incineration plant in Vienna.
Spittelau incineration plant in Vienna.
SYSAV incineration plant in Malmö, Sweden capable of handling 25 tonnes per hour household waste. To the left of the stack, a new identical oven line is under construction (March 2007).
SYSAV incineration plant in Malmö, Sweden capable of handling 25 tonnes per hour household waste. To the left of the stack, a new identical oven line is under construction (March 2007).

Incineration is a waste treatment technology that involves the combustion of organic materials and/or substances.[1] Incineration and other high temperature waste treatment systems are described as "thermal treatment". Incineration of waste materials converts the waste into incinerator bottom ash, flue gases, particulates, and heat, which can in turn be used to generate electric power. The flue gases are cleaned of pollutants before they are dispersed in the atmosphere. Waste-to-energy (WtE) or energy-from-waste (EfW) in its strictest sense refers to any waste treatment that creates energy in the form of electricity or heat from a waste source that would have been disposed of in landfill, also called energy recovery. ... Incinerator is the name of several fictional characters in the various Transformers universes. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 458 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1300 × 1702 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 458 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1300 × 1702 pixel, file size: 2. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Motto: FrÃ¥n arbetarstad till kunskapsstad (eng: From industrial city to knowledge city) Location of Malmö in northern Europe Coordinates: , Country  Sweden Municipality Malmö Municipality County SkÃ¥ne County Province Scania (SkÃ¥ne) Charter 13th century Government  - Mayor Illmar Reepalu Area  - City 335. ... The following page contains a list of different forms of waste treatment Anaerobic digestion ArrowBio Composting Gasification Incineration In-vessel composting Landfill Mechanical biological treatment Mechanical heat treatment Plasma Pyrolysis Recycling Sewage treatment Tunnel composting UASB Windrow composting Categories: | ... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... Thermal treatment is a term given to any waste treatment technology that involves high temperatures in the processing of the waste feedstock. ... Incinerator bottom ash (IBA) is a form of ash produced in incineration facilities. ... Flue gas is gas that exits to the atmosphere via a flue, which is a pipe or channel for conveying exhaust gases from a fireplace, oven, furnace, boiler or steam generator. ... Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... For delivered electrical power, see Electrical power industry. ... Atmospheres redirects here. ...


Incineration with energy recovery is one of several waste-to-energy (WtE) technologies such as gasification, Plasma arc gasification, pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion. Incineration may also be implemented without energy and materials recovery. Waste-to-energy (WtE) or energy-from-waste (EfW) in its strictest sense refers to any waste treatment that creates energy in the form of electricity or heat from a waste source that would have been disposed of in landfill, also called energy recovery. ... For the water carbonator, see Gasogene. ... Plasma arc waste disposal is a method of waste management which uses the extreme high temperature created by a plasma torch (or arc), to break down waste into steam and gas used for power generation, and hard solid rock-like waste (slag) which can be used in construction. ... Simple sketch of pyrolysis chemistry Pyrolysis usually means the chemical decomposition of organic materials by heating in the absence of oxygen or any other reagents, except possibly steam. ... Anaerobic digestion component of Lübeck mechanical biological treatment plant in Germany, 2007 Anaerobic digestion is a process in which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen. ...


In several countries there are still expert and local community concerns about the environmental impact of incinerators (see The argument against incineration).


In some countries, incinerators built just a few decades ago often did not include a materials separation to remove hazardous, bulky or recyclable materials before combustion. These facilities tended to risk the health of the plant workers and the local environment due to inadequate levels of gas cleaning and combustion process control. Most of these facilities did not generate electricity. A materials recovery facility or materials reclaimation facility (MRF -- pronounced murf) is a specialized plant that receives, separates and prepares recyclable materials for marketing to end-user manufacturers. ... A grapple truck collecting waste Bulky waste or bulky refuse is a technical term taken from waste management to describe waste types that are too large to be accepted by the regular waste collection. ... Recyclable waste is a waste type that has the potential to be recycled. ...


Incinerators reduce the volume of the original waste by 95-96 %, depending upon composition and degree of recovery of materials such as metals from the ash for recycling.[2] This means that while incineration does not completely replace landfilling, it reduces the necessary volume for disposal significantly. Look up Dump in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Incineration has particularly strong benefits for the treatment of certain waste types in niche areas such as clinical wastes and certain hazardous wastes where pathogens and toxins can be destroyed by high temperatures. Examples include chemical multi-product plants with diverse toxic or very toxic wastewater streams, which cannot be routed to a conventional wastewater treatment plant. There are many different waste types or waste streams which are produced by a variety of processes. ... Medical waste, also known as clinical waste, refers to biological products which are essentially useless. ... This article describes hazardous waste as a substance; for the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal see Basel Convention Put simply, a Hazardous waste is waste that poses substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment and generally exhibits one...


Waste combustion is particularly popular in countries such as Japan where land is a scarce resource. Denmark and Sweden have been leaders in using the energy generated from incineration for more than a century, in localised combined heat and power facilities supporting district heating schemes.[3] In 2005, waste incineration produced 4.8 % of the electricity consumption and 13.7 % of the total domestic heat consumption in Denmark.[4] A number of other European Countries rely heavily on incineration for handling municipal waste, in particular Luxemburg, The Netherlands, Germany and France. [2] Cogeneration (also combined heat and power or CHP) is the use of a power station to simultaneously generate both heat and electricity. ... District heating pipe in Tübingen, Germany District heating (less commonly called teleheating) is a system for distributing heat generated in a centralized location for residential and commercial heating requirements. ... Luxembourg - a small country in west Europe Luxembourg (city) - the capital city of the country Luxembourg (district) - a district in the country Luxembourg, province of Belgium Luxemburg, Iowa - a city in the USA Luxemburg, Wisconsin - a village in the USA Luxembourg Garden, Paris, France Luxemburg Township, Minnesota - a township in... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain...

Contents

Technology

Types of incinerators

An incinerator is a furnace for burning waste. Modern incinerators include pollution mitigation equipment such as flue gas cleaning. There are various types of incinerator plant design: moving grate, fixed grate, rotary-kiln, fluidised bed. A furnace is a device for heating air or any other fluid. ... For other uses, see Waste (disambiguation). ...


Moving grate

Control room of a typical moving grate incinerator overseeing two boiler lines
Control room of a typical moving grate incinerator overseeing two boiler lines

The typical incineration plant for municipal solid waste is a moving grate incinerator. The moving grate enables the movement of waste through the combustion chamber to be optimised to allow a more efficient and complete combustion. A single moving grate boiler can handle up to 35 tonnes of waste per hour, and can operate 8,000 hours per year with only one scheduled stop for inspection and maintenance of about one months duration[5]. Moving grate incinerators are sometimes referred to as Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators (MSWIs). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2515x1387, 517 KB) Summary Control room of a power station Published with the permission of VGB Power Tech GmbH Germany Source of foto: Steag, Germany Weblink: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2515x1387, 517 KB) Summary Control room of a power station Published with the permission of VGB Power Tech GmbH Germany Source of foto: Steag, Germany Weblink: http://www. ... Municipal waste redirects here. ...


The waste is introduced by a waste crane through the "throat" at one end of the grate, from where it moves down over the descending grate to the ash pit in the other end. Here the ash is removed through a water lock. For other uses, see Grab. ...

Municipal solid waste in the furnace of a moving grate incinerator capable of handling 15 tons of waste per hour. The holes in the grate elements supplying the primary combustion air are visible.
Municipal solid waste in the furnace of a moving grate incinerator capable of handling 15 tons of waste per hour. The holes in the grate elements supplying the primary combustion air are visible.

Part of the combustion air (primary combustion air) is supplied through the grate from below. This air flow also has the purpose of cooling the grate itself. Cooling is important for the mechanical strength of the grate, and many moving grates are also water cooled internally. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ...


Secondary combustion air is supplied into the boiler at high speed through nozzles over the grate. It facilitates complete combustion of the flue gases by introducing turbulence for better mixing and by ensuring a surplus of oxygen. In multiple/stepped hearth incinerators, the secondary combustion air is introduced in a separate chamber downstream the primary combustion chamber. In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is a flow regime characterized by chaotic, stochastic property changes. ...


According to the European Waste Incineration Directive, incineration plants must be designed to ensure that the flue gases reach a temperature of at least 850 °C for 2 seconds in order to ensure proper breakdown of organic toxins. In order to comply with this at all times, it is required to install backup auxiliary burners (often fueled by oil), which are fired into the boiler in case the heating value of the waste becomes too low to reach this temperature alone. The Waste Incineration Directive is a Directive issued by the European Union and relates to standards and methodologies required by Europe for the practice and technology of incineration. ... Flue gas is gas that exits to the atmosphere via a flue, which is a pipe or channel for conveying exhaust gases from a fireplace, oven, furnace, boiler or steam generator. ... For other uses, see Toxin (disambiguation). ... Heating value (or calorific value) is used to define the amount of heat released during the combustion of a fuel or food. ...


The flue gases are then cooled in the superheaters, where the heat is transferred to steam, heating the steam to typically 400 °C at a pressure of 40 bar for the electricity generation in the turbine. At this point, the flue gas has a temperature of around 200 °C, and is passed to the flue gas cleaning system. Flue gas is gas that exits to the atmosphere via a flue, which is a pipe or channel for conveying exhaust gases from a fireplace, oven, furnace, boiler or steam generator. ... In physics, superheating (sometimes referred to as boiling retardation, boiling delay, or defervescence) is the phenomenon in which a liquid is heated to a temperature higher than its standard boiling point, without actually boiling. ... The bar (symbol bar), decibar (symbol dbar) and the millibar (symbol mbar, also mb) are units of pressure. ... A Siemens steam turbine with the case opened. ...


At least in Scandinavia scheduled maintenance is always performed during summer, where the demand for district heating is low. Often incineration plants consist of several separate 'boiler lines' (boilers and flue gas treatment plants), so that waste receival can continue at one boiler line while the others are subject to revision. For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... District heating pipe in Tübingen, Germany District heating (less commonly called teleheating) is a system for distributing heat generated in a centralized location for residential and commercial heating requirements. ...


Fixed grate

The older and simpler kind of incinerator was a brick-lined cell with a fixed metal grate over a lower ash pit, with one opening in the top or side for loading and another opening in the side for removing incombustible solids called clinkers. Many small incinerators formerly found in apartment houses have now been replaced by waste compactors. This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... Clinker is a general name given to waste from industrial processes - particularly those that involve smelting metals or burning fossil fuels. ... A compactor is a machine or mechanism used to reduce the size of waste material or soil through compaction. ...


Rotary-kiln

The rotary-kiln incinerator[6] used by municipalities and by large industrial plants. This design of incinerators have 2 chambers a primary chamber and secondary chamber. The primary chamber in a rotary kiln incinerator consist of an inclined refractory lined cylindrical tube. Movement of the cylinder on its axis facilitates movement of waste. In the primary chamber, there is conversion of solid fraction to gases, through volatilization, destructive distillation and partial combustion reactions. The secondary chamber is necessary to complete gas phase combustion reactions The rotary dryer, sometimes known as a rotary kiln, is a type of industrial dryer employed to reduce or minimise the moisture content of the material it is handling by bringing it into direct contact with heated gas. ...


The clinkers spill out at the end of the cylinder. A tall flue gas stack, fan, or steam jet supplies the needed draft. Ash drops through the grate, but many particles are carried along with the hot gases. The particles and any combustible gases may be combusted in an "afterburner".[7] A diagram of a rotary-kiln incinerator can be found here. Flue gas stack at GRES-2 Power Plant in Ekibastus, Kazakhstan is 420 meters tall[1] A flue gas stack is a type of chimney, a vertical pipe, channel or similar structure through which combustion product gases called flue gases are exhausted to the outside air. ... Flue gas stack at GRES-2 Power Plant in Ekibastus, Kazakhstan is 420 meters tall[1] A flue gas stack is a type of chimney, a vertical pipe, channel or similar structure through which combustion product gases called flue gases are exhausted to the outside air. ...


Fluidized bed

A strong airflow is forced through a sandbed. The air seeps through the sand until a point is reached where the sand particles separate to let the air through and mixing and churning occurs, thus a fluidised bed is created and fuel and waste can now be introduced. It has been suggested that Fluidized bed dryer be merged into this article or section. ...


The sand with the pre-treated waste and/or fuel is kept suspended on pumped air currents and takes on a fluid-like character. The bed is thereby violently mixed and agitated keeping small inert particles and air in a fluid-like state. This allows all of the mass of waste, fuel and sand to be fully circulated through the furnace.


Specialized incineration

Furniture factory sawdust incinerators need much attention as these have to handle resin powder and many flammable substances. Controlled combustion, burn back prevention systems are very essential as dust when suspended resembles the fire catch phenomenon of any liquid petroleum gas.


Use of heat

The heat produced by an incinerator can be used to generate steam which may then be used to drive a turbine in order to produce electricity. The typical amount of net energy that can be produced per ton municipal waste is about 0.67 MWh of electricity and 2 MJ of district heating[2]. Thus, incinerating about 600 tonnes per day of waste will produce about 17 MW of electrical power and 1200 MJ district heating each day. A Siemens steam turbine with the case opened. ... MW could refer to (in alphabetical order): Lintilla - the original multiple worlds talker Maintenance of way Malawi (ISO 3166-1 country code) Master of Wine Maya Island Air IATA airline designator MediaWiki Mediumwave Megawatt Mens Wearhouse Merriam-Webster The Midwest region of the United States Microwave Miss World Molecular...


Pollution

Incineration has a number of outputs such as the ash and the emission to the atmosphere of flue gas. Before the flue gas cleaning system, the flue gases may contain significant amounts of particulate matter, heavy metals, dioxins, furans, sulfur dioxide, and hydrochloric acid. Flue gas is gas that exits to the atmosphere via a flue, which is a pipe or channel for conveying exhaust gases from a fireplace, oven, furnace, boiler or steam generator. ... Particulates, alternately referred to as Particulate Matter (PM) , aerosols or fine particles are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in the air. ... For other uses, see Heavy metal (disambiguation). ... Dioxins form a family of toxic chlorinated organic compounds that bioaccumulate in humans and wildlife due to their fat solubility. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... Hydrochloric acid is the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ...


In a study[8] from 1994, Delaware Solid Waste Authority found that, for same amount of produced energy, incineration plants emitted fewer particles, hydrocarbons and less SO2, HCl, CO and NOx than coal-fired power plants, but more than natural gas fired power plants. According to Germany's Ministry of the Environment, waste incinerators reduce the amount of some atmospheric pollutants by substituting power produced by coal-fired plants with power from waste-fired plants[9]. Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ...


Gaseous emissions

Dioxin and furans

The most publicized concerns from environmentalists about the incineration of municipal solid wastes (MSW) involve the fear that it produces significant amounts of dioxin and furan emissions.[10] Dioxins and furans are considered by many to be serious health hazards. Older generation incinerators that were not equipped with adequate gas cleaning technologies were indeed significant sources of dioxin emissions. Today, however, due to advances in emission control designs and stringent new governmental regulations, incinerators emit virtually no dioxins. In 2005, The Ministry of the Environment of Germany, where there were 66 incinerators at that time, estimated that "...whereas in 1990 one third of all dioxin emissions in Germany came from incineration plants, for the year 2000 the figure was less than 1 %. Chimneys and tiled stoves in private households alone discharge approximately twenty times more dioxin into the environment than incineration plants."[9]. According to the U.S. EPA, incineration plants are no longer significant sources of dioxins and furans. In 1987, before the governmental regulations required the use of emission controls, there was a total of 10,000 grams of dioxin emissions from U.S. incinerators. Today, the total emissions from the 87 plants are only 10 grams yearly, a reduction of 99.9 %. Backyard barrel burning of household and garden wastes, still allowed in some rural areas, generates 580 grams of dioxins yearly. Studies conducted by EPA[11] demonstrate that the emissions from just one family using a burn barrel produces more emissions than an incineration plant disposing of 200 tonnes of waste per day. Dioxin is the common name for the group of compounds classified as polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs). ... Furan, also known as furane and furfuran, is a heterocyclic organic compound, produced when wood, especially pine-wood, is distilled. ... EPA redirects here. ... Green waste is biodegradable waste that can be comprised of garden or park waste, such as grass or flower cuttings and hedge trimmings. ...


Generally the breakdown of dioxin requires exposure of the molecule to a sufficiently high temperature so as to trigger thermal breakdown of the molecular bonds holding it together. When burning of plastics outdoors in a burn barrel or garbage pit such temperatures are not reached, causing high dioxin emissions as mentioned above. While the plastic does burn in an open-air fire, the dioxins remain after combustion and float off into the atmosphere.


Modern municipal incinerator designs include a high temperature zone, where the flue gas is ensured to sustain a temperature above 850 oC for at least 2 seconds befores it is cooled down. They are equipped with auxiliary heaters to ensure this at all times. These are often fueled by oil, and normally only active for a very small fraction of the time. A side effect controlling dioxin is the potential for generation of reactive oxides (NOx) in the flue gas, which must be removed with SCR or SNCR (see below). Look up nox, Nox in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... SCR may refer to: In associations, companies, institutions: Senior Common Room of a higher education institution, particularly a college at Oxford or Cambridge University Specialist Computer Recruitment, IT recruitment agency, subsidiary of SCC Supreme Court Reports of Canada Swiss Council of Religions BBC Southern Counties Radio In computer, informatics, communication...


For very small municipal incinerators, the required temperature for thermal breakdown of dioxin may be reached using a high-temperature electrical heating element, plus an SCR stage.


CO2

As for other complete combustion processes, nearly all of the carbon content in the waste is emitted as CO2 to the atmosphere. MSW contain approximately the same mass fraction of carbon as CO2 itself (27%), so incineration of one tonne of MSW produce approximately 1 tonne of CO2. Municipal waste redirects here. ...


In the event that the waste was landfilled, one tonne of MSW would produce approximately 62 m³ methane via the anaerobic decomposition of the biodegradable part of the waste. This amount of methane has more than twice the global warming potential than the one tonne of CO2, which would have been produced by incineration. In some countries, large amounts of landfill gas are collected, but still the global warming potential of the landfill gas emitted to atmosphere in the US in 1999 was approximately 32 % higher than the amount of CO2 that would have been emitted by incineration.[12] Look up Dump in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... Anaerobic is a technical word which literally means without air (where air is generally used to mean oxygen), as opposed to aerobic. ... Biodegradable waste is a type of waste, typically originating from plant or animal sources, which may be broken down by other living organisms. ... Global warming potential (GWP) is a measure of how much a given mass of greenhouse gas is estimated to contribute to global warming. ... Natural gas rig Natural gas (commonly refered to as gas in many countries) is a gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane. ...


In addition, nearly all biodegradable waste has biological origin. This material has been formed by plants using atmospheric CO2 typically within the last growing season. If these plants are regrown the CO2 emitted from their combustion will be taken out from the atmosphere once more.


Such considerations are the main reason why several countries administrate incineration of the biodegradable part of waste as renewable energy[13]. The rest - mainly plastics and other oil and gas derived products - is generally treated as non-renewables. Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ... Bold textItalic text Wyoming coal mine. ...


Different results for the CO2 footprint of incineration can be reached with different assumptions. Local conditions (such as limited local district heating demand, no fossil fuel generated electricity to replace or high levels of aluminum in the waste stream) can decrease the CO2 benefits of incineration. The methology and other assumptions may also influence the results significantly. For example the methane emissions from landfills occurring at a later date may be neglected or given less weight, or biodegradable waste may not be considered CO2 neutral. A recent study by Eunomia Research and Consulting on potential waste treatment technologies in London demonstrated that by applying several of these (according to the authors) unusual assumptions the average existing incineration plants performed poorly for CO2 balance compared to the theoretical potential of other emerging waste treatment technologies.[14]. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Other emissions

Other gaseous toxins in the flue gas from incinerator furnaces include sulfur dioxide, hydrochloric acid, heavy metals and fine particles. Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... Hydrochloric acid is the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... For other uses, see Heavy metal (disambiguation). ... Fine particles Fine particles is an air pollutant mainly produced by cars running on diesel. ...


The steam content in the flue may produce visible fume from the stack, which can be perceived as a visual pollution. It may be avoided by decreasing the steam content by flue gas condensation, or by increasing the flue gas exit temperature well above its dew point. Flue gas condensation allows the latent heat of vaporization of the water to be recovered, subsequently increasing the thermal efficiency of the plant. For other uses, see Steam (disambiguation). ... Visual pollution is the term given to unattractive visual elements of a vista, a landscape, or any other thing that a person might want to look at. ...


Flue gas cleaning

The quantity of pollutants in the flue gas from incineration plants is reduced by several processes.


Particulate is collected by particle filtration, most often electrostatic precipitators (ESP) and/or baghouse filters. The latter are generally very efficient for collecting fine particles. In an investigation by the Ministry of the Environment of Denmark in 2006, the average particulate emissions per energy content of incinerated waste from 16 Danish incinerators were below 2.02 g/GJ (grams per energy content of the incinerated waste). Detailed measurements of fine particles with sizes below 2.5 micrometres (PM2.5) were performed on three of the incinerators: One incinerator equipped with an ESP for particle filtration emitted 5.3 g/GJ fine particles, while two incinerators equipped with baghouse filters emitted 0.002 and 0.013 g/GJ PM2.5.[15] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... An electrostatic precipitator (ESP), or electrostatic air cleaner is a particulate collection device that removes particles from a flowing gas (such as air) using the force of an induced electrostatic charge. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Fine particles Fine particles is an air pollutant mainly produced by cars running on diesel. ... Ministry of the Environment of Denmark (Danish: Miljøministeriet) is the Danish ministry in charge of near all matters concerning Environmental issues in Denmark. ... A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer), symbol µm, is an SI unit of length. ... Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. ...


Acid gas scrubbers are used to remove hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, hydrofluoric acid, mercury, lead and other heavy metals. Basic scrubbers remove sulfur dioxide, forming gypsum by reaction with lime.[16] Figure 1 - Venturi scrubber with mist eliminator Wet scrubbers are a form of pollution control technology. ... Hydrochloric acid is the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , Flash point nonflammable Related Compounds Other anions Hydrochloric acid Hydrobromic acid Hydroiodic acid Related compounds Hydrogen fluoride fluorosilicic acid Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... Heavy metals, in chemistry, are chemical elements of a particular range of atomic weights. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... For other uses, see Gypsum (disambiguation). ... Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as burnt lime, lime or quicklime, is a widely used chemical compound. ...


Waste water from scrubbers must subsequently pass through a waste water treatment plant.


Sulfur dioxide may also be removed by dry desulfurisation by injection limestone slurry into the flue gas before the particle filtration. Flue gas desulfurization is technology that employs a sorbent, usually lime or limestone, to remove sulfur dioxide(SO2) from the gases produced by burning fossil fuels. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... A slurry is in general a thick suspension of solids in a liquid and may be: Look up slurry in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


NOx is either reduced by catalytic reduction with ammonia in a catalytic converter (selective catalytic reduction, SCR) or by a high temperature reaction with ammonia in the furnace (selective non-catalytic reduction, SNCR). Look up nox, Nox in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Catalytic converter on a Dodge Ram Van. ... Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR): Gaseous or liquid ammonia is added to the flue gas stream and is absorbed onto a catalyst. ... Selective Non Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) is a method for reducing nitrogen oxide emissions in conventional power plants that burn biomass. ...


Heavy metals are often adsorbed on injected active carbon powder, which is collected by the particle filtration. In chemistry, adsorption of a substance is its concentration on a particular surface. ... Activated carbon (also called activated charcoal) is the more general term which includes material mostly derived from charcoal. ...


Solid outputs

Incineration produces fly ash and bottom ash just as is the case when coal is combusted. The total amount of ash produced by municipal solid waste incineration ranges from 4-10 % by volume and 15-20 % by weight of the original quantity of waste[2][17], and the fly ash amounts to about 10-20 % of the total ash[citation needed]. The fly ash, by far, constitutes more of a potential health hazard than does the bottom ash because the fly ash often contain high concentrations of heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, copper and zinc as well as small amounts of dioxins and furans[18]. The bottom ash seldom contain significant levels of heavy metals. While fly ash is always regarded as hazardous waste, bottom ash is generally considered safe for regular landfill after a certain level of testing defined by the local legislation. Ash, which is considered hazardous, may generally only be disposed of in landfills which are carefully designed to prevent pollutants in the ash from leaching into underground aquifers - or after chemical treatment to reduce its leaching characteristics[19]. In testing over the past decade, no ash from an incineration plant in the USA has ever been determined to be a hazardous waste[citation needed]. At present although some historic samples tested by the incinerator operators' group would meet the being ecotoxic criteria at present the EA say "we have agreed" to regard incinerator bottom ash as "non-hazardous" until the testing programme is complete[citation needed]. Fly ash (one of several coal combustion products, or CCPs) is the finely divided mineral residue resulting from the combustion of coal in electric generating plants. ... Bottom ash refers to the non combustible constituents of coal with traces of combustibles embedded in forming clinkers and sticking to hot side walls of furnace during the furnace working. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Standard atomic weight 112. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Leaching may refer to: Leaching (agriculture) Leaching (chemical science) Leaching (metallurgy) Dump leaching Heap leaching Tank leaching Leaching (pedology) Bioleaching Parboiling, also known as leaching Categories: ... An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, or permeable mixtures of unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt, or clay) (see also groundwater). ... This article describes hazardous waste as a substance; for the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal see Basel Convention Put simply, a Hazardous waste is waste that poses substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment and generally exhibits one...


Other pollution issues

Odor pollution can be a problem with old-style incinerators, but odors and dust are extremely well controlled in newer incineration plants. They receive and store the waste in an enclosed area with a negative pressure with the airflow being routed through the boiler which prevents unpleasant odors from escaping into the atmosphere. However, not all plants are implemented this way, resulting in inconveniences in the locality. Aroma redirects here. ...


An issue that affects community relationships is the increased road traffic of waste collection vehicles to transport municipal waste to the incinerator. Due to this reason, most incinerators are located in industrial areas. Scania front loader WCV A waste collection vehicle (WCV), or colloquially called a Garbage Truck or Dustbin lorry is a truck specially designed to pick up smaller quantities of waste and haul it to landfills and other recycling or treatment facilities. ...


The debate over incineration

Use of incinerators for waste management is controversial. The debate over incinerators typically involves business interests (representing both waste generators and incinerator firms), government regulators, environmental activists and local citizens who must weigh the economic appeal of local industrial activity with their concerns over health and environmental risk. For the company, see Waste Management, Inc. ...


People and organizations professionally involved in this issue include the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and a great many local and national air quality regulatory agencies worldwide. EPA redirects here. ...


The argument for incineration

  • The concerns over the health effects of dioxin and furan emissions have been significantly lessened by advances in emission control designs and very stringent new governmental regulations that have resulted in large reductions in the amount of dioxins and furans emissions.[9]
  • Incineration plants generate electricity and heat that can substitute power plants powered by other fuels at the regional electric and district heating grid, and steam supply for industrial customers.
  • The bottom ash residue remaining after combustion has been shown to be a non-hazardous solid waste that can be safely landfilled or recycled as construction aggregate.[19]
  • In densely populated areas, finding space for additional landfills is becoming increasingly difficult[citation needed].
  • Fine particles can be efficiently removed from the flue gases with baghouse filters. Even though approximately 40 % of the incinerated waste in Denmark was incinerated at plants with no baghouse filters, estimates based on measurements by the Danish Environmental Research Institute showed that incinerators were only responsible for approximately 0.3 % of the total domestic emissions of particulate smaller than 2.5 micrometres (PM2.5) to the atmosphere in 2006.[15]
  • Incineration of municipal solid waste avoids the release of methane. Every ton of MSW incinerated, prevents about one ton of carbon dioxide equivalents from being released to the atmosphere.[12]
  • Incineration of medical waste and sewage sludge produces an end product ash that is sterile and non-hazardous[citation needed].

Dioxin is the common name for the group of compounds classified as polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs). ... Furan, also known as furane and furfuran, is a heterocyclic organic compound, produced when wood, especially pine-wood, is distilled. ... District heating pipe in Tübingen, Germany District heating (less commonly called teleheating) is a system for distributing heat generated in a centralized location for residential and commercial heating requirements. ... Fine particles Fine particles is an air pollutant mainly produced by cars running on diesel. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. ... A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer, symbol µm) is an SI unit of length equal to one millionth of a metre, or about a tenth of the diameter of a droplet of mist or fog. ... Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... Medical waste, also known as clinical waste, refers to biological products which are essentially useless. ... Sludge is a generic term for solids separated from suspension in a liquid by a variety of processes. ...

The argument against incineration

Decomissioned Kwai Chung Incineration Plant from 1978
Decomissioned Kwai Chung Incineration Plant from 1978
  • The highly toxic fly ash must be safely disposed of. This usually involves additional waste miles and the need for specialist toxic waste landfill elsewhere, sometimes with concerns for local residents. This has been the case in Bishops Cleeve, Gloucestershire, UK.[20] [21]
  • There are still concerns by many about the health effects of dioxin and furan emissions into the atmosphere from old incinerators; especially during start up and shut down events, or where filter bypass events are required.
  • Incinerators emit varying levels of heavy metals such as vanadium, manganese, chromium, nickel, arsenic, mercury, lead, and cadmium, which can be toxic at very minute levels.
  • Incinerator Bottom Ash (IBA) has high levels of heavy metals with ecotoxicity concerns if not reused properly. Some people have the opinion that IBA reuse is still in its infancy and is still not considered to be a mature or desirable product, despite additional engineering treatments.[citation needed]
  • Alternative technologies are available or in development such as Mechanical Biological Treatment, Anaerobic Digestion (MBT/AD), Autoclaving or Mechanical Heat Treatment (MHT) using steam or Plasma arc gasification PGP, or combinations.
  • Building and operating an incinerator requires long contract periods to recover initial investment costs, causing a long term lock-in. Incinerator lifetimes normally range from 25-30 years.
  • Incinerators produce fine particles and ultra fine particles in the furnace. Even with modern particle filtering of the flue gases, approximately 1/500 of these (by mass) are emitted to the atmosphere. Most of the filtration in baghouse filters occur in the filter cake formed on the surface, and not in the bag material itself. As an example, the baghouse filter material in an incineration plant planned for erection in the UK, are only specified to capture 10-30  % (in weight) particulate smaller than 2.5 micrometres (PM2.5)(such as PM2, PM1 and UFP size), and 60-65 % (in weight) particulate of equactly 2.5 micrometres (PM2.5) size. [22] and PM2.5 emissions from local incinerators to be a significant PM2.5 source here.[23][24][25] PM2.5 is not separately regulated in the European Waste Incineration Directive, even though they are repeated correlated spatially to infant mortality in the UK (M.Ryan's ONS data based maps around the EfW/CHP waste incinerators at Edmonton, Coventry, Chineham, Kirklees and Sheffield) [26][27][28] Under WID there is no requirement to monitor stack top or downwind incinerator PM2.5 levels. [29] Several European doctors associations (including cross discipline experts such as physicans, environmental chemists and toxicologists) in June 2008 representing over 33,000 doctors wrote a keynote statement directly to the European Parliament citing widespread concerns on incinerator particle emissions and the absence of specific fine and ultrafine particle size monitoring or in depth industry/ government epidemilogical studies of these minute and invisible incinerator particle size emissions. [30][31]
  • Local communities are often opposed to the idea of locating incinerators in their vicinity. (The Not In My Back Yard phenomenon). Studies in Andover, Massachusetts strongly correlated 10 % property devaluations with close incinerator proximity [32].
  • Prevention, waste minimisation, reuse and recycling of waste should all be preferred to incineration according to the waste hierarchy. Supporters of zero waste consider incinerators and other waste treatment technologies as barriers to recycling and separation beyond particular levels, and that waste resources are sacrificed for energy producion.[33][34][35]
  • A recent Eunomia report found that under some circumstances and assumptions, are less energy efficient than other emerging EfW and CHP technology combinations for treating residual mixed waste.[36]
  • Some incinerators are architecturally monstrous and ugly. In many countries they require a visually intrusive chimney stack.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1920x2560, 854 KB) [edit] Summary Kwai Chung Incineration Plant Photography by en:User:HenryLi [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Incineration Kwai Chung Incineration Plant... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1920x2560, 854 KB) [edit] Summary Kwai Chung Incineration Plant Photography by en:User:HenryLi [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Incineration Kwai Chung Incineration Plant... Kwai Chung Incineration Plant, with Rambler Channel Bridge at its front. ... Fly ash (one of several coal combustion products, or CCPs) is the finely divided mineral residue resulting from the combustion of coal in electric generating plants. ... Dioxin is the common name for the group of compounds classified as polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs). ... Furan, also known as furane and furfuran, is a heterocyclic organic compound, produced when wood, especially pine-wood, is distilled. ... General Name, symbol, number vanadium, V, 23 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 5, 4, d Appearance silver-grey metal Standard atomic weight 50. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Standard atomic weight 112. ... Anaerobic digestion and air processing components of Lübeck mechanical biological treatment plant in Germany A mechanical biological treatment system is a form of waste processing facility that combines a sorting facility with a form of biological treatment such as composting or anaerobic digestion. ... Anaerobic digestion component of Lübeck mechanical biological treatment plant in Germany, 2007 Anaerobic digestion is a process in which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen. ... Front loading autoclaves are common Stovetop autoclaves need to be monitored carefully, but have a very large capacity Multiple large autoclaves are used for processing substantial quantities of laboratory equipment prior to reuse, and infectious material prior to disposal. ... Mechanical heat treatment (MHT) is an alternative waste treatment technology. ... Plasma arc waste disposal is a method of waste management which uses the extreme high temperature created by a plasma torch (or arc), to break down waste into steam and gas used for power generation, and hard solid rock-like waste (slag) which can be used in construction. ... PGP is a computer program which provides cryptographic privacy and authentication. ... Fine particles Fine particles is an air pollutant mainly produced by cars running on diesel. ... Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. ... A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer, symbol µm) is an SI unit of length equal to one millionth of a metre, or about a tenth of the diameter of a droplet of mist or fog. ... Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. ... Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. ... A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer, symbol µm) is an SI unit of length equal to one millionth of a metre, or about a tenth of the diameter of a droplet of mist or fog. ... Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. ... The Waste Incineration Directive is a Directive issued by the European Union and relates to standards and methodologies required by Europe for the practice and technology of incineration. ... An airport is a typical example of a NIMBY complex: it benefits a city economically, but no-one wants it near them because of the noise, pollution and traffic it generates. ... This article is about the Massachusetts town. ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... Reuse is using an item more than once. ... The international recycling symbol. ... The waste hierarchy The waste hierarchy refers to the 3 Rs reduce, reuse and recycle, which classify waste management strategies according to their desirability. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The international recycling symbol. ... CHP can mean: combined heat and power California Highway Patrol Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi (Republican Peoples Party of Turkey) Christian Heritage Party CHP - Netzwerk innovatives Planen - Generalplanungen im Bauwesen - http://www. ...

Trends in incinerator use

The history of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is linked intimately to the history of landfills and other waste treatment technology. The merits of incineration are inevitably judged in relation to the alternatives available. Since the 1970s, recycling and other prevention measures have changed the context for such judgements. Since the 1990s alternative waste treatment technologies have been maturing and becoming viable. Municipal waste redirects here. ... Look up Dump in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The following page contains a list of different forms of solid waste treatment technologies and facilities employed in waste management infrastructure. ...


Incineration is a key process in the treatment of hazardous wastes and clinical wastes. It is often imperative that medical waste be subjected to the high temperatures of incineration to destroy pathogens and toxic contamination it contains. A pathogen (from Greek pathos, suffering/emotion, and gene, to give birth to), infectious agent, or more commonly germ, is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... Toxic redirects here, but this is also the name of a song by Britney Spears; see Toxic (song) Look up toxic and toxicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Incineration in North America

The first full-scale waste-to-energy facility in the U.S. was the Arnold O. Chantland Resource Recovery Plant, built in 1975 located in Ames, Iowa. This plant is still in operation and produces refuse-derived fuel that is sent to local power plants for fuel.[37] The first commercially-successful incineration plant in the U.S. was built in Saugus, Massachusetts in October 1975 by Wheelabrator Technologies, and is still in operation today.[17] Main Street in downtown Ames in 2006 Ames is a city located in the central part of the U.S. state of Iowa, about 30 miles north of Des Moines in Story County. ... Refuse-derived fuel (RDF) or solid recovered fuel (SRF) is a fuel produced by shredding municipal solid waste (MSW) or steam pressure treating in an autoclave. ... Saugus is a town in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States. ...


Several older generation incinerators have been closed; of the 186 MSW incinerators in 1990, only 89 remained by 2007, and of the 6200 medical waste incinerators in 1988, only 115 remained in 2003.[38] Between 1996 and 2007, no new incinerators were built. The main reasons for lack of activity have been:

  • Economics. With the increase in the number of large inexpensive regional landfills and, up until recently, the relatively low price of electricity, incinerators were not able to compete for the 'fuel', i.e., waste. By contrast, a number of Canadian cities are working toward installation of incinerators.
  • Tax Policies. Tax credits for plants producing electricity from waste were rescinded in the 1990s. In Europe, some of the electricity generated from waste is deemed to be from a 'Renewable Energy Source (RES)'. A new law granting tax credits for such plants was implemented in the U.S. in 2004.[citation needed]

Despite these problems, there has been renewed interest in waste-to-energy in the U.S., Canada, and the UK. Projects to add capacity to existing plants are underway, and municipalities are once again evaluating the option of building incinerators rather than continue landfilling municipal wastes.


Incineration in Europe

In Europe, with the ban on landfilling untreated waste, scores of incinerators have been built in the last decade, with more under construction. Recently, a number of municipal governments have begun the process of contracting for the construction and operation of incinerators. In Europe, some of the electricity generated from waste is deemed to be from a 'Renewable Energy Source (RES)' and is thus eligible for tax credits if privately operated.


Incineration in the United Kingdom

The technology employed in the UK waste management industry has been greatly lagging behind that of Europe due to the wide availablility of landfills. The Landfill Directive set down by the European Union led to the Government of the United Kingdom imposing waste legislation including the landfill tax and Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme. This legislation is designed to reduce the release of greenhouse gases produced by landfills through the use of alternative methods of waste treatment. It is the UK Government's position that incineration will play an increasingly large role in the treatment of municipal waste and supply of energy in the UK. The Landfill Directive, more formally Council Directive 1999/31/EC of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste, is a European Union directive issued by the European Union to be implemented by its member states. ... Depending upon the country different legislation governs the way waste is managed and disposed of. ... A landfill tax is a form of tax that is applied in some countries to increase the cost of landfill. ... The Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme, LATS, is an initiative by the UK government, through DEFRA to help reduce the amount of biodegradable waste sent to landfill[1] [2]. // How does the scheme work? The Waste and Emissions Trading Act (2003) provides the legal framework for the scheme and for the...


Small incinerator units

An example of a low capacity, mobile incinerator.
An example of a low capacity, mobile incinerator.

Small scale incinerators exist for special purposes. For example, the small scale [39] incinerators are aimed for hygienically safe destruction of medical waste in developing countries. Simple, mobile incinerators are becoming more widely used in developing countries where the threat of avian influenza is high[citation needed]. Small incinerators can be quickly deployed to remote areas where an outbreak has occurred to dispose of infected animals quickly and without the risk of cross contamination[citation needed]. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Hygiene refers to practices associated with ensuring good health and cleanliness. ... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ...

Incinerators

The Allington Quarry Waste Management Facility is an integrated waste management park. ... The Isle of Man Incinerator is notable for its unusual shape and design, the stack of which is designed to represent a Viking sail. ... The Kirklees Incinerator is a major moving grate incineration plant in Huddersfield, Kirklees. ... The following is a list of incinerators in the UK that treat municipal waste:[1] Allington Incinerator, Kent, WRG Basingstoke Incinerator, Hampshire, Veolia ES Balvodie Incinerator, Dundee Belvedere Incinerator, London Bolton Incinerator, Greater Manchester Waste Byker Incinerator, Sita Coventry Incinerator Dudley Incinerator East Croft Incinerator, Nottingham Edmonton Incinerator, London Gateshead... SELCHP is a major incineration plant located in London. ... The Sheffield Incinerator is a modern incinerator which treats Sheffields household waste. ...

See also

Sustainable development Portal

Image File history File links Sustainable_development. ... The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ... For the water carbonator, see Gasogene. ... A incinerating toilet is a toilet that burns the excrements instead of flushing them with water. ... Incinerator is the name of several fictional characters in the various Transformers universes. ... Plasma arc gasification is a waste treatment technology that uses high electrical energy and high temperature created by an electrical arc gasifier. ... The following page contains a list of different forms of waste treatment Anaerobic digestion ArrowBio Composting Gasification Incineration In-vessel composting Landfill Mechanical biological treatment Mechanical heat treatment Plasma Pyrolysis Recycling Sewage treatment Tunnel composting UASB Windrow composting Categories: | ... Simple sketch of pyrolysis chemistry Pyrolysis usually means the chemical decomposition of organic materials by heating in the absence of oxygen or any other reagents, except possibly steam. ... Thermal treatment is a term given to any waste treatment technology that involves high temperatures in the processing of the waste feedstock. ... The Waste Incineration Directive is a Directive issued by the European Union and relates to standards and methodologies required by Europe for the practice and technology of incineration. ... For the company, see Waste Management, Inc. ... Waste-to-energy (WtE) or energy-from-waste (EfW) in its strictest sense refers to any waste treatment that creates energy in the form of electricity or heat from a waste source that would have been disposed of in landfill, also called energy recovery. ...

References

  1. ^ Knox, A. (2005) Overview of incineration, An Overview of Incineration and EFW Technology as Applied to the Management of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), University of Western Ontario, Canada
  2. ^ a b c d Waste to Energy in Denmark, publication by Ramboll (2006)
  3. ^ Kleis, Heron and Dalager, Søren (2004) 100 Years of Waste Incineration in Denmark, A historical review of incineration in Denmark
  4. ^ Danish Energy Statistics 2005 by the Danish Ministry of Energy.
  5. ^ Vestforbrænding anlæg 6 - Danmarks største forbrændingsovn, Brochure (in Danish) on the largest incineration line in Europe, 2004
  6. ^ Rotary-kiln incinerators An excellent detailed description of rotary-kiln incinerators
  7. ^ Photos of rotary-kiln incinerators with afterburners.
  8. ^ Waste-to-Energy Compared to Fossil Fuels for Equal Amounts of Energy (Delaware Solid Waste Authority)
  9. ^ a b c Waste incineration a potential danger: bidding farewell to dioxin spouting, Report by Germany's Ministry of the Environment
  10. ^ Beychok, Milton R. (January 1987). "A data base for dioxin and furan emissions from refuse incinerators". Atmospheric Environment 21 (1): 29-36. ISSN 0004-6981. 
  11. ^ Evaluation of Emissions from the Burning of Household Waste in Barrels, EPA November 1997
  12. ^ a b Themelis, Nickolas J. An overview of the global waste-to-energy industry, Waste Management World 2003
  13. ^ Energy From Waste, from the homepage of the UK Renewable Energy Association
  14. ^ D. Hogg, et al (2008) Greenhouse Gas Balances of Waste Management Scenarios, Report for the Greater London Authority, Eunomia
  15. ^ a b Emissionsfaktorer og emissionsopgørelse for decentral kraftvarme, Kortlægning af emissioner fra decentrale kraftvarmeværker, Ministry of the Environment of Denmark 2006 (in Danish)
  16. ^ Kraftvärmeverket, avfall blir el och värme, brochure on the SYSAV incinerator in Malmö, Sweden (in Swedish)
  17. ^ a b Waste-to-Energy: Less Environmental Impact than Almost Any Other Source of Electricity, Integrated Waste Services Association homepage
  18. ^ Behaviour of metals in MSW fly ash during roasting with chlorinating agents, PhD Thesis by Chan, C.C., Chemical Engineering Department at University of Toronto, 1997.
  19. ^ a b Environmental and Health Risks Associated with the Use of Processed Incinerator Bottom Ash in Road Construction, Report AEAT/ENV/R/0716 by BREWEB October 2003
  20. ^ [1]
  21. ^ [2]
  22. ^ Determination of an Application for a PPC Permit under the Pollution Prevention and Control, IPPC public registers, November 6. 2006
  23. ^ Map of infantility cases in UK by UK Health Research
  24. ^ [3]
  25. ^ Incinerator raises fertility fear BBC News May 18. 2007
  26. ^ [http://www.ukhr.org/incineration/coventrymap.pdf.
  27. ^ [4]
  28. ^ http://www.suffolktogether.com/Wesaynotoincinerators/198/Home.html]
  29. ^ Incinerators - Weapons of Mass Destruction, Country Doctor Magazine January 31. 2005, by Dick van Steenis
  30. ^ [5]
  31. ^ [6]
  32. ^ Economic Analysis and Land Use Policy, Session of Workshop sponsored by EPA and NCERQA, Washington 1999
  33. ^ Zero Waste: A Global Perspective Presentation by Dr Paul Connett, St Lawrence University
  34. ^ Energy from Waste: The Myths Debunked, Press Conference by opposers to incineration in Ontario, USA
  35. ^ On the Main EU Directives on Waste, Briefing document by Friends of the Earth
  36. ^ D. Hogg, et al (2008) Greenhouse Gas Balances of Waste Management Scenarios, Report for the Greater London Authority, Eunomia
  37. ^ Arnold O. Chantland Resource Recovery Plant, Ames City Government Homepage
  38. ^ Waste Incineration: A Dying Technology
  39. ^ Waste Disposal Unit from the homepage of the Indian Centre for Renewable Energy, Appropriate Technology and Environment

Brunner, C. R., INCINERATION SYSTEMS HANDBOOK, Incinerator Consultants Incorporated, Ashburn, VA, 2004. Rambøll Gruppen A/S (also known as just Ramboll) is the largest consulting engineering group in the Nordic countries. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... EPA redirects here. ... Ministry of the Environment of Denmark (Danish: Miljøministeriet) is the Danish ministry in charge of near all matters concerning Environmental issues in Denmark. ... Motto: FrÃ¥n arbetarstad till kunskapsstad (eng: From industrial city to knowledge city) Location of Malmö in northern Europe Coordinates: , Country  Sweden Municipality Malmö Municipality County SkÃ¥ne County Province Scania (SkÃ¥ne) Charter 13th century Government  - Mayor Illmar Reepalu Area  - City 335. ... EPA redirects here. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Friends of the Earth is an international network of environmental organizations in 70 countries. ...


External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Look up Incineration in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Anti-incineration groups Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

Anti-incineration Organization based in Syracuse,NY

Burn barrels

Burn Barrel Organization
EPA Fact Sheet
Emissions Information

EU information

EU Directive on waste incineration
BREF Drafts & Papers

International Solid Waste Association position The International Solid Waste Association (ISWA) is an international, independent and non-profit making association, working in the public interest to promote and develop sustainable waste management worldwide. ...

position papers

Overviews

Incineration article
FAQ's on incineration

Tutorial

Flash presentation of SYSAV, a large incineration plant in Malmö, Sweden.
Incineration Tutorial from Rensaleer Polytechnic Institute

Motto: FrÃ¥n arbetarstad till kunskapsstad (eng: From industrial city to knowledge city) Location of Malmö in northern Europe Coordinates: , Country  Sweden Municipality Malmö Municipality County SkÃ¥ne County Province Scania (SkÃ¥ne) Charter 13th century Government  - Mayor Illmar Reepalu Area  - City 335. ... For the company, see Waste Management, Inc. ... Anaerobic digestion component of Lübeck mechanical biological treatment plant in Germany, 2007 Anaerobic digestion is a process in which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen. ... Composting is the aerobic decomposition of biodegradable organic matter, producing compost. ... An eco-industrial park is a type of industrial park in which businesses cooperate with each other and with the local community in an attempt to reduce waste, efficiently share resources (such as information, materials, water, energy, infrastructure, and natural resources), and produce sustainable development, with the intention of increasing... Look up Dump in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Anaerobic digestion and air processing components of Lübeck mechanical biological treatment plant in Germany A mechanical biological treatment system is a form of waste processing facility that combines a sorting facility with a form of biological treatment such as composting or anaerobic digestion. ... Radioactive wastes are waste types containing radioactive chemical elements that do not have a practical purpose. ... Reuse is using an item more than once. ... The international recycling symbol. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Reuse. ... The word sewerage means the provision of pipes etc to collect and dispose of sewage. ... For other uses, see Waste (disambiguation). ... For the corporation, see Waste Management Incorporated Waste management is the collection, transport, processing or disposal of waste materials, usually ones produced by human activity, in an effort to reduce their effect on human health or local amenity. ... Waste sorting is the process by which waste is separated into different elements. ... The waste hierarchy The waste hierarchy refers to the 3 Rs reduce, reuse and recycle, which classify waste management strategies according to their desirability. ... The following page contains a list of different waste management related concepts and acronyms: BANANA Build Absolutely Nothing Anywhere Near Anything Best practicable environmental option (BPEO) Extended producer responsibility Linguistic detoxification NIMBY Not in my back yard Pay as you throw Polluter pays principle Proximity principle Waste strategy Waste hierarchy... Depending upon the country different legislation governs the way waste is managed and disposed of. ... Waste treatment refers to the activities required to ensure that waste has the least practicable impact on the environment. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
4-22 Incineration (1413 words)
Figure 4-22: Typical Mobile/Transportable Incineration Process High temperatures, 870 to 1,200 °C (1,400 to 2,200 °F), are used to volatilize and combust (in the presence of oxygen) halogenated and other refractory organics in hazardous wastes.
Incineration is subject to a series of technology-specific regulations, including the following federal requirements: CAA (air emissions), TSCA (PCB treatment and disposal), RCRA (hazardous waste generation, treatment, storage, and disposal), NPDES (discharge to surface waters), and NCA (noise).
Incineration is used to remediate soils contaminated with explosives and hazardous wastes, particularly chlorinated hydrocarbons, PCBs, and dioxins.
ATSDR - Testimony: Health Impacts of Incineration I (House-1/24/94) (4025 words)
Incineration of wastes should be viewed from a public health perspective in the larger context of generation and management of wastes.
ATSDR advised EPA that location of the proposed incinerator should be moved away from proximity to residential areas, to increase off-site emissions monitoring during the incinerator's operation, to conduct additional on-site contaminate characterizations, and to develop a means for sharing the monitoring data with local residents.
Adequate training should be provided to incinerator operators to ensure that the incinerator is operated in a manner that does not adversely affect the operators' or the community's health.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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