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Encyclopedia > Incarceration
Tullianum, the first modern prison, built in 250 BCE.
Tullianum, the first modern prison, built in 250 BCE.

Incarceration is the detention of a person in jail or prison. People are most commonly incarcerated upon suspicion (or conviction) of committing a crime. Image File history File links Tullianum. ... The Mamertine Prison (also referred to as the Tullianum) was a prison (Carcer) located in the Forum Romanum in Ancient Rome. ...


Historically, the frequency of imprisonment, its duration, and severity have varied considerably. There has also been much debate about the motives for incarceration, its effectiveness and fairness, as well as debate regarding the related questions about the nature and etiology of criminal behavior. Etiology (alternately aetiology, aitiology) is the study of causation. ... For other uses, see Crime (disambiguation). ...

Contents


Religious perspectives

Religious opinions have often shaped views towards incarceration.


Talmud Yerushalmi, Talmud Babli, and both the Old and New Testaments describe law as the expression of the will of God. Islam adopts a similar legal posture with Sharia, an Arabic word meaning "path," interpreted as the infallible expression of the divine will that is applicable to all aspects of life. Tractate Brachos, folio 2a The Talmud (תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions of Jewish law, ethics, customs, and stories, which are authoritative in Jewish tradition. ... Tractate Brachos, folio 2a The Talmud (תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions of Jewish law, ethics, customs, and stories, which are authoritative in Jewish tradition. ... NOTE: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh, but not Old Testament, because it does not recognize the New Testament as a continuation or completion of the Jewish bible. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... See also Wikipedias Law Portal. ... God is the deity believed by monotheists to be the supreme reality. ... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... Sharia (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) refers to the body of Islamic law. ...


One of the differences between monotheistic religions is the degree to which they emphasize orthopraxis vs. orthodoxy (i.e., proper conduct vs. proper belief). In comparison with Islam, Judaism and Christianity emphasize orthodoxy over orthopraxis. Islam emphasizes orthopraxis more than orthodoxy. Praxis is the customary use of knowledge or skills, distinct from theoretical knowledge. ... The word orthodoxy, from the Greek ortho (right, correct) and doxa (thought, teaching , Glorification), is typically used to refer to the correct theological or doctrinal observance of religion, as determined by some overseeing body. ...


Legal positivism

Those who favor legal positivism maintain that there is no unjust law and no unjust incarceration. Legal positivism is a school of thought in modern and contemporary jurisprudence and the philosophy of law. ...


Among the founders of the legal positivism is Jean Bodin, who argued that burning is too lenient a punishment for severe crimes, because the suffering does not last more than one hour. Bodin also approved of torture during the criminal interrogations, including the torture of children to compel them to testify against their parents. Jean Bodin (1530-1596) was a French jurist, member of the Parliament of Paris and professor of Law in Toulouse. ... Torture is any act by which severe pain, whether physical or psychological, is intentionally inflicted on a person as a means of intimidation, deterrence, revenge, punishment, or information gathering. ... Interrogation is the method of interviewing a source used by police and military personnel to obtain information that the source would not otherwise willingly disclose. ...


This perspective characterizes the legalistic posture of the influential Thomas Hobbes. Arguing that humans are by nature selfish and aggressive, Hobbs thought that self-interest leads people into a social contract where they surrender their freedom to an authority to protect them from their aggressiveness. Hobbes maintained that:"the essence of law is the command or will. The notion of an "unjust law" is contradictio in adjecto, because law is itself the definition of justice." Hobbes redirects here. ... Social contract theory (or contractarianism) is a concept used in philosophy, political science, and sociology to denote an implicit agreement within a state regarding the rights and responsibilities of the state and its citizens, or more generally a similar concord between a group and its members, or between individuals. ...


Legacy of the Enlightenment

Around the time of the [(American Revolution|American)] and French Revolutions, social philosophers started to support the notion that a human law, which violates "natural law," is not a "true" law. In this view, an unjust law is not a genuine law but rather an act of violence, and unjust incarceration is a possibility. Liberty Leading the People, a painting by Delacroix commemorating the July Revolution of 1830 but which has come to be generally accepted as symbolic of French popular uprisings against the monarchy in general. ... It has been suggested that Law of nature (precept) be merged into this article or section. ...


Social philosophers who opposed legal positivism include Hugo Grotius, Gottfried Leibniz, Benedict Spinoza, Voltaire, and Jean Jacques Rousseau. Hugo Grotius Hugo Grotius (Huig de Groot, or Hugo de Groot; Delft, 10th April 1583 - Rostock, 28th August 1645) worked as a jurist in the United Provinces (now the Netherlands) and laid the foundations for international law, based on natural law. ... Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (also Leibnitz or von Leibniz)[1] (July 1 (June 21 Old Style) 1646 – November 14, 1716) was a German polymath. ... Baruch Spinoza Benedictus de Spinoza (November 24, 1632 _ February 21, 1677), named Baruch Spinoza by his synagogue elders and known as Bento de Spinoza or Bento dEspiñoza in the community in which he grew up. ... The last of Voltaires statues by Jean-Antoine Houdon (1781). ... Jean-Jacques Rousseau Jean Jacques Rousseau (June 28, 1712 - July 2, 1778) was a Swiss-French philosopher, writer, political theorist, and self-taught composer of The Age of Enlightenment Biography of Rousseau The tomb of Rousseau in the crypt of the Panthéon, Paris Rousseau was born in Geneva, Switzerland...


John Locke's criticism of Hobbesian theory was a forerunner to the modern notions of civil disobedience and human rights. Locke argued that humans in the state of nature are free and equal and that they possess the fundamental rights to life, liberty, and property. Everyone should defend his or her rights and should surrender only such rights as are necessary for the common good. This natural-rights theory provided a philosophical basis for both the American and French revolutions, with Thomas Jefferson substituting "pursuit of happiness" for Locke’s "property" in the trinity of inalienable rights. John Locke (August 29, 1632 – October 28, 1704) was an influential English philosopher. ... It has been suggested that Civil and social disobedience be merged into this article or section. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 N.S. – July 4, 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–1809), principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and an influential founder of the United States. ...


Punishment vs. Rehabilitation

The above mentioned opinions often inform debates about the goal of incarceration: should the emphasis be on punishment or rehabilitation? Arguments have been made on both sides of the issues, and larger societal perspectives have shifted from one side to the other over the years. Punishment is the practice of imposing something unpleasant on a subject as a response to some unwanted behavior or disobedience that the subject has displayed. ... Look up Rehabilitation on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Rehabilitation is the restoration of lost capabilities, or the treatment aimed at producing it. ...


Those who favor punishment often contend that the practice serves both as revenge for the wronged and as a deterrent against further crime. On the other hand, those who favor rehabilitation argue that by trying to change a criminal's behavior, recidivism rates can be reduced, and both the criminal and society can benefit from improvement. Punishment is the practice of imposing something unpleasant on a subject as a response to some unwanted behavior or disobedience that the subject has displayed. ... This article is about the term. ... Deterrence is the method manipulating a persons action by negative motivational influences. ... Look up Rehabilitation on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Rehabilitation is the restoration of lost capabilities, or the treatment aimed at producing it. ... Recidivism is the act of a person repeating an undesirable behavior after they have either experienced negative consequences of that behavior, or have been treated or trained to extinguish that behavior. ...


Justice studies

Fig. 1. The index of the unequal distribution of wealth and the index of family disintegration, the best predictors of incarceration rates.
Fig. 1. The index of the unequal distribution of wealth and the index of family disintegration, the best predictors of incarceration rates.

Penology and justice studies emphasize description and analysis of antecedents of criminal behavior and outcomes of consequences imposed by criminal justice on the criminal behavior. An example of a modern quantitative study of factors influencing the criminal behavior is the study by Krus and Hoehl (1994). Image File history File links Crime-Determinants_of. ... Penology (from the Latin poena, punishment) comprises penitentiary science: that concerned with the processes devised and adopted for the punishment, repression, and prevention of crime, and the treatment of prisoners. ...


In the study by Krus and Hoehl, variables that might explain differences in incarceration rates among populations were located by a computer-aided search of the compendium of world rankings, compiled by the Facts on File Corporation and the World Model Group, containing over 50,000 records on more than 200 countries.


They argued that predictor variables explained about 69% of variance in the international incarceration rates. Cited as especially important were unequal distribution of wealth (the explanation perhaps favored by liberals), family disintegration (the explanation perhaps favored by conservatives). According to Krus and Hoehl, these variables act in concert: the presence of one variable does not always precipitate crime, but the presence of both variables often does precipitate crime. Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... Conservatism or political conservatism is any of several historically related political philosophies or political ideologies. ...


Frequency of incarceration

In the United States

Marc Mauer (1991), in his Americans Behind Bars: A Comparison of International Rates of Incarceration, was among the first who called attention to the fact that the United States has higher per capita rates of incarceration than many countries in the world. Sample headlines regarding Mauer's observations were "America, the Land of the Imprisoned" (Santa Barbara News-Press, February 20, 1992), "The World's Top Jailer" (USA Today, February 12, 1992) and "A Dangerous Place to Live" (St. Louis Post-Dispatch, February 11, 1992). On February 22, 1992, Boston Globe reported that Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... February 22 is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ...

few statistics about the United States are more startling than the growth of the prison population during the quarter-century since Americans abandoned the war on poverty.
The stats source is the World Prison Population List (6th edition). [1]
The stats source is the World Prison Population List (6th edition). [1]

and the Houston Chronicle (February 17, 1992) concluded that Image File history File links Incarceration_rates_worldwide. ... February 17 is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ...

a huge potential human resource is being wasted. That is the real crime.

This reported extreme aberrance of the United States with respect to frequency of incarceration as compared with the other nations did not alter the prevailing opinion that favors Draconic laws and strict punishments. In fact, arguments have been made that the higher incarceration rates of the U.S. might well explain the nationwide decrease in violent crime in the U.S.. A 1992 study by the office of U.S. Attorney General William Barr asserted: Look up Draconian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A violent crime or crime of violence is a crime in which the offender uses or threatens violent force upon the victim. ... In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ... William P. Barr William Pelham Barr (born May 23, 1950) is an American attorney who served as the 77th Attorney General of the United States. ...

"...it strains credulity to believe that the lowered crime rates have been unrelated to the unprecedented increases in the nation's incarceration rates, even if there may have been other causes as well."[3]

Arguments have been made to the contrary, as well: Dr. Todd R. Clear writes:

...the expansion of the penal system has not been accompanied by an equivalent decrease in crime. The failure of this extraordinary increase in incarceration to produce a meaningful reduction in crime needs explanation. The purpose of this paper is to argue that the common view of the prison is simplistic because it fails to account for the unintended consequences of imprisonment. These unforeseen effects are subtle and, in some ways, modest, but over time they combine to counteract the positive effects of prison. A broader, more complete understanding of the effects of incarceration would enable us to understand the limits of using prison as a crime-prevention strategy. [4]

Also cited as a possible factor in incarceration rates in the U.S. is the influence of the mass media. It has been argued that the media emphasis on individual criminality does not allow for opinions that society at large might shape criminality. Mass media is a term used to denote, as a class, that section of the media specifically conceived and designed to reach a very large audience (typically at least as large as the whole population of a nation state). ... Human relationships within an ethnically diverse society. ...

 Table 1 from "Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2005". A U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics report. According to a 2006 OJJDP (Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention) report there were 97,000 held in juvenile facilities as of October 22, 2003. [2] Add those to the total inmates.
Table 1 from "Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2005". A U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics report. According to a 2006 OJJDP (Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention) report there were 97,000 held in juvenile facilities as of October 22, 2003. [2] Add those to the total inmates.

Similar observations about larger society were made centuries ago: Thomas Jefferson's favorite book by Cesare Beccaria’s (1764) Dei Delitti e delle Pene (On Crimes and Punishments), remains arguably one of the most thought-provoking books on criminal justice. Beccaria documents the relationship between the brutalization of society and its support of severity of punishments, and stresses that the law should not encompass more than what is necessary to maintain the public order. Image File history File links USA._Prisoners_1995_to_2005. ... October 22 is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 70 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 N.S. – July 4, 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–1809), principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and an influential founder of the United States. ... Marquis of Beccaria Cesare, Marquis of Beccaria (or the Marchese de Beccaria-Bonesana) (March 11, 1738 - November 28, 1794) was an Italian philosopher and politician. ...


Duration of incarceration

In the United States

Partly in response to rising crime rates, the average length of incarceration in the United States steadily increased in the 1970s.


Many legislatures continued to reduce discretion in both the sentencing process and the determination of when the conditions of a sentence have been satisfied. Determinate sentencing, use of mandatory minimums, and guidelines-based sentencing continue to remove the human element from sentencing, such as the prerogative of the judge to consider the mitigating or extenuating circumstances of a crime to determine the appropriate length of the incarceration. As the consequence of "three strikes laws," the increase in the duration of incarceration in the last decade was most pronounced in the case of life prison sentences, which increased by 83% between 1992 and 2003. [citation needed] The Federal Sentencing Guidelines are rules that set out a uniform sentencing policy for convicted defendants in the United States federal court system. ... A mandatory sentence is a judicial decision setting the punishment to be inflicted on a person convicted of a crime where judicial discretion is limited by law. ... The Federal Sentencing Guidelines are rules that set out a uniform sentencing policy for convicted defendants in the United States federal court system. ... Three strikes laws are a category of statutes enacted by state governments in the United States, beginning in the 1990s, to mandate long periods of imprisonment for persons convicted of a felony on three (or more) separate occasions. ...


Severity of incarceration

Fig. 4. Distribution of opinions (1998, percents) that severe punishment is justified, excessive, inhumane, or barbaric. (Adapted from Krus, 1999). Six years later, the ABC News/Washington Post poll (2004) found that 46 percent of the U.S. adults endorse the notion that torture is justified.
Fig. 4. Distribution of opinions (1998, percents) that severe punishment is justified, excessive, inhumane, or barbaric. (Adapted from Krus, 1999). Six years later, the ABC News/Washington Post poll (2004) found that 46 percent of the U.S. adults endorse the notion that torture is justified.

Severe punishments (such as beatings, prolonged sleep deprivation, sensory deprivation, chaining) have been often inflicted on prisoners. There are many reasons given for justification of such punishment. In the 16th century, the Bishop of Trier, Binsfeld, in his Tractatus de Confessionibus Maleficorum (1596) claimed that Image File history File links SeverityPunishments. ... Peter Binsfeld ( 1545 - 1598 or 1603) was a Suffragan Bishop of Trier and a witch hunter who wrote the treatise De confessionibus maleficorum et sagarum, The Confession of Warlocks and Witches, translated into several languages (Trier, 1589). ...

since the sinfulness of the world increases, God also allows increasing the severity of punishments.

A movement to abolish cruel treatment of prisoners began during the Age of Enlightenment and continued throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. However, there have been continual arguments for severe punishments, perhaps increasing somewhat in the early years of the 21st century. Contemporary justifications for such punishment often revolve around the "rights of the victims". Often underlying these perspectives are opinions that stress the vindictive eye-for-the-eye notions of the Old Testament and Qur'an [5], over the notion that the primary goal of incarceration should be the reform and reeducation of prisoners to facilitate their re-integration into society. The Age of Enlightenment refers to either the eighteenth century in European philosophy, or the longer period including the seventeenth century and the Age of Reason. ... NOTE: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh, but not Old Testament, because it does not recognize the New Testament as a continuation or completion of the Jewish bible. ...


Within the framework of penology, the trend toward increasing the severity of punishments is reflected in publications such as Block's (1997, p. 12) advocacy of policy initiatives aimed at increasing the unpleasantness of prison life that would likely be "a cost-effective method of fighting crime” and Arpaio and Sherman's 1996 book claiming that the increase in the severity of treatment of prisoners will result in decrease in recidivism.[6] Arpaio and Sherman proposed to increase the severity of imprisonment by the construction of tent prison camps in the Mojave Desert where summer temperatures reach 120 degrees Fahrenheit, by serving prisoners foul-tasting food, by humiliating prisoners by cross-dressing, and by reinstatement of the chain gangs. Mauer (1999, pp. 92-93) documents some other the measures used to implement the increasing the unpleasantness of prison life policies that include shooting around prisoners to keep them moving, forced consumption of milk of magnesia, placing naked inmates in strip cells, and handcuffing inmates for long periods of time. Penology (from the Latin poena, punishment) comprises penitentiary science: that concerned with the processes devised and adopted for the punishment, repression, and prevention of crime, and the treatment of prisoners. ... Image:Sheriffjoe1. ... Recidivism is the act of a person repeating an undesirable behavior after they have either experienced negative consequences of that behavior, or have been treated or trained to extinguish that behavior. ... Looking across from Emigrant Pass towards the Kingston Range in the eastern Mojave. ... A chain gang of convicts going to work near Sydney, New South Wales. ...


Incarceration and torture

As noted above, cruel treatment has long been a feature of incarceration. Taken to extremes, such treatment might be described as torture. Torture is any act by which severe pain, whether physical or psychological, is intentionally inflicted on a person as a means of intimidation, deterrence, revenge, punishment, or information gathering. ...


Torture has, for much of history, been seen as a tolerable or even necessary component of imprisonment, whether performed as punishment or as part of interrogation. Recent controversial cases described by critics as torture of incarcerated persons include the Abu Ghraib military prison in Iraq and the Guantanamo Bay, Cuba scandal. Punishment is the practice of imposing something unpleasant on a subject as a response to some unwanted behavior or disobedience that the subject has displayed. ... Interrogation is the method of interviewing a source used by police and military personnel to obtain information that the source would not otherwise willingly disclose. ... Satar Jabar standing on a box with wires connected to his body Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse images Beginning in 2003, numerous accounts of abuse and torture of prisoners held in the Abu Ghraib Prison in Iraq (also known as Baghdad Correctional Facility) occurred. ... Camp X-Ray, shown here under construction, was a temporary holding facility for detainees held at U.S. Naval Base Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. ...


Please see the main torture page for further information. Torture is any act by which severe pain, whether physical or psychological, is intentionally inflicted on a person as a means of intimidation, deterrence, revenge, punishment, or information gathering. ...


References

  • ABC News/Washington Post poll (2004). Conducted by TNS of Horsham, Pa, on a random national sample of 1,005 adults with a three-point error margin.
  • Arpaio, J. and Sherman, L. (1996) How to win the war against crime. Arlington: The Summit Publishing Group.
  • Binsfeld, P. (1596) Tractatus de confessionibus maleficorum et sagarum. Trier, Germany: Heinrich Bock.
  • Block, M. K. (1997) Supply side imprisonment policy. Washington: National Institute of Justice.
  • Beccaria, C. (1764) An essay on crimes and punishments. New York: Gould & Van Winkle, 1809.
  • Daneau, L. (1564) Les Sorciers, dialogue très utile et très necessaire pour ce temps. In Levack, B. (1992) The literature of witchcraft: articles on witchcraft, magic, and demonology. Garland. ISBN 0-8153-1026-9.
  • Geiler, J. (1508) Die Emeis. Strassburg: Johann Grüninger.
  • Kurian, G.T. (1991) The New Book of World Rankings. New York: Facts on File, Inc.
  • Krus, D.J. (1999) Die Harte des Strafvollzugs: Entbindung in Ketten. Zeitschrift fur Sozialpsychologie und Gruppendynamik in Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft, 24Jg/Heft 4, S.12-16 (Request reprint in English, in German).
  • Krus, D. J., & Hoehl, L .S. (1994) Issues associated with international incarceration rates. Psychological Reports, 75, 1491-1495 (Request reprint).
  • Mauer, M. (1991) American Behind Bars: A Comparison of International Rates of Incarceration. Washington, D.C.: The Sentencing Project.
  • Mauer, M. (1999) Race to incarcerate. New York: The New Press.
  • Mǖllendorf, P. (1911) Geschichte der Spanischen Inquisition. Leipzig, Germany.
  • Rhyne, C. E., Templer, D. I., Brown, L. G., & Peters, N. B. (1995) Dimensions of suicide: perceptions of lethality, time, and agony. Suicide & Life Threatening Behavior, 25(3), 373-380.
  • Sindelar, B. (1986) Hon na carodejnice v zapadni a stredni Evrope v 16.-17.stoleti. Prague: Nakladatelstvi Svoboda.

Image:Sheriffjoe1. ... Marquis of Beccaria Cesare, Marquis of Beccaria (or the Marchese de Beccaria-Bonesana) (March 11, 1738 - November 28, 1794) was an Italian philosopher and politician. ...

Notes

  1.   Aslam Abdullah (2006, www.beliefnet.com) in Demystifying Muslim Justice observes that " most Americans' impression of Islamic justice is a rather barbaric image of retribution harshly and violently administered. Ask even educated Americans to explain the law in Muslim countries, and they'll inevitably talk about hands and heads summarily being severed. In fact, Islamic justice shares much with Christianity and Judaism. These similarities are not surprising, considering that our penal systems are influenced by common scriptural foundations. The Qur'an's most basic passage pertaining to punishment is a familiar one to Christians and Jews alike: "And We prescribed for them therein: The life for the life, and the eye for the eye, and the nose for the nose, and the ear for the ear, and the tooth for the tooth, and for wounds equality." That said, even in Talmudic times, this was never intended for Jews to be taken literally, and has always been interpreted by the Rabbis to indicate that appropriate compensation be paid in the form of money.
  2.   The opinion that increasing the severity of punishments will result in decrease of recidivism is not supported by some metastudies of this issue. Contrary to this popular opinion, the majority of research studies indicates that penal policies stressing rehabilitation over punishment result in lower recidivism rates. Most empirical studies consistently find that the employment status after the release from prison is the strongest predictor of recidivism. Thus, e.g., Pennsylvania's 2000 Legislative Report on Recidivism concludes that "most studies found that boot camps have not been very successful in achieving the goal of reducing crime" and that the fact that "employed offenders are almost three times as likely to succeed indicates that providing vocational training and employment opportunities for offenders should be a high priority."
  3.  Among the ecclesiastic writers, Lambert Daneau, professor of Calvinist theology at Geneva in his (1564) book Les Sorciers, dialogue très utile et très necessaire pour ce temps proposed the final solution of the witch problem. He held that witches represent a major danger for humanity and recommended their "mass extermination," often done in the bruloirs, large ovens built to expedite the burning of victims of the criminal justice proceedings (Mǖllendorf, 1911, p. 100; Sindelar, 1986, p.182). In Spain, these ovens were called "quemadero" or "brassero." This method of torture is likely close to the upper limit of methods designed to inflict pain. In a study on the agony of dying (Rhyne, et.al., 1995), according to forensic pathologists, the most excruciating way to die is by fire, followed by cutting the throat, and stabbing the abdomen.
  4.  Similar recommendations, made centuries earlier, were disputed by Johann Geiler who maintained in his (1508) book Die Emeis (The Ants) that devil anesthetizes his adherents so they would not feel any pain.

See also

External links

  • The Sentencing Project.
  • Incarceration.
  • World Prison Population List. 6th edition.

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