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Encyclopedia > Incest

Incest is defined as sexual relations between closely related persons (often within the immediate family) such that it is either illegal or socially taboo. The type of sexual activity and the nature of the relationship between persons that constitutes a breach of law or social taboo varies by culture and by jurisdiction.


The majority of incest cases reported in scientific studies are between adults and prepubescent or adolescent children, and particularly between fathers or other male relatives, and girls. This is a form of child sexual abuse[1] that has been shown to be one or the most extreme forms of childhood trauma, a trauma which often does serious and long-term psychological damage, especially in the case of parental incest.[2] Child sexual abuse is an umbrella term describing criminal and civil offenses in which an adult engages in sexual activity with a minor or exploits a minor for the purpose of sexual gratification. ...


Adults who were incestuously victimized by adults in their childhood often suffer from low self-esteem, difficulties in interpersonal relationships, and sexual dysfunction; and are at an extremely high risk of many mental disorders including depression, anxiety, phobic avoidance reactions, somatoform disorder, substance abuse, borderline personality disorder, and complex post-traumatic stress disorder.[2][3][4] In psychology, self-esteem or self-worth is a persons self-image at an emotional level; circumventing reason and logic. ... Sexual dysfunction or sexual malfunction (see also sexual function) is difficulty during any stage of the sexual act (which includes desire, arousal, orgasm, and resolution) that prevents the individual or couple from enjoying sexual activity. ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... This article is about state anxiety. ... Also see Alcoholism and Drug addiction. ... Borderline Personality Disorder (DSM-IV Personality Disorders 301. ... Complex post-traumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD) is a clinically recognized condition that results from extended exposure to prolonged social and/or interpersonal trauma, including instances of physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse (including sexual abuse during childhood), domestic violence, torture, chronic early maltreatment in a caregiving relationship, and war. ...


Consensual mutually-desired adult incest is very rare, found almost exclusively where kin were separated early in life and therefore did not experience early association and the related development of the natural adaptation for incest avoidance.[1] Consensual incest between adults is criminalized in most countries, although it is seen by some as a victimless crime.[5] Victimless crime has the following applications: A victimless crime is one in which the victim is the accused. ...


Incest can refer to sexual activity between family members of either gender, and can include family members of any age, and can be either consensual or non-consensual (depending on local laws, particularly age of consent). However, which family members constitute those covered by the incest prohibition is determined by the society in which the persons live. Some societies consider it to include only those who live in the same household, or who belong to the same clan or lineage; other societies consider it to include "blood relatives;" other societies further include those related by adoption or marriage as well.[6] Gender in common usage refers to the sexual distinction between male and female. ... Age of consent laws Worldwide While the phrase age of consent typically does not appear in legal statutes,[1] when used with reference to criminal law the age of consent is the minimum age at which a person is considered to be capable of legally giving informed consent to any... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... The household is the basic unit of analysis in many microeconomic and government models. ... For other uses, see Clan (disambiguation). ... The term lineage can refer to several things. ... For other uses, see Adoption (disambiguation). ... Matrimony redirects here. ...


Most societies have some form of incest avoidance.[7][8] The incest taboo is one of the most common of all cultural taboos, both in current nations and many past societies,[9] with legal penalties imposed in some places. Most modern societies have legal or social restrictions on closely consanguineous marriages.[10] However, in some societies, like Ancient Egypt, brother–sister, father–daughter and mother–son relations were practiced among royalty.[11][12] In addition, the Balinese[13] and some Inuit tribes[14] have altogether different beliefs of what constitutes illegal and immoral incest. The incest taboo refers to the cultural prohibition of sexual activity or marriage between persons defined as close relatives; the degree of which is determined by the society in which the persons live. ... This article is about cultural prohibitions in general, for other uses, see Taboo (disambiguation). ... The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... See: Bali, an Indonesian island Balinese language Balinese (people) Balinese (cat), a cat breed Balinese Gamelan, local music This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Types

Between adults and children

Main article: child sexual abuse

Incest perpetrated by an adult of either gender against a child is called " intrafamilial child sexual abuse". The most-often reported form of incest is of this inherently abusive form. Father-daughter and stepfather-daughter incest is most commonly reported, with most of the remaining reports consisting of mother/stepmother-daughter/son incest.[8] Father-son incest is reported less often, however it is not known if the prevalence is less, because it is under-reported by a greater margin.[15][16] Prevalence of parental child sexual abuse is difficult to assess due to secrecy and privacy; some estimates show 20 million Americans have been victimized by parental incest as children.[8] Child sexual abuse is an umbrella term describing criminal and civil offenses in which an adult engages in sexual activity with a minor or exploits a minor for the purpose of sexual gratification. ... Child sexual abuse is an umbrella term describing criminal and civil offenses in which an adult engages in sexual activity with a minor or exploits a minor for the purpose of sexual gratification. ...


According to the National Center for Victims of Crime a large proportion of rape committed in the United States is perpetrated by a family member:

Research indicates that 46 percent (46%) of children who are raped are victims of family members. (Langan and Harlow, 1994.) The majority of American rape victims (61%) are raped before the age of 18; furthermore, an astounding 29 percent (29%) of all forcible rapes occurred when the victim was less than 11 years old. Eleven percent (11%) of rape victims are raped by their fathers or step-fathers, and another 16 percent (16%) are raped by other relatives. [17]

Emotional incest occurs when a parent relates to a child as a substitute for an adult partner. That child may become emotionally bonded to, and codependent with, the parent. Emotional incest usually occurs before physical parent-child incest. Even without physical sexual contact, the consequences to such "bonded" children include a lifetime of partnership difficulties, according to Martyn Carruthers who wrote that this is a socially accepted form of child abuse in many countries.[18]


The ISNA reported that a counselling hotline stated that a large percentage of the calls they handle deal with the issue of parental child abuse.[19] ISNA – The First Students News Agency STUDENT NEWS AGENCY can be introduced in the category of STUDENT MEDIA. Iranian Student News Agency (ISNA,http://isna. ... In telecommunication, a hotline (also called an automatic signaling service or off-hook service) is a point-to-point communications link in which a call is automatically directed to the preselected destination without any additional action by the user when the end instrument goes off-hook. ...


The Goler clan is a specific instance in which child sexual abuse in the form of forced adult/child and sibling/sibling incest took place over at least three generations. [20] A number of Goler children were victims of sexual abuse at the hands of fathers, mothers, uncles, aunts, sisters, brothers, cousins, and each other. During interrogation by police, several of the adults openly admitted to engaging in many forms of sexual activity, up to and including full intercourse, multiple times with the children. Sixteen adults (both men and women) were charged with hundreds of allegations of incest and sexual abuse of children as young as five.[20] The Golers are a clan comprised of impoverished and inbred people on Nova Scotias South Mountain, who tortured and abused their children generation after generation. ...


Between childhood siblings

Many types of sexual contact between children (e.g., "playing doctor") are not considered harmful or abnormal, but become child-on-child sexual abuse when there is lack of consent, coercion, or simply an imbalance of power or knowledge in the relationship. Childhood sibling–sibling incest is also considered to be widespread but rarely reported. The most commonly reported form of abusive sibling incest is abuse between an older brother and a younger brother or sister.[8] Doctor, Playing doctor, or Doctors and nurses is a childrens game linked to sexual curiosity. ...


According to a study by Floyd Martinson, 10–15% of college students reported childhood sexual experiences with a brother or sister, mostly fondling of genitals rather than sexual intercourse. Of those, 30% reported negative reactions and 30% reported positive reactions; 25% of the reported experiences involved coercion and there was a correlation of coercion with the negative responses.[21] A 2006 study showed a large portion of adults who experienced sibling incest have distorted or disturbed beliefs both about their own experience and the subject of sexual abuse in general.[22] An observational study in 1993 found that 16 percent of the 930 adult women interviewed reported that they had been sexually abused by a sibling before they were 18 years old.[23]


Sibling incest is most prevalent in families where one or both parents are often absent or emotionally unavailable, with the abusive siblings using incest as a way to assert their power over a weaker sibling and thereby express their feelings of hurt and rage.[23] Absence of the father in particular has been found to be a significant element of most cases of sexual abuse of female children by a brother.[24] The damaging effects on both childhood development and adult symptoms resulting from brother–sister sexual abuse are similar to the effects of father–daughter, including substance abuse, depression, suicidality, and eating disorders.[24][25]


Between consenting adults

Incest between consenting adults is sexual behavior between adult, blood relatives (which can include parents and adult offspring, siblings, cousins, etc.) that is not coerced or forced in any way.[26] While incest between consenting adults has not been widely reported in the past, the internet has shown that this behavior does take place, possibly more often than many people realize.[26] Internet chatrooms and topical websites exist that provide support for incestuous couples.[26] A chat room is an online forum where people can chat online (talk by broadcasting messages to people on the same forum in real time). ...


Proponents of incest between consenting adults draw clear boundaries between the behavior of consenting adults and rape, pedophilia, and abuse.[26] According to one incest participant who was interviewed for an article in The Guardian

"You can't help who you fall in love with, it just happens. I fell in love with my sister and I'm not ashamed ... I only feel sorry for my mom and dad, I wish they could be happy for us. We love each other. It's nothing like some old man who tries to fuck his three-year-old, that's evil and disgusting ... Of course we're consenting, that's the most important thing. We're not fucking perverts. What we have is the most beautiful thing in the world."[26]

In Slate Magazine, William Saletan drew a legal connection between gay sex and incest between consenting adults.[27] As he described in his article, in 2003, U.S. Senator Rick Santorum publicly derided the theory of the Supreme Court ruling to allow private consensual sex in the home (primarily as a gay rights move). He stated: "If the Supreme Court says that you have the right to consensual sex within your home, then you have the right to bigamy, you have the right to polygamy, you have the right to incest, you have the right to adultery."[27] However, David Smith of the Human Rights Campaign professed outrage that Santorum placed being gay on the same moral and legal level as someone engaging in incest. Saletan argued that, legally and morally, there is essentially no difference between the two, and went on to support incest between consenting adults being covered by a legal right to privacy.[27] Categories: Magazines stubs | Microsoft subsidiaries | Websites | The Washington Post ... “Santorum” redirects here. ... HRC logo The Human Rights Campaign (HRC) is one of the largest lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) equal rights organization in the United States. ...


Between adult siblings

The most public case of consensual adult sibling incest in recent years is the case of a couple from Leipzig, Germany.[5] The couple became intimately close after the death of their mother and in 2001, had their first child together (they have a total of four). The public nature of their relationship, and the repeated prosecutions and even jail time they have served as a result, has caused some in Germany to question whether incest between consenting adults should be punished at all.[5] For all intents and purposes, the couple are happy together and incest between consenting adults in general, as described in a Der Spiegel article about them, is a victimless crime.[5] Map of Germany showing Leipzig Leipzig [ˈlaiptsɪç] (Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk) is the largest city in the federal state (Bundesland) of Saxony in Germany. ... Criminal law (also known as penal law) is the body of law that regulates governmental sanctions (such as imprisonment and/or fines) as retaliation for crimes against the social order. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Victimless crime has the following applications: A victimless crime is one in which the victim is the accused. ...


Between adult cousins

See also: Cousin couple

Present day Western cultures generally consider sex between cousins to be incest. Some cultures consider relationships between parallel cousins incestuous, but not those between cross cousins, although the degree of genetic relationship does not differ.[citation needed]. Some cultures do not consider sexual relations between cousins to be incest at all. In 19th century England cousin marriage was not considered objectionable (see also Mansfield Park). In Muslim countries, marriage between cousins is not considered incest.[citation needed] A cousin couple is a pair of cousins with a romantic or sexual relationship. ... Parallel cousin is an anthropological term denoting consanguinial kin who are in the same descent group as the subject and are from the parents same-sexed sibling. ... Cross Cousin is an anthropological term describing kin who are in the same descent group as the subject (ego) and are from the parents opposite-sexed sibling. ... Mansfield Park book cover Mansfield Park is a novel by Jane Austen. ...


Incest defined through marriage

Some cultures include relatives by marriage in incest prohibitions; these relationships are called affinity rather than consanguinity. For example, the question of the legality and morality of a widower who wished to marry his deceased wife's sister was the subject of long and fierce debate in the United Kingdom in the 19th century, involving, among others, Matthew Boulton.[citation needed] In medieval Europe, standing as a godparent to a child also created a bond of affinity.[citation needed] In law and in cultural anthropology, affinity, as distinguished from consanguinity, is kinship by marriage. ... Consanguinity, literally meaning common blood, describes how close a person is related to another in the sense of a family. ... The Deceased Wifes Sisters Marriage Act 1907 was a statute passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Matthew Boulton. ... A godparent, in many denominations of Christianity, is someone who sponsors a childs baptism. ...


History

Etymology

The word 'incest' was introduced into Middle English around 1225 as a legal term to describe the crime of familial incest as we know it today. It was also used to describe sexual relations between married persons, one of whom had taken a vow of celibacy (often called spiritual incest).[28] It derives from the Latin incestus or incestum, the substantive use of the adjective incestus meaning 'unchaste, impure', which itself is derived from the Latin castus meaning 'chaste'. The derived adjective incestuous does not appear until the 16th century.[29] Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ...


Prior to the introduction of the Latin term, incest was known in Old English as sibbleger (from sibb 'kinship' + leger 'to lie') or mǣġhǣmed (from mǣġ 'kin, parent' + hǣmed 'sexual intercourse') but in time, both words fell out of use. Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ...


Ancient civilizations

Table of prohibited marriages from The Trial of Bastardie by William Clerke. London, 1594.
Table of prohibited marriages from The Trial of Bastardie by William Clerke. London, 1594.

It is relatively accepted that incestuous marriages were widespread at least during the Graeco-Roman period of Egyptian history. Numerous papyri and the Roman census declarations attest to many husbands and wives being brother and sister (Lewis, 1983; Bagnall and Frier, 1994; Shaw, 1993). In Hopkins (1980) this is conclusively demonstrated, and more recent scholars in the field have not questioned it. Some of these incestuous relationships were in the royal family, especially the Ptolemies (see the biography of Cleopatra, who married more than one of her brothers). Image File history File links W.Clerke_table. ... Image File history File links W.Clerke_table. ... For other uses, see Papyrus (disambiguation). ... Ptolemy, one of Alexander the Greats generals, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexanders death in 323 BC. In 305 BC he declared himself King Ptolemy I, later known as Soter (saviour). ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


The fable of Oedipus, with a theme of inadvertent incest between a mother and son, ends in disaster and shows ancient taboos against incest as Oedipus is punished for incestuous actions by blinding himself. For other uses, see Oedipus (disambiguation). ...


Incestuous unions were frowned upon and considered as nefas (against the laws of gods and man) in Roman times, and were explicitly forbidden by an imperial edict in AD 295, which divided the concept of incestus into two categories of unequal gravity: the incestus iuris gentium, which was applied to both Romans and non-Romans in the Empire, and the incestus iuris civilis, which concerned only Roman citizens. Therefore, for example, an Egyptian could marry an aunt, but a Roman could not. Despite the act of incest being unacceptable within the Roman Empire, Roman Emperor Caligula is rumored to have had open sexual relationships with all three of his sisters, (Julia Livilla, Drusilla, and Agrippina the Younger). The taboo against incest in Ancient Rome is demonstrated by the fact that politicians would use charges of incest (often false charges) as insults and means of political disenfranchisement. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Julia Livilla, daughter of Germanicus Julia Livilla or Julia Germanici filia (Lesbos, early 18 AD-Pandateria (?) late 41 or early 42 AD) was the youngest child of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder and one of Caligulas sisters. ... This article is about the sister of the Roman Emperor Caligula. ... Julia Agrippina; known as Agrippina Minor (Latin for the ‘younger’, Classical Latin: IVLIA•AGRIPPINA; from the year 50, called IVLIA•AVGVSTA•AGRIPPINA[1], Greek: η Ιουλία Αγκιππίνη, November 6, 15 - between 19-23 March, 59), was a Roman Empress. ...


Additionally, many European monarchs were related due to political marriages, sometimes resulting in distant cousins becoming married.


Hypothesis of incest avoidance origins

Some researchers hypothesize that humans have a kin recognition ability that functions in part to enable incest avoidance between close relatives, thereby protecting the gene pool of the family or tribe from excessive damage by inbreeding; and, that this kin recognition system may form a biological basis for social and psychological prohibitions against incest. [30] Lieberman et al. (2003) found that childhood co-residency with an opposite-sex sibling (biologically related or not) was significantly correlated with moral repugnance toward third-party sibling incest.[30] Kin recognition refers to animals capabilities to distinguish between close genetic kin and non-kin. ... The gene pool of a species or a population is the complete set of unique alleles that would be found by inspecting the genetic material of every living member of that species or population. ... Inbreeding is breeding between close relatives, whether plant or animal. ...


Laws regarding incest

Main article: Laws regarding incest

Incest is illegal in many jurisdictions. The exact legal definition of "incest," including the nature of the relationship between persons, and the types sexual activity, varies by country, and by even individual states or provinces within a country. These laws can also extend to marriage between said individuals.


Religious views on incest

Judeo-Christian

In the story of Sodom and Gomorrah in the Book of Genesis in the Bible, Lot's two daughters have sex with him to carry on their lineage. In the Tanakh, nearly all incidental Biblical references to incest occur in the Torah, especially in Genesis (בראשית Bereshit), prior to the establishment of Jewish law as described in Leviticus. ... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah (five books of Moses) and hence the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... According to the Bible and the Quran, Lot (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: لوط, ; Hidden, covered[1]) was the nephew of the patriarch, Abraham or Abram. ...


Later, the Book of Leviticus lists prohibitions against sexual relations between various pairs of family members. Men are prohibited, on pain of death, to have sexual relations with their daughters, mothers, aunts, and various other relations. (Father–daughter incest is covered by a prohibition on sexual relationships between a man and any daughter born to any woman he has had sexual relationships with, thereby prohibiting his incest not only with his own daughters but also with women who could be his stepdaughters by marriage.) Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ...


It is to be noted that the Book of Leviticus, says nothing about the marriage of cousins, see Cousin couple. A cousin couple is a pair of cousins with a romantic or sexual relationship. ...


Islam

The Quran mentions incest which prohibits a man from having sexual relationships with his mother, daughter, sister, paternal aunt, maternal aunt or niece. However, Islam allows for marriage with cousins and other more distant relatives. The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Hinduism

Hinduism speaks of incest in highly abhorrent terms. Hindus were greatly fearful of the bad effects of incest and thus practise to date strict rules of both endogamy and exogamy, that is, marriage in the same caste (varna) but not in the same family tree (gotra) or bloodline (Parivara). Marriages within the gotra ("swagotra" marriages) are banned under the rule of exogamy in the traditional matrimonial system. People within the gotra are regarded as kin and marrying such a person would be thought of as incest. Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Endogamy is the practice of marrying within a social group. ... Exogamy has two related definitions, both biological and cultural. ...


In some South Indian communities, where gotra membership passed from father to children, marriages were allowed between uncle and niece, while such marriages were forbidden in matrilineal communities, like Malayalis and Tuluvas, where gotra membership was passed down from the mother. A much more common characteristic of south Indian Hindu society is permission of marriage between cross-cousins (children of brother and sister). Thus, a man is allowed to marry his maternal uncle's daughter or his paternal aunt's daughter but is not allowed to marry his paternal uncle's daughter, a parallel cousin, who is treated as a sister.


North Indian Hindu society not only follows rules of gotra for marriages, but also has many regulations which go beyond the basic definition of gotra which result in few occurrences of similarly incestuous relationships.


Buddhism

Asian societies shaped by Buddhist traditions takes a strong ethical stand in human affairs and sexual behavior in particular. In most of those societies, incest is regarded as highly abhorrent. However, unlike most other world religions, most variations of Buddhism, does not go in to details what is right and what is wrong in mundane activities of life. Incest (or any other detail of human sexual conduct for that matter) is not specifically mentioned in any of the religious scriptures. The most common formulation of Buddhist ethics are the Five Precepts and the Eightfold Path, one should neither be attached to nor crave sensual pleasure. These precepts take the form of voluntary, personal undertakings, not divine mandate or instruction. The third of the Five Precepts is "To refrain from committing sexual misconduct". It is understandable that incest itself could constitute "sexual misconduct".[31]. 'Sexual misconduct' is a loose term, and is subjected to interpretation relative to the social norms of the followers. In fact, Buddhism in its fundamental form, does not define what is right and what is wrong in absolute terms for lay followers. Therefore the interpretation of whether incest for a layperson is right or wrong, is not a religious matter as far as Buddhism is concerned. Eastern philosophy refers very broadly to the various philosophies of Asia, including Indian philosophy, Chinese philosophy, Persian philosophy, Japanese philosophy, and Korean philosophy. ... The five precepts (Pali: Pañcasīla, Sanskrit: Pañcaśīla Ch: 五戒 wǔ jiè, Sinhala: පන්සිල්) constitute the basic Buddhist code of ethics, undertaken by lay followers of the Buddha Gautama. ... Eightfold Path redirects here. ... In religious organizations, the laity comprises all lay persons collectively. ... A layperson is someone who is not a clergyman/clergywoman or (other meaning) who is not a professional person. ...


See also

Child sexual abuse is an umbrella term describing criminal and civil offenses in which an adult engages in sexual activity with a minor or exploits a minor for the purpose of sexual gratification. ... Incest in folklore is found in many cultures. ... Incest is a somewhat popular topic in English erotic fiction; there are entire collections and websites devoted solely to this genre, with an entire genre of pornographic pulp fiction known as incest novels. This is probably because, as with many other fetishes, the taboo nature of the act adds to... Consanguinity, literally meaning common blood, describes how close a person is related to another in the sense of a family. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Genetic sexual attraction (GSA) is sexual attraction between close relatives, such as brother and sister, who first meet as adults. ... Sexual behavior is a form of physical intimacy that may be directed to reproduction (one possible goal of sexual intercourse) and/or to the enjoyment of activity involving sexual gratification. ... Kinship and descent is one of the major concepts of cultural anthropology. ... Not to be confused with Levite. ... Imprinting is the term used in psychology and ethology to describe any kind of phase-sensitive learning (learning occurring at a particular age or a particular life stage) that is rapid and apparently independent of the consequences of behavior. ... Inbreeding is breeding between close relatives, whether plant or animal. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The incest taboo refers to the cultural prohibition of sexual activity or marriage between persons defined as close relatives; the degree of which is determined by the society in which the persons live. ... The prohibited degree of kinship refers to a degree of consanguinity (relatedness) below which sexual interrelationships are regarded as incestuous. ... Royal intermarriage is the practice of members of royal families marrying into other royal families. ... Sexual ethics is a sub-category of ethics that pertain to acts falling within the broad spectrum of human sexual behavior, sexual intercourse in particular. ... A cousin couple is a pair of cousins with a romantic or sexual relationship. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b Wolf, Arthur P.; William H. Durham (2004). Inbreeding, Incest, and the Incest Taboo: The State of Knowledge at the Turn of the Century. Stanford University Press, p170-172. ISBN 0804751412. 
  2. ^ a b Courtois, Christine A. (1988). Healing the Incest Wound: Adult Survivors in Therapy. W. W. Norton & Company, p208. ISBN 0393313565. 
  3. ^ Trepper, Terry S. (1989). Systemic Treatment of Incest: A Therapeutic Handbook. Psychology Press. ISBN 0876305605. 
  4. ^ Kluft, Richard P. (1990). Incest-Related Syndromes of Adult Psychopathology. American Psychiatric Pub , Inc., p83,89. ISBN 0880481609. 
  5. ^ a b c d Hipp, Dietmar (2008-03-11). "German High Court Takes a Look at Incest". Der Spiegel. Retrieved on 2008-04-12.
  6. ^ Elementary Structures Of Kinship, by Claude Lévi-Strauss. (tr.1971).
  7. ^ Brown, Donald E., Human Universals. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991, p. 118-29
  8. ^ a b c d Turner, Jeffrey S. (1996). Encyclopedia of Relationships Across the Lifespan. Greenwood Publishing Group, p92. ISBN 031329576X. 
  9. ^ Incest: The Nature and Origin of the Taboo, by Emile Durkheim (tr.1963)
  10. ^ Kinship, Incest, and the Dictates of Law, by Henry A. Kelly, 14 Am. J. Juris. 69
  11. ^ Maurice Godelier, Métamorphoses de la parenté, 2004
  12. ^ New Left Review - Jack Goody: The Labyrinth of Kinship. Retrieved on 2007-07-24.
  13. ^ Bateson, Gregory (2000). Steps to an Ecology of Mind: Collected Essays in Anthropology, Psychiatry, Evolution, and Epistemology. University Of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0226039053. 
  14. ^ Briggs, Jean (2006). Never in Anger: Portrait of an Eskimo Family. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674608283. 
  15. ^ Dorais, Michel; Translated by Isabel Denholm Meyer (2002). Don't Tell: The Sexual Abuse of Boys. McGill-Queen's Press, p24. ISBN 0773522611. 
  16. ^ Courtois, Christine A. (1988). Healing the Incest Wound: Adult Survivors in Therapy. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0393313565. 
  17. ^ Incest. National Center for Victims of Crime and Crime Victims Research and Treatment Center. National Center for Victims of Crime (1992).
  18. ^ EMOTIONAL INCEST
  19. ^ 'زنای با محارم از مشکلات پیش روی کودکان در ایران' - BBC Persian: Incest paedophilia, one of great challenges of Iranian Children.
  20. ^ a b Cruise, David, and Griffiths, Alison. On South Mountain: The Dark Secrets of the Goler Clan (Penguin Books, 1998) ISBN 0670873888
  21. ^ CHILD AND ADOLESCENT SEXUALITY
  22. ^ Bonnie E. Carlson, PhD (December, 2006). "Sibling Incest: Reports from Forty-One Survivors", Journal of Child Sexual Abuse: Volume 15, Issue 4, December 2006, Pages 19–34.
  23. ^ a b Jane Mersky Leder. "Adult Sibling Rivalry: Sibling rivalry often lingers through adulthood", Psychology Today, Sussex Publishers. 
  24. ^ a b Jane M. Rudd; Sharon D. Herzberger (September 1999). "Brother-sister incest—father-daughter incest: a comparison of characteristics and consequences". Child Abuse & Neglect Volume 23, Issue 9: pp915–928. 
  25. ^ Mireille Cyr; S John Wrighta, Pierre McDuffa and Alain Perron (September 2002). "Intrafamilial sexual abuse: brother–sister incest does not differ from father–daughter and stepfather–stepdaughter incest". Child Abuse & Neglect Volume 26, Issue 9: pp957–973. 
  26. ^ a b c d e Johann Hari (2002-01-09). "Forbidden love". The Guardian. Retrieved on 2008-04-11.
  27. ^ a b c Saletan, William (2003-04-23). "Incest Repellent? If gay sex is private, why isn't incest?". Slate Magazine. Retrieved on 2008-04-12.
  28. ^ Online Etymology entry for 'incest'
  29. ^ Oxford Concise Dictionary of Etymology, T.F. Hoad (ed.) (1996), p232
  30. ^ a b Debra Lieberman, John Tooby and Leda Cosmides (26 February 2003). Does morality have a biological basis? An empirical test of the factors governing moral sentiments relating to incest. Center for Evolutionary Psychology, University of California, Santa Barbara.
  31. ^ Higgins, Winton. Buddhist Sexual Ethics. BuddhaNet Magazine. Retrieved on 2007-01-15.

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References

  • Adams, Kenneth, M., Silently Seduced: When Parents Make Their Children Their Partners, Understanding Covert Incest, HCI, 1992.
  • Adams, Kenneth, M., When He's Married to His Mom: How to Help Mother-Enmeshed Men Open Their Hearts To True Love, Fireside, 2007.
  • Anderson, Peter B., and Cindy Struckman-Johnson, Sexually Aggressive Women: Current Perspectives and Controversies, Guilford, 1998.
  • Bagnall, Roger S. and Bruce W. Frier, The demography of Roman Egypt, Cambridge, 1994
  • Bixler, Ray H. (1982) "Comment on the Incidence and Purpose of Royal Sibling Incest," American Ethnologist, 9(3), Aug, pp. 580-582.
  • Blume, E. Sue, Secret Survivors: Uncovering Incest and its Aftereffects in Women, Ballantine, 1991.
  • DeMilly, Walter, In My Father's Arms: A True Story of Incest, University of Wisconsin Press, 1999.
  • Elliot, Michelle, Female Sexual Abuse of Children, Guilford, 1994.
  • Forward, Susan (1990). Toxic Parents: Overcoming Their Hurtful Legacy and Reclaiming Your Life. Bantam. ISBN 0-553-28434-7. 
  • Goody, John (Jack Goody) (1956) A Comparative Approach to Incest and Adultery, The British Journal of Sociology, 7 (4), Dec, pp. 286-305 doi:10.2307/586694
  • Gil, Eliana, Treating Abused Adolescents, Guilford, 1996.
  • Herman, Judith, Father-Daughter Incest, Harvard University Press, 1982.
  • Hislop, Julia, "Female Sexual Offenders: What Therapists, Law Enforcement, and Child Protective Services Need to Know", Issues, 2001.
  • Hopkins, Keith (1980) "Brother-Sister Marriage in Roman Egypt", Comparative Studies in Society and History, 22: 303-354.
  • Leavitt, G. C. (1990) "Sociobiological explanations of incest avoidance: A critical claim of evidential claims", American Anthropologist, 92: 971-993.
  • Lew, Mike, Victims No Longer: Men Recovering from Incest and Other Sexual Child Abuse, Nevraumont, 1988.
  • Lewis, Naphtali, Life in Egypt under Roman Rule, Oxford, 1983.
  • Lobdell, William, "Missionary's Dark Legacy", Los Angeles Times, Nov. 19, 2005, p. A1.
  • Love, Pat, Emotional Incest Syndrome: What to Do When a Parent's Love Rules Your Life, Bantam, 1991.
  • Méndez-Negrete, Josie, Las hijas de Juan: Daughters Betrayed, Duke University Press, 2006. ISBN 978-0-8223-3896-3.
  • Miletski, Hani, Mother-Son Incest: The Unthinkable Broken Taboo, Safer Society, 1999.
  • Miller, Alice, That Shalt Not Be Aware: Society's Betrayal of the Child, Farrar Strauss Giroux, 1983.
  • Pryor, Douglass, Unspeakable Acts: Why Men Sexually Abuse Children, New York University Press, 1996.
  • Rosencrans, Bobbie, and Eaun Bear, The Last Secret: Daughters Sexually Abused by Mothers, Safer Society, 1997.
  • Scruton, Roger, Sexual Desire: A Moral Philosophy of the Erotic, Free Press, 1986.
  • Shaw, Brent D., Explaining Incest: Brother-Sister Marriage in Graeco-Roman Egypt, Man, New Series, 27(2), Jun 1992, pp. 267-299. JSTOR article
  • Shaw, Risa, Not Child's Play: An Anthology on Brother-Sister Incest, Lunchbox, 2000.
  • Tyldesley, Joyce, Ramesses: Egypt's Great Pharaoh, London, 2000.

Jack Goody (born 1918 or 1919) is a British social anthropologist. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

External links

The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... Sexual ethics is a sub-category of ethics that pertain to acts falling within the broad spectrum of human sexual behavior, sexual intercourse in particular. ... This is a list of topics on sexual ethics. ... Age of consent laws Worldwide While the phrase age of consent typically does not appear in legal statutes,[1] when used with reference to criminal law the age of consent is the minimum age at which a person is considered to be capable of legally giving informed consent to any... The ages of consent for sexual activity vary by jurisdiction across Africa. ... Age of consent laws Worldwide The ages of consent for sexual activity vary by jurisdiction across Asia. ... The ages of consent for sexual activity vary by jurisdiction across Australia and Oceania. ... Age of consent laws Worldwide The ages of consent for sexual activity vary by jurisdiction across Europe. ... The ages of consent for sexual activity vary by jurisdiction across North America. ... The ages of consent for sexual activity vary by jurisdiction across South America. ... Child sexuality refers to sexual feelings, behavior and development in children. ... Child pornography refers to pornographic material depicting children. ... Prostitution of children refers to the use of children as prostitutes. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... An early 20th century post card documents the problem of unwanted pregnancy. ... Virginity pledges (or abstinence pledges) are commitments made by teenagers and young adults to refrain from sexual intercourse until marriage. ... Main articles: Human sexual behavior, Adolescence, and Adolescent sexuality Adolescent sexual behavior refers to the sexual behavior of adolescents. ... This article is about human sexual perceptions. ... Sexual orientation refers to an enduring emotional, romantic, sexual, or affectional attraction toward others,[1] usually conceived of as classifiable according to the sex or gender of the persons whom the individual finds sexually attractive. ... This article is about the act of adultery. ... Frederick Douglass with his second wife Helen Pitts Douglass (sitting) who was white, a famous 19th century American example of miscegenation. ... Bad Touch redirects here. ... Sexual harassment is harassment or unwelcome attention of a sexual nature. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Child sexual abuse is an umbrella term describing criminal and civil offenses in which an adult engages in sexual activity with a minor or exploits a minor for the purpose of sexual gratification. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Age of consent reform refers to efforts meant to change age of consent laws. ... Anti-pedophile (or anti-paedophile) activism encompasses opposition to pedophiles, pro-pedophile activism, and other phenomena that are commonly seen as related to pedophilia, such as child pornography and child sexual abuse[1]. // Some local groups have taken to marching in opposition to the locations of various child sex offenders... Pro-pedophile activism or Pro-paedophile activism (Commonwealth usage) encompasses pro-pedophile organizations and activists that argue for certain changes of criminal laws and cultural response associated with pedophiles and adult-minor sexual relations. ... Whore redirects here. ... Zoosexuality and the law looks at the laws governing human-animal sexual interaction (also sometimes known as bestiality or zoophilia) around the world. ... A sodomy law is a law that defines certain sexual acts as sex crimes. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
INCEST (1333 words)
Incest is the most common form of child abuse.
This is one of the most heart-breaking aspects of incest, that the survivor may feel abandoned by her mother in a time of extreme need for protection and consolation.
Perpertrators often are adult survivors of incest and child abuse themselves, and will need help coming to terms with this and beginning their own healing process, so the cycle of violence can be broken in their lives.
Incest statute could be changed - The Boston Globe (631 words)
The state Supreme Judicial Court ruled yesterday that the Massachusetts law against incest does not apply to stepparents and said it was up to the Legislature to change the law.
Rahim's lawyer, Robert J. Zanello, was pleased with the decision, saying that the court correctly interpreted the incest statute.
The state's highest court issued its ruling after Superior Court Judge Joseph M. Walker III responded to a request by Rahim's lawyer for the incest indictments to be dismissed.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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