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Encyclopedia > Incidence of Monogamy
Close Relationships

Affinity
Asexuality
Attachment
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Image File history File links KarenWhimseyValentineMain. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Asexuality is a general term or self-designation for people who find sexual behavior unappealing. ... Attachment in adults deals with the theory of attachment in adult romantic relationships. ... Bisexual redirects here. ... Bride price also known as bride wealth or a dower is an amount of money or property paid to the parents of a woman for the right to marry their daughter. ... Brideservice has traditionally been portrayed in the anthropological literature as the service rendered to the bride’s family by the bridegroom as a brideprice or part of one. ... The term human bond, or more generally human bonding, refers to the process or formation of a close personal relationship, as between a mother and child, especially through frequent or constant association. ... A boyfriend is a male partner in a non-marital romantic relationship, usually considered more than an ordinary friend, especially in a romantic sense. ... A casual relationship (sometimes referred to as friends with benefits (FWB), friends with privileges, cut friends, a fling, or (rarely) a sexualized friendship) is a term used to describe the physical and emotional relationship between two unmarried people who have a sexual relationship or a near-sexual relationship (foreplay, making... Cohabitation is defined as an emotional, physical, and intellectually intimate relationship which includes a common living place and which exists without the benefit of legal, cultural, or religious sanction. ... Caricature of courtship rituals in 1805 England Youth conversing with suitorsYoung men courting a youth in a garden. ... Dower (Lat. ... A dowry (also known as trousseau) is a gift of money or valuables given by the groomss family to that of the bride to permit their marriage. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse, which can be contrasted with an annulment, which is a declaration that a marriage is void, though the effects of marriage may be recognized in such unions, such as spousal support, child custody... Friendship is a term used to denote co-operative and supportive behaviour between two or more social entities. ... A family of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 1997 A family consists of a domestic group of people (or a number of domestic groups), typically affiliated by birth or marriage, or by analogous or comparable relationships — including domestic partnership, cohabitation, adoption, surname and (in some cases) ownership (as occurred in the... A girlfriend is a female partner in a non-marital romantic relationship with either a heterosexual or bisexual male, or a lesbian or bisexual female. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual and romantic attraction between two individuals of the same sex. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Jealousy typically refers to the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that occur when a person believes a valued relationship is being threatened by a rival. ... Limerence is the name for an involuntary cognitive and emotional state similar to infatuation, posited by psychologist Dorothy Tennov, in which a limerent individual feels an intense romantic desire for a limerent object. It is characterized by intrusive thinking and pronounced sensitivity to external events that reflect the disposition of... Love is a profound feeling of tender affection for or intense attraction to another. ... A marriage is a relationship between or among individuals, usually recognized by civil authority and/or bound by the religious beliefs of the participants. ... Monogamy is the custom or condition of having only one mate during a period of time. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Pedophilia (American English), pædophilia/paedophilia (Commonwealth English), or pedosexuality is the paraphilia of being sexually attracted primarily or exclusively to prepubescent children. ... Domestic partner or domestic partnership identifies the personal relationship between individuals who are living together and sharing a common domestic life together but are not joined in any type of legal partnership, marriage or civil union. ... In the past century, the term pederasty has seen a number of different uses. ... Platonic love in its modern popular sense is an affectionate relationship into which the sexual element does not enter, especially in cases where one might easily assume otherwise. ... Start of polyamory contingent at San Francisco Pride 2004. ... In social anthropology and sociobiology, polyandry (Greek: poly many, andros man) means a female forming a stable sexual union with more than one male. ... The term polygamy (literally many marriages in late Greek) is used in related ways in social anthropology and sociobiology and sociology. ... Group marriage is a form of marriage in which more than one man and more than one woman form a family unit, and all members of the marriage share parental responsibility for any children arising from the marriage. ... The term polygyny (neo-Greek: poly+gune Many + Wives) is used in related ways in social anthropology and sociobiology. ... Prostitution is the sale of sexual services for money or other kind of return. ... This article is about sex acts and practices (i. ... Legal separation is a possible step towards divorce under United States law. ... Serial monogamy is a form of monogamy in which participants have only one sexual partner at any one time, but have more than one sexual partner in their lifetime. ... Swinging, sometimes referred to in North America as the swinging lifestyle, is non-monogamous sexual activity, treated much like any other social activity, that can be experienced as a couple. ... It has been suggested that Domestic violence against men be merged into this article or section. ... A widow is a woman whose husband has died. ...

v · d · e

The incidence of monogamy refers to the frequency with which monogamy occurs.


This article deals with the incidence of monogamy in human beings. To learn about the incidence of monogamy in animals, which is generally lower than the incidence of monogamy in human beings, see the Wikipedia article on Animal Sexuality. Animal sexual behavior takes many different forms, even within the same species. ...


A large majority of human beings around the world enter socially monogamous relationships at some point in their lives. Most people who enter socially monogamous relationships remain sexually monogamous for the duration of the relationship. However, the amount of sexual monogamy varies across cultures, and women tend to be more sexually monogamous than men. Genetic monogamy also varies across cultures but is generally high overall.

Contents

Incidence of Social Monogamy

The United Nations World Fertility Report of 2003 reports that 89% percent of all women and men get married by age forty-nine. [1] This is, of course, an average. The percent of women and men who marry by age forty-nine drops to nearly 50% in some nations and reaches 100% in other nations. [2] On average, though, 89% of all people in the world marry by age forty-nine.


Not all marriages are socially monogamous. Anthropological studies have reported that 80-85% of societies allow polygamous marriage. [3] [4] [5] Yet, most of the men in societies that allow polygamy do not obtain sufficient wealth or status to have multiple wives, so the majority of marriages in these societies involve one husband and one wife. Murdock has estimated that 80% of marriages in societies that allow polygamy involve only one husband and one wife. [5] White has analyzed the distribution of husbands by number of wives in societies that allow polygamy (see Table 1 in White, 1988, pages 535-539). [6] His analysis also supports the claim that around 80% of marriages in these societies involve only one husband and one wife. In fact, so many marriages are socially monogamous that Murdock had years earlier stated:

"An impartial observer employing the criterion of numerical preponderance, consequently, would be compelled to to characterize nearly every known human society as monogamous, despite the preference for and frequency of polygyny in the overwhelming majority.” (Murdock, 1949, pages 27-28) [7]

Keep in mind the estimate of 80% socially monogamous marriages applies to societies where polygamous marriage is a legal or culturally accepted option. The percent of socially monogamous marriages is higher in societies where social monogamy is the only legal form of marriage. Social monogamy is the only legal form of marriage in several of the world’s most populous nations including China, members of the European Union, United States, Russia, and Japan. Based on population estimates from the CIA World Factbook 2006 [8], a little over one-third of the world's population lives in these nations.

Selected Populations from CIA World Factbook 2006 [8]

Nation Population
China 1,313,973,713
European Union members 456,953,258
United States 298,444,215
Russia 142,893,540
Japan 127,463,611
Sum 2,339,728,337
World Total 6,525,170,264
Percent 35.8%

Thus, a large majority of people enter socially monogamous relationships at some point in their lives. Almost 9 out of 10 people around the world marry by age 49. No fewer than 80% of these marriages are socially monogamous, and close to 100% of marriages are socially monogamous for one-third of the world's population.

Incidence of Sexual Monogamy

The incidence of sexual monogamy can be roughly estimated as the percentage of married people who do not engage in extramarital sex. Several studies have looked at the percentage of people who engage in extramarital sex. These studies have shown that extramarital sex varies across cultures and across genders.


The Standard Cross-Cultural Sample describes the amount of extramarital sex by men and women in over 50 pre-industrial cultures. [9] [10] The amount of extramarital sex by men is described as "universal" in 6 cultures, "moderate" in 29 cultures, "occasional" in 6 cultures, and "uncommon" in 10 cultures. The amount of extramarital sex by women is described as "universal" in 6 cultures, "moderate" in 23 cultures, "occasional" in 9 cultures, and "uncommon" in 15 cultures. These findings support the claim that the amount of extramarital sex differs across cultures and across genders.


Recent surveys conducted in non-Western nations have also found cultural and gender differences in extramarital sex. A study of sexual behavior in Thailand, Tanzania and Côte d'Ivoire suggests about 16-34% of men engage in extramarital sex while a much smaller (unreported) percentage of women engage in extramarital sex. [11] Studies in Nigeria have found around 47-53% of men and to 18-36% of women engage in extramarital sex. [12] [13] A 1999 survey of married and cohabiting couples in Zimbabwe reports that 38% of men and 13% of women engaged in extra-couple sexual relationships within the last 12 months. [14]


Nowhere has extramarital sex been examined more frequently than in the United States. Many surveys asking about extramarital sex in the United States have relied on convenience samples. A convenience sample means surveys are given to whomever happens to be easily available (e.g., volunteer college students or volunteer magazine readers). Convenience samples do not accurately reflect the population of the United States as a whole, which can cause serious biases in survey results. It should not be suprising, therefore, that surveys of extramarital sex in the United States have produced widely differing results. A few studies relying on convenience samples have tried to compensate for biases by surveying large numbers of people. These studies report that about 12-26% of married women and 15-43% of married men engage in extramarital sex. [15] [16] [17] Although surveying large numbers of people helps to counteract the biases of convenience samples, the only way to get scientifically reliable estimates of extramarital sex is to use nationally representative samples. Three studies have used nationally representative samples. These studies have found that about 10-15% of women and 20-25% of men engage in extramarital sex. [18] [19] [20] Around 85-90% of married women and around 75-80% of married men in the United States are sexually monogamous throughout their marriages.


A majority of married people remain sexually monogamous during their marriages. The number of married partners who engage in extramarital sex never exceeds 50 percent in studies using large or nationally representative samples. Yet, the incidence of sexual monogamy varies across cultures. People in some cultures are more sexually monogamous than people in other cultures. Women also appear to be more sexually monogamous than men.


Incidence of Genetic Monogamy

The incidence of genetic monogamy may be estimated from rates of extrapair paternity. Unfortunately, rates of extrapair paternity have not been extensively studied in people. Many reports of extrapair paternity are little more than quotes based on heresay, anecdotes, and unpublished findings. [21] Simmons, Firman, Rhodes, and Peters reviewed 11 published studies of extra-pair paternity from various locations in the United States, France, Switzerland, United Kingdom, Mexico, and the Yanamamo Indians in South America. [22] The rates of exptrapair paternity ranged from 0.03% to 11.8% although most of the locations had low percentages of extrapair paternity. The median rate of extrapair paternity was 1.8%. A separate review of 17 studies by Bellis, Hughes, Hughes, and Ashton found slightly higher rates of extrapair paternity. [23] The rates varied from 0.8% to 30% in these studies, with a median rate of 3.7% extrapair paternity. A range of 1.8% to 3.7% extrapair paternity implies a range of 96% to 98% genetic monogamy. Although the incidence of genetic monogamy may vary from 70% to 99% in different cultures or social environments, a large percentage of couples remain genetically monogamous during their relationships.


References

  1. ^ United Nations (2004). World Fertility Report: 2003. Retrieved April 26, 2006 from http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/worldfertility/World_Fertility_Report.htm .
  2. ^ United Nations (2000). World Marriage Patterns 2000. Retrieved April 26, 2006 from http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/worldmarriage/worldmarriagepatterns2000.pdf .
  3. ^ Murdock, G.P. (1967). Ethnographic Atlas. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.
  4. ^ White, D.R. & Veit, C. (1999). White-Veit EthnoAtlas. Retrieved April 28, 2006 from http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/ethnoatlas/nindex.html.
  5. ^ a b Murdock, G. P. (1981). Atlas of World Cultures. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.
  6. ^ White, D.R. (1988). Rethinking polygyny: Co-wives, codes, and cultural systems. Current Anthropology, 29, 572.
  7. ^ Murdock, G.P. (1949). Social Structure. New York: Free Press.
  8. ^ a b Central Intelligence Agency (2006). The World Factbook 2006. Retrieved April 30, 2006 from https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/index.html .
  9. ^ Divale, W. (2000). Pre-Coded Variables for the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample, Volume I and II. Jamaica, NY: York College, CUNY. Distributed by World Cultures at http://worldcultures.org/SCCS1.pdf. See Variable 170 and Variable 171.
  10. ^ Murdock, G.P., & White, D.R. (1969). Standard cross-cultural sample. Ethnology, 8, 329-369.
  11. ^ O’Connor, M.L. (2001). Men who have many sexual partners before marriage are more likely to engage in extramarital intercourse. International Family Planning Perspectives, 27, 48-49.
  12. ^ Isiugo-Abanihe, U.C. (1994). Extramarital relations and perceptions of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. Health Transition Review, 4, 111-125
  13. ^ Ladebo, O.J., & Tanimowo, A.G. (2002). Extension personnel's sexual behaviour and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS in South-Western Nigeria. African Journal of Reproductive Health, 6, 51-59.
  14. ^ National AIDS Council, Ministry of Health and Child Welfare, The MEASURE Project, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC/Zimbabwe). AIDS in Africa During the Nineties: Zimbabwe. A review and analysis of survey and research results. Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2002.
  15. ^ Hunt, M. (1974). Sexual behavior in the 1970s. Chicago: Playboy Press.
  16. ^ Blumstein, P., & Schwartz, P. (1983). American Couples: Money, Work, Sex. New York, NY: William Morrow and Company.
  17. ^ Janus, S.S. & Janus, C.L. (1993). The Janus Report on Sexual Behavior. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  18. ^ Clements, M. (1994, August 7). Sex in America today: A new national survey reveals how our attitudes are changing. Parade Magazine, 4-6.
  19. ^ Laumann, E. O., Gagnon, J. H., Michael, R. T, & Michaels, S. (1994). The social organization of sexuality: Sexual practices in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  20. ^ Wiederman, M. W. (1997). Extramarital sex: Prevalence and correlates in a national survey. Journal of Sex Research, 34, 167-174.
  21. ^ Macintyre, S. & Sooman, A. (1991). Non-paternity and prenatal genetic screening. Lancet, 338, 869-871.
  22. ^ Simmons, L.W., Firman, R.E.C., Rhodes, G., & Peters, M. (2004). Human sperm competition: testis size, sperm production and rates of extrapair copulations. Animal Behaviour, 68, 297-302.
  23. ^ Bellis, M.A., Hughes, K., Hughes, S., & Ashton, J.R. (2005). Measuring paternal discrepancy and its public health consequences. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 59, 749-754

See also

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo-en. ... Wikiquote logo Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Monogamy is the custom or condition of having only one mate during a period of time. ... The evolution of monogamy refers to the natural history of mating systems in which species reproduce by forming social pairs to raise offspring. ... In biology, a pair bond is the strong affinity that develops in some species between the male and female in a breeding pair. ... Serial monogamy is a form of monogamy in which participants have only one sexual partner at any one time, but have more than one sexual partner in their lifetime. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Swinging, sometimes referred to in North America as the swinging lifestyle, is non-monogamous sexual activity, treated much like any other social activity, that can be experienced as a couple. ... An affair is usually a euphemism for a situation where two people are involved in an illicit activity. ... Nonmonogamy is a blanket term covering several different types of interpersonal relationship in which some or all participants have multiple marital, sexual, and/or romantic partners. ... Start of polyamory contingent at San Francisco Pride 2004. ... The term polygamy (literally many marriages in late Greek) is used in related ways in social anthropology and sociobiology and sociology. ... Polyfidelity, a form of polyamory, is the restricting of ones sexual activities nonpreferentially to a single group of people, each of whom follows the same rules and has sex only within the group. ... Group marriage or Circle Marriage is a form of marriage in which more than one man and more than one woman form a family unit, and all members of the marriage share parental responsibility for any children arising from the marriage. ... Cohabitation is defined as an emotional, physical, and intellectually intimate relationship which includes a common living place and which exists without the benefit of legal, cultural, or religious sanction. ... A marriage is a relationship between or among individuals, usually recognized by civil authority and/or bound by the religious beliefs of the participants. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse, which can be contrasted with an annulment, which is a declaration that a marriage is void, though the effects of marriage may be recognized in such unions, such as spousal support, child custody... In sociobiology and behavioural ecology, the term mating system is used to describe the ways in which animal societies are structured in relation to sexual behaviour. ... Animal sexual behavior takes many different forms, even within the same species. ... Jealousy typically refers to the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that occur when a person believes a valued relationship is being threatened by a rival. ...

 
 

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