Human settlement on the location goes back to the Neolithic. In modern times Incheon became important because its location on an estuary makes it a good harbor; when the port was founded in 1883, the city's population was only 4,700. It was called Chemulpo in that period. Incheon now has an international airport, and it was one of the locations of the 2002 Football World Cup. It is also under the control of one of the two Free Economic Zone Authorities in Korea, which is aimed to concentrate foreign investment. Incheon is aimed to become Asia's newest financial and corporate hub along with Korea's Busan-Jinhae Free Economic Zone Authority, which is centered on the dynamic southern harbor of Busan.
The city boundaries include an area of 964.53 kmē, of which 21 percent is rice paddies and another 44 percent is forested.
Incheon is sometimes regarded as a part of greater metropolitan area of Seoul for their close distance, and they are linked by Seoul Metropolitan Subway, which links to the Incheon Subway line. It is, however, a true city in its own. This is recognized politically where Incheon is separate from Seoul. The city now has the main international airport for South Korea and Seoul: Incheon International Airport.
U.S. Marines had landed at the western port city of Inchon, near Seoul, and were poised to move inland to retake the capital and decisively cut the already tenuous North Korean supply lines.
Though strategically tempting, Inchon was a tactically challenging amphibious target, with long approaches through shallow channels, poor beaches and a tidal range that restricted landing operations to a few hours a day.
The Inchon waterfront is in the right center distance, with heavy smoke rising from pre-invasion bombardment.
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