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Encyclopedia > Incense
Burning incense
Burning incense

Incense is composed of aromatic biotic materials. It releases fragrant smoke when burned. The term incense refers to the substance itself, rather than to the odor that it produces. Image File history File links Incenselonghua. ... Image File history File links Incenselonghua. ... Odor receptors on the antennae of a Luna moth An odor is the object of perception of the sense of olfaction. ... Biotic material or biological derived material is any natural material that is originated from living organisms. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Many religious ceremonies and spiritual purificatory rites employ incense, a practice that persists to this day. Incense is also used in medicine and for its aesthetic value. The forms taken by incense have changed with advances in technology, differences in the underlying culture, and diversity in the reasons for burning it.[1] Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Aesthetics (or esthetics) (from the Greek word αισθητική) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty. ...

Some commonly used raw incense and incense making materials (from top down, left to right) Makko powder (抹香; Machilus thunbergii), Borneol camphor (Dryobalanops aromatica), Sumatra Benzoin (Styrax benzoin), Omani Frankincense (Boswellia sacra), Guggul (Commiphora wightii), Golden Frankincense (Boswellia papyrifera), Tolu balsam (Myroxylon toluifera), Somalian Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha), Labdanum (Cistus villosus), Opoponax (Commiphora opoponax), and white Indian Sandalwood powder (Santalum album)
Some commonly used raw incense and incense making materials (from top down, left to right) Makko powder (抹香; Machilus thunbergii), Borneol camphor (Dryobalanops aromatica), Sumatra Benzoin (Styrax benzoin), Omani Frankincense (Boswellia sacra), Guggul (Commiphora wightii), Golden Frankincense (Boswellia papyrifera), Tolu balsam (Myroxylon toluifera), Somalian Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha), Labdanum (Cistus villosus), Opoponax (Commiphora opoponax), and white Indian Sandalwood powder (Santalum album)

Contents

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x737, 264 KB) Author:User:Sjschen, Source: Self made, Many forms of raw incense commonly used File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x737, 264 KB) Author:User:Sjschen, Source: Self made, Many forms of raw incense commonly used File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Borneol is a bicyclic organic compound and a terpene. ... R-phrases 11-20/21/22-36/37/38 S-phrases 16-26-36 RTECS number EX1260000 (R) EX1250000 (S) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ... Benzoin resin or styrax resin is a balsamic resin obtained from the bark of several species of trees in the genus Styrax. ... 100g of frankincense resin. ... Binomial name (Arn. ... Binomial name (Arn. ... Tolu balsam is the resinous secretion of Myroxylon toluifera. ... Anthem:  Somalia, Wake Up Capital (and largest city) Mogadishu Official languages Somali[1] Recognised regional languages Arabic, Italian, English (classed as secondary languages)[1] Demonym Somali Government Transitional Federal Government Semi-presidential Republic  -  President Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed  -  Prime Minister Nur Hassan Hussein Independence from the UK and Italy   -  Date June... 100g of Myrrh. ... Labdanum is a sticky brown resin obtained from the shrub Cistus ladanifer, more commonly known as the rock rose. ... Opoponax is a variety of myrrh. ... The branches of a young sandalwood tree found in Hawaii Sandalwood is the fragrant wood of trees in the genus Santalum. ... Binomial name Santalum album L. Santalum album, a terrestrial plant species of the Santalaceae family, is commonly known as a source of sandalwood. ...

History of incense

Composition of incense

Throughout history, a wide variety of materials have been used in making incense. Historically there has been a preference for using locally available ingredients. For example: sage and cedar were used by the indigenous peoples of North America. [2] This was a preference and ancient trading in incense materials from one area to another comprised a major part of commerce along the Silk Road and other trade routes, one notably called The Frankincense Trail. For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ...


The same could be said for the techniques used to make incense. Local knowledge and tools were extremely influential on the style, but methods were also influenced by migrations of foreigners, among them clergy and physicians who were both familiar with incense arts. [1]


Most recently, incensole acetate was isolated from Boswellia carterii and shown to be a potent TRPV3 agonist and cause anxiolytic-like and antidepressive-like behavioral effects in mice with concomitant changes in brain c-Fos activation, a marker for changes in neuronal activity. (Moussaieff A, Rimmerman N, Bregman T, Straiker A, Felder CC, Shoham S, Kashman Y, Huang SM, Lee H, Shohami E, Mackie K, Caterina MJ, Walker JM, Fride E, Mechoulam R., "Incensole acetate, an incense component, elicits psychoactivity by activating TRPV3 channels in the brain." FASEB J. 2008 May 20.)


Materials

Natural materials

The following fragrance materials can be employed in either direct or indirect burning incense. They are commonly used in religious ceremonies, and many of them are considered quite valuable. Essential oils or other extracted fractions of these materials may also be isolated and used to make incense. The resulting incense is sometimes considered to lack the aromatic complexity or authenticity of incense made from raw materials not infused or fortified with extracts.


Plant-derived materials

Woods and barks

Seeds and fruits Agarwood or eaglewood is the most expensive wood in the world. ... For other uses, see Cedar (disambiguation). ... The branches of a young sandalwood tree found in Hawaii Sandalwood is the fragrant wood of trees in the genus Santalum. ... Genera Actinostrobus Athrotaxis Austrocedrus Callitris - Cypress-pine Callitropsis - Cypress * (Cupressus) Calocedrus - Incense-cedar Chamaecyparis - Cypress Cryptomeria - Sugi Cunninghamia - Cunninghamia Cupressus - Cypress Diselma - Diselma Fitzroya - Alerce Fokienia - Fujian Cypress Glyptostrobus - Chinese Swamp Cypress Juniperus - Juniper Libocedrus Metasequoia - Dawn Redwood Microbiota - Microbiota Neocallitropsis Papuacedrus * (Libocedrus) Pilgerodendron * (Libocedrus) Platycladus - Chinese Arborvitae Sequoia - Coast... Species Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. ... Binomial name Cinnamomum aromaticum Nees Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum, synonym ), also called Chinese cinnamon, is an evergreen tree native to southern China and mainland Southeast Asia west to Myanmar. ...

Resins and gums For other uses, see Coriander (disambiguation). ... Harmala, also known at various times as Telepathine and Banisterine, is a blanket term for a group of naturally occurring beta-carbolines including harmine, harmaline, and others. ... Species Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. ... For other uses, see Nutmeg (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Hook. ... For other uses, see Vanilla (disambiguation). ...

Leaves Benzoin resin or styrax resin is a balsamic resin obtained from the bark of several species of trees in the genus Styrax. ... Copal is a type of resin, sometimes referred to as pom (the Maya language name). ... 100g of frankincense resin. ... 100g of Myrrh. ... Labdanum is a sticky brown resin obtained from the shrub Cistus ladanifer, more commonly known as the rock rose. ... Dragons blood is a bright red resin that is obtained from different species of four distinct plants genera Croton, Dracaena, Daemonorops, and Pterocarpus. ... Storax is the resinous exudate of the Sweetgum, occasionally used in incense or as an aromatic fixative in perfumery. ... Galbanum is an aromatic gum resin, the product of certain Persian plant species, chiefly Ferula galbaniflua (Ferula) and Ferula rubricaulis. ... Binomial name Canarium luzonicum (Blume) A.Gray Elemi Canarium luzonicum is a tree native to the Philippine Islands, and an oleo-resin harvested from it. ... R-phrases 11-20/21/22-36/37/38 S-phrases 16-26-36 RTECS number EX1260000 (R) EX1250000 (S) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... In mineralogy, sandarac, or sandarach, may refer to realgar or native arsenic disulphide, but is generally (a use found in Dioscorides) a resin obtained from the small coniferous tree Tetraclinis articulata, native to the northwest of Africa, and especially characteristic of the Atlas mountains. ... Binomial name (Arn. ... Opoponax is a variety of myrrh. ... Tolu balsam is the resinous secretion of Myroxylon toluifera. ...

Roots and rhizomes Binomial name Benth. ... Binomial name L. Painting from Koehlers Medicinal Plants (1887) Common sage (Salvia officinalis) is a small evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean region. ... Binomial name Laurus nobilis L. The Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae), also known as True Laurel, Sweet Bay, Grecian Laurel, or just Laurel, is an evergreen tree or large shrub reaching 10–18 m tall, native to the Mediterranean region. ... Binomial name (L.) Kuntze Camellia sinensis is the tea plant, the plant species whose leaves and leaf buds are used to produce tea. ...

Flowers and buds Binomial name Chrysopogon zizanoides (L.) Roberty Vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides) is a perennial grass of the Poaceae native to India. ... Orris root is a root used in perfumes. ... Binomial name L. Calamus or Common Sweet Flag (Acorus calamus) is a plant from the Acoraceae family, Acorus genues. ... Binomial name Nardostachys grandiflora DC. Spikenard (also nard and muskroot) is a flowering plant of the Valerian family that grows in the Himalayas of India and Nepal. ... Kaempferia galanga Galangal, Malay lengkuas, Mandarin (Traditional: 南薑/Simplified: 南姜, also termed as: T:高良薑/S:高良姜), Cantonese lam keong (藍薑, also known as blue ginger), is a rhizome with culinary and medicinal uses, best known in the west today for its appearance in Southeast Asia cuisine but also common in recipes from medieval Europe. ... Binomial name Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv. ...

Binomial name (L.) Merrill & Perry A single dried clove flower bud Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum, syn. ... Species About 25-30, including: Lavandula abrotanoides Lavandula angustifolia Lavandula canariensis Lavandula dentata Lavandula lanata Lavandula latifolia Lavandula multifida Lavandula pinnata Lavandula stoechas Lavandula viridis Lavandula x intermedia The Lavenders Lavandula are a genus of about 25-30 species of flowering plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae, native from the... For other uses, see Saffron (disambiguation). ...

Animal-derived materials

Ambergris Ambergris (Ambra grisea, Ambre gris, ambergrease, or grey amber) is a solid, waxy, flammable substance of a dull grey or blackish color, with the shades being variegated like marble. ... Moschus moschiferus, Siberian musk deer Musk is the name originally given to a substance with a penetrating odor obtained from a gland of the male musk deer, which is situated between its stomach and genitals. ... Gastropod operculum, especially in varieties from the red sea, has long served as an incense material in ancient Jewish tradition, as well as in Christian and Arabian Muslim faiths. ...

Essential oil fragrances

The following fragrances are but some of the many that can be utilized as essential oils. Incense deriving its aroma primarily from essential oils is usually cheaper than that made from unextracted raw materials. An essential oil is any concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compounds from plants, which are called aromatic herbs or aromatic plants. ...

Binomial name Benth. ... For other uses, see Cedar (disambiguation). ... The branches of a young sandalwood tree found in Hawaii Sandalwood is the fragrant wood of trees in the genus Santalum. ... This article is about the shrub of genus Jasminum. ... For other uses, see Rose (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Cananga odorata (Lam. ...

Artificial fragrances

Artificial fragrances are normally used in the cheapest forms of incense. They are usually added to a base formed from charcoal powder. Typically, the essential oils from the following plants are not available, and therefore the presence of their aromas is a sign of ingredients derived from chemical synthesis. In chemistry, chemical synthesis is purposeful execution of chemical reactions in order to get a product, or several products. ...

This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... For other uses, see Strawberry (disambiguation). ... This article is about the drug. ... A garden plant, cestrum nocturnum is known as raat ki rani (queen of the night) in Pakistan and India. ... Binomial name Convallaria majalis Lily of the valley is a flowering plant of the Convallaria genus. ... For the political designation, see Eco-socialism. ...

Methods of making incense

Incense is available in various forms and degrees of processing. However, incense can generally be separated into direct burning and indirect burnings types depending on how it is used. Preference for one form or another varies with culture, tradition, and personal taste.


Indirect burning

Indirect burning frankincense on a hot coal
Indirect burning frankincense on a hot coal
Peganum harmala seeds used as incense
Peganum harmala seeds used as incense

Indirect burning incense, also called non-combustible incense,[3] is simply a combination of aromatic ingredients not prepared in any particular way or encouraged into any particular form, leaving it mostly unsuitable for direct combustion. The use of this class of incense requires a separate heat source since it does not generally kindle a fire capable of burning itself and may not ignite at all under normal conditions. This incense can vary in the duration of its burning with the texture of the material. Finer ingredients tend to burn more rapidly, while coarsely ground or whole chunks may be consumed very gradually as they have less total surface area. The heat is traditionally provided by charcoal or glowing embers. The incense is burned by placing it directly on top of the heat source or on a hot metal plate in the censer or thurible.[4] In Japan a similar censer called a egōro (柄香炉?) is used by several Buddhist sects. The egōro is usually made of brass with a long handle ( e?)) and no chain. Instead of charcoal, makkō powder is poured into a depression made in a bed of ash. The makkō is lit and the incense mixture is burned on top. This method is known as Sonae-kō (Religious Burning).[5] 100g of frankincense resin. ... Binomial name Peganum harmala Syrian Rue (Peganum harmala) is a plant of the family Nitrariaceae. ... Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. ... Stained glass window depiction of a thurible, St. ...


The best known incense materials of this type, at least in the West, are frankincense and myrrh, likely due to their numerous mentions in the Christian Bible. In fact, the word for "frankincense" in many European languages also alludes to any form of incense. 100g of frankincense resin. ... 100g of Myrrh. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ...

  • Whole: The incense material is burned directly in its raw unprocessed form on top of coal embers.
  • Powdered or granulated: The incense material is broken down into finer bits. This incense burns quickly and provides a short period of intense smells.
  • Paste: The powdered or granulated incense material is mixed with a sticky and incombustible binder, such as dried fruit, honey, or a soft resin and then formed to balls or small cakes. These may then be allowed to mature in a controlled environment where the fragrances can commingle and unite. Much Arabian incense, also called Bukhoor or Bakhoor, is of this type, and Japan has a history of kneaded incense, called nerikō or awasekō, using this method.[6]
  • Recombined: Within the Eastern Orthodox Christian tradition raw frankincense is ground into a fine powder and then mixed with various sweet smelling essential oils. Floral fragrances are the most common (rose being among the most popular), but citrus such as lemon is not uncommon. The incense mixture is then rolled out into a slab approximately ¼” thick and allowed to dry for a week or so, until the slab is quite firm. It is then cut into small pieces resembling in many ways, the original raw frankincense. For use, one or two pieces at a time are placed on a hot coal inside a censer which is swung by the priest in order to venerate the altar, the icons, the clergy and the congregation during church services. To the Orthodox, incense represents the prayers of the faithful rising to heaven.

For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Bukhoor (Arabic بخور) is the Arabic name given to woodchips soaked in fragrant oils or in most Arab countries it is the name given to scented bricks. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ...

Direct burning

Incense sticks at Po Lin Monastery, Hong Kong
Incense sticks at Po Lin Monastery, Hong Kong
Incense coils hanging from the ceiling of an East Asian temple
Incense coils hanging from the ceiling of an East Asian temple

Direct burning incense also called combustible incense,[3] , generally requires little preparation prior to its use. When lit directly by a flame (hence the appellation) and then fanned out, the glowing ember on the incense will continue to smolder and burn away the rest of the incense without continued application of heat or flame from an outside source. This class of incense is made from a moldable substrate of fragrant finely ground (or liquid) incense materials and odorless binder.[1] The composition must be adjusted to provide fragrance in the proper concentration and to ensure even burning. The following types of direct burning incense are commonly encountered, though the material itself can take virtually any form, according to expediency or whimsy: Po Lin Monastery main temple (note map of full site in photo) Po Lin Monastery interior Po Lin Monastery (Traditional Chinese: , Literally Precious Lotus Zen Temple) is a Buddhist monastery, located on Ngong Ping Plateau, on Lantau Island, Hong Kong. ...

  • Coil: Shaped into a coil, the incense is able to burn for an extended period; from hours to days.
Cone incense
Cone incense
  • Cone: Incense in this form burns relatively fast. Cone incense containing mugwort are used in Traditional Chinese medicine for moxibustion treatment.
  • Cored stick: This form of stick incense has a supporting core of bamboo. Higher quality varieties of this form have fragrant sandalwood cores. The core is coated by a thick layer of incense material that burns away with the core. This type of incense is commonly produced by the Indians and the Chinese. When used for worship in Chinese folk religion, cored incensed sticks are sometimes known as Joss sticks.
  • Solid stick: This stick incense has no supporting core and is completely made of incense material. Easily broken into pieces, it allows one to determine the specific amount of incense they wish to burn. This is the most commonly produced form of incense in Japan and Tibet.
  • Dipped or Hand-dipped: This form simply dips Incense Blanks in any kind of essential or fragrance oil. It was made popular in American Flea markets by vendors who wanted their own style.

Direct burning incense of these forms is either extruded, pressed into forms, or coated onto a supporting material. Binomial name Artemisia vulgaris L. Mugwort or Common Wormwood (Artemisia vulgaris) is a species from the daisy family Asteraceae. ... Traditional Chinese medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ... Moxibustion Moxibustion (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is an oriental medicine therapy utilizing moxa, or mugwort herb. ... For other uses, see Bamboo (disambiguation). ... The branches of a young sandalwood tree found in Hawaii Sandalwood is the fragrant wood of trees in the genus Santalum. ... Clothed statues of Matsu/Mazu (Chinese goddess of the Sea) Chinese folk religion comprises the religion practiced in much of China for thousands of years which included ancestor veneration and drew heavily upon concepts and beings within Chinese mythology. ... Picture of Joss Sticks in a Chinese temple. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... A typical flea market shop, in Germany Swap meet redirects here. ... For the process that creates volcanic rock, see extrusive (geology). ...


With extruded or pressed incense using water soluble binders like makko (抹香・末香).[1] small quantities of water are combined with the fragrance and incense base mixture and kneaded into a hard dough. The incense dough is then pressed into shaped forms to create cone and smaller coiled incense, or forced through a hydraulic press for solid stick incense. The formed incense is then trimmed and slowly dried. Incense produced in this fashion has a tendency to warp or become misshapen when improperly dried, and as such must be placed in climate controlled rooms and rotated several times through the drying process. Dough Dough is a paste made out of any cereals (grains) or leguminous crops by grinding with small amount of water. ... Hydraulics is a branch of science and engineering concerned with the use of liquids to perform mechanical tasks. ...


Coating is used mainly to produce cored incense of either larger coil (up to 1 meter in diameter) or cored stick forms. The supporting material, either thin bamboo or Sandalwood slivers, are soaked in water or a thin water/glue mixture for a short time. The sticks are evenly separated then dipped into a tray of incense powder, consisting of fragrance materials and occasionally a plant based binder. In India a resin based binder called Jigit is used. In Nepal, Tibet, and other East Asian countries a bark based powder called Laha or Dar is used. Three to four layers of powder are coated onto the sticks, forming a 2 mm thick layer of incense material on the stick. The coated incense is then allowed to dry in open air. Additional coatings of incense mixture can be applied after each period of successive drying. Incense sticks that are burned in temples of Chinese folk religion produced in this fashion can have a thickness between 1 to 2 cm. The branches of a young sandalwood tree found in Hawaii Sandalwood is the fragrant wood of trees in the genus Santalum. ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter), symbol mm is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... Incense is a preparation of aromatic organic materials, intended to release fragrant smoke when burned. ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... Clothed statues of Matsu/Mazu (Chinese goddess of the Sea) Chinese folk religion comprises the religion practiced in much of China for thousands of years which included ancestor veneration and drew heavily upon concepts and beings within Chinese mythology. ... This article is about the unit of length. ...


Traditional methods

A spirit tablet with incense
A spirit tablet with incense
Drying cored stick incense, Vietnam
Drying cored stick incense, Vietnam

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 451 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1135 × 1507 pixel, file size: 471 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Incense ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 451 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1135 × 1507 pixel, file size: 471 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Incense ...

Indian incense

Main article: Incense of India

Indian incense can be divided into two categories: masala and charcoal. Masala incenses are made of dry ingredients, while charcoal incenses contain liquid scents. Masala incenses have several subgroups. Indian Incense is known as agarbattī in Hindi (अगरबत्ती) (and other Indian languages). ...


Masala

Masālā is a word in Hindi (and other Indian languages) meaning "spice mixture". It is commonly used when referring to curries or other food dishes. Masala incenses are made by blending several solid scented ingredients into a paste and then rolling that paste onto a bamboo core stick. These incenses usually contain little or no liquid scents (which can evaporate or diminish over time).-1... languages redirects here. ...

  • Dubars

Dubars are a sub-group of masala incense. They often contain ingredients entirely unfamiliar in the West and contain very complex scents. They are usually very slow-burning and are quite sweet and spicy in scent. They contain both solid and liquid perfumes in a binder which never quite dries out, making the incense sticks soft to the touch. Incense is a preparation of aromatic organic materials, intended to release fragrant smoke when burned. ...

  • Champas

Champas are a sub-group of durbars. They contain a natural ingredient indigenous to India called "halmaddi". Halmaddi is a grey semi-liquid resin taken from the Ailanthus Malabarica tree. It smells like the flowers of the plumeria tree. Plumeria flowers are known as champa flowers in India, hence the name of the incense group. Halmaddi is hygroscopic which means it absorbs moisture from the air. This can cause champa incenses to have a wet feeling to them. Nag Champa is probably the most famous incense of the champa group. Species See text Ailanthus (derived from ailanto, an Ambonese word probably meaning tree of the gods or tree of heaven) is a genus of trees belonging to the family Simaroubaceae, in the order Sapindales (formerly Rutales or Geraniales). ... “Frangipani” redirects here. ... Hygroscopy is the ability of a substance to attract water molecules from the surrounding environment through either absorption or adsorption. ... Packages of Nag Champa are available in many different sizes. ...

  • Dhoops

Dhoops are another masala sub-group. They are an extruded incense, lacking a core bamboo stick. Many dhoops have very concentrated scents and put out a lot of smoke when burned. The most well-known dhoop is probably Chandan Dhoop. It contains a high percentage of Sandalwood. The branches of a young sandalwood tree found in Hawaii Sandalwood is the fragrant wood of trees in the genus Santalum. ...


Charcoal

Charcoal incenses are made by dipping an unscented "blank" (non-perfume stick) into a mixture of perfumes and/or essential oils. These blanks usually contain a binding resin (sometimes sandalwood) that holds the sticks' ingredients together. Most charcoal incenses are black in color. The branches of a young sandalwood tree found in Hawaii Sandalwood is the fragrant wood of trees in the genus Santalum. ...


In the Temple in Jerusalem

Main article: Ketoret

The Ketoret was the incense offered in the Temple in Jerusalem. The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew:  ; The Holy House), refers to a series of structures located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ...


Tibetan incense

Main article: Tibetan incense

Tibetan incense refers to a common style of incense found in Tibet, Nepal, and Bhutan. These incenses have a characteristic "earthy" scent to them. Ingredients vary from the familiar such as cinnamon, clove, and juniper, to the unfamiliar such as kusum flower, ashvagandha, or sahi jeera. This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ...


Many Tibetan incenses are thought to have medicinal properties. Their recipes come from ancient Vedic texts that are based on even older Ayurvedic medical texts. The recipes have remained unchanged for centuries. Veda redirects here. ... Ayurveda (Devanagari: ) or Ayurvedic medicine is an ancient Hindu system of health care that is native to the Indian subcontinent. ...


Japanese incense

Main article: Japanese incense
Stacks of incense at a temple in Japan
Stacks of incense at a temple in Japan

Agarwood (沈香 Jinkō) and Sandalwood (白檀 Byakudan) are the two most important ingredients in Japanese incense. Agarwood is known as "Jinkō" in Japan, which translates as "incense that sinks in water", due to the weight of the resin in the wood. Sandalwood is one of the most calming incense ingredients and lends itself well to meditation. The most valued Sandalwood comes from Mysore in the state of Karnataka in India. Japanese incense has a long history. ... Download high resolution version (638x850, 271 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (638x850, 271 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Agarwood or eaglewood is the most expensive wood in the world. ... The branches of a young sandalwood tree found in Hawaii Sandalwood is the fragrant wood of trees in the genus Santalum. ... , For other uses, see Mysore (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Indian region. ...


Another important ingredient in Japanese incense is kyara (伽羅). Kyara is one kind of agarwood (Japanese incense companies divide agarwood into 6 categories depending on the region obtained and properties of the agarwood). Kyara is currently worth more than its weight in gold. Agarwood or eaglewood is the most expensive wood in the world. ...


Uses of incense

Incense, being an article familiar to humanity since the dawn of civilization, has meant different things to the different peoples who have come to use it. Given the wide diversity of such peoples and their practices, it would be impossible to form an all-inclusive list of the ways in which incense has come to be used, since the methods and purposes of employment are as diverse and nuanced as those who have employed it.


Practical use of incense

Mosquito-repellent used in China, India, Canada, and Japan are usually manufactured in coil form and burned in a similar manner as incense
Mosquito-repellent used in China, India, Canada, and Japan are usually manufactured in coil form and burned in a similar manner as incense

Incense fragrances can be of such great strength that they obscure other, less desirable odors. This utility led to the use of incense in funerary ceremonies because the incense could smother the scent of decay. Another example of this use, as well as of religious use is the Botafumeiro, which, according to tradition, was installed to hide the scent of the many tired, unwashed pilgrims huddled together in the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1698x1512, 511 KB) en: Description: Katori Senkou. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1698x1512, 511 KB) en: Description: Katori Senkou. ... For other uses, see Mosquito (disambiguation). ... The swinging Botafumeiro dispensing clouds of incense The Botafumeiro is a famous thurible found in the Santiago de Compostela Cathedral. ... The Obradoiro façade of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela: an all-but-Gothic composition generated entirely of classical details Santiago de Compostela Cathedral is situated in Santiago de Compostela in Galicia, Spain. ...


The regular burning of direct combustion incense has been used for chronological measurement in incense clocks. These devices can range from a simple trail of incense material calibrated to burn in a specific time period, to elaborate and ornate instruments with bells or gongs, designed to involve and captivate several of the senses. [7] A replica of an ancient Chinese stick incense clock The incense clock (香鐘, xiāng zhong in Chinese) is a timekeeping devices invented by the Chinese during the Song Dynasty (960-1279) that spread to neighboring countries such as Japan. ...


Incense made from materials such as citronella can repel mosquitoes and other aggravating, distracting or pestilential insects. This use has been deployed in concert with religious uses by Zen Buddhists who claim that the incense that is part of their meditative practice is designed to keep bothersome insects from distracting the practitioner. Species About 55, see text Cymbopogon (lemon grass, lemongrass, citronella grass or fever grass) is a genus of about 55 species of grasses, native to warm temperate and tropical regions of the Old World. ... For other uses, see Zen (disambiguation). ...


Incense is also used often by people who smoke indoors, and do not want the scent to linger.


Aesthetic use of incense

Incense can be, like art for the eyes, music for the ears, or fine cuisine for the palate, an indulgence for the sense of smell. Many people burn incense to appreciate its smell, without assigning any other specific significance to it, in the same way that the forgoing items can be produced or consumed solely for the contemplation or enjoyment of the refined sensory experience. This use is perhaps best exemplified in the kōdō (香道?), where (frequently costly) raw incense materials such as agarwood are appreciated in a formalised setting. Also, it is considered by some to be an aphrodisiac. Agarwood or eaglewood is the most expensive wood in the world. ...


Religious use of incense

Incense burning at a temple in Taipei
Incense burning at a temple in Taipei
Main article: Religious use of incense

Use of incense in religion is prevalent in many cultures and may have their roots in the practical and aesthetic uses considering that many religions with not much else in common all use incense. One common motif is of incense as a form of sacrificial offering to a deity. This article is about the city. ... See also: List of deities Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Incense and health

Research into the effects of incense burning and health are unclear at this time.


Research carried out in Taiwan in 2001 linked the burning of incense sticks to the slow accumulation of potential carcinogens in a poorly ventilated environment by measuring the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (including benzopyrene) within Buddhist temples. The study found gaseous aliphatic aldehydes, which are carcinogenic and mutagenic, in incense smoke.[8] Incense is a preparation of aromatic organic materials, intended to release fragrant smoke when burned. ... Look up carcinogen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An illustration of typical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. ... Benzo[a]pyrene, C20H12, is a five-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that is mutagenic and highly carcinogenic. ... In chemistry, aliphatic compounds are organic compounds in which carbon atoms are joined together in straight or branched chains. ... An aldehyde. ...


A survey of risk factors for lung cancer, also conducted in Taiwan, noted an inverse association between incense burning and adenocarcinoma of the lung, though the finding was not deemed significant.[9] In statistics, an association (statistics) comes from two variables who are related. ... Adenocarcinoma is a form of carcinoma that originates in glandular tissue. ... In statistics, a result is called statistically significant if it is unlikely to have occurred by chance. ...


In contrast, a study by several Asian Cancer Research Centers showed: "No association was found between exposure to incense burning and respiratory symptoms like chronic cough, chronic sputum, chronic bronchitis, runny nose, wheezing, asthma, allergic rhinitis, or pneumonia among the three populations studied: i.e. primary school children, their non-smoking mothers, or a group of older non-smoking female controls. Incense burning did not affect lung cancer risk among non-smokers, but it significantly reduced risk among smokers, even after adjusting for lifetime smoking amount." However, the researchers qualified the findings by noting that incense burning in the studied population was associated with certain low-cancer-risk dietary habits, and concluded that "diet can be a significant confounder of epidemiological studies on air pollution and respiratory health."[10]


Boswellia incense has been shown to cause antidepressive behavior in mice. [11] Species Boswellia sacra (aka or )Boswellia frereana Boswellia papyrifera Boswellia serrata Boswellia is a genus of trees known for their fragrant resin which has many pharmacological uses particularly as anti-inflamatories. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Incense

The Incense Road or Incense Route connected Egypt with Arabia and the Indies. ... Kyphi is a compound incense that was used in ancient Egypt for religious and medical purposes. ... For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ... Making smudge sticks. ...

Citations

  1. ^ a b c d David Oller. Making Incense.
  2. ^ Adrienne Borden and Steve Coyote. The Smudging Ceremony.
  3. ^ a b Mark Ambrose. How to Make Incense.
  4. ^ P. Morrisroe. Transcribed by Kevin Cawley.. Catholic Encyclopedia.
  5. ^ Japanese-Incense. Buddhist Incense - Sonae ko.
  6. ^ Taji Asjikaga. Incense blending.
  7. ^ Silvio A. Bedini. Time Measurement With Incense in Japan.
  8. ^ Lin, J.M. Wang, L.H. (National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (China). Gaseous aliphatic aldehydes in Chinese incense smoke.
  9. ^ National Institutes of Health.
  10. ^ Linda C. Koo Cancer Research Laboratory, Hong Kong Anti-Cancer Society, Hong Kong, et.al. Is Chinese Incense Smoke Hazardous to Respiratory Health?.
  11. ^ "Incensole acetate, an incense component, elicits psychoactivity by activating TRPV3 channels in the brain", The FASEB Journal, 20 May, 2008..
  • Silvio A. Bedini. (1994). "The Trail of Time : Time Measurement with Incense in East Asia". Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-37482-0

Silvio Bedini (born 1917) is an American historian. ...

External links

  • Incensole Acetate, a Novel Anti-Inflammatory Compound Isolated from Boswellia Resin, Inhibits Nuclear Factor-{kappa}B Activation. Mol Pharmacol. 2007 Dec;72(6):1657-64.
  • Frankincense and Myrrh: The Botany, Culture, and Therapeutic Uses of the World's Two Most Important Resins
  • Japanese Incense Tradition

  Results from FactBites:
 
Incense, Nag Champa, Wholesale Incense Burners and Sticks, Tibetan Incense and Candles (1172 words)
Each incense stick is always been hand-rolled by the individual without in anyway using any mechanical device in its manufacture.
Tibetan aroma therapeutic incense is purely hand prepared from aromatic herbs in high altitude regions of Tibet according to fundamental principles of the ancient Tibetan traditional system of medicine that originated some 2500 years ago.
Effect of Sandalwood in aromas or incense: Sandalwood incense is made from rolling the paste of the sapwood on bamboo skewers by hand.
JewishEncyclopedia.com - INCENSE: (2279 words)
As regards the former, every meat-offering ("minḥ?ah") required the addition of incense, which was burned, under the name of "azkarah," on the great altar with a certain part of the flour.
In Herodian times the preparation of the incense was a kind of privilege retained in the family of Abtinas, which was thought to be in possession of special directions for making it.
After placing both of these utensils on the floor, the high priest took the incense from the kaf with the hollow of his hand, not with his fingers, and heaped it upon the pan containing the coals.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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