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Encyclopedia > Inca empire
Tawantinsuyu
Inca Empire

1438 – 1533
The Inca Empire at its greatest extent.
Capital Cuzco
(1438-1533)
Language(s) Quechua (official), Aymara, Puquina, Jaqi family, Muchik and scores of smaller languages.
Religion Inca religion
Government Monarchy
Sapa Inca
 - 1438-1471 Pachacutec
 - 1471-1493 Tupac Yupanqui
 - 1493-1525 Huayna Capac
 - 1525-1532 Huascar
 - 1532-1533 Atahualpa
Historical era Pre-Columbian
 - Pachacutec created the Tawantinsuyu 1438
 - Civil war between Huascar and Atahualpa 1527-1532
 - Spanish conquest lead by Francisco Pizarro 1533
Area
 - 1438[1] 800,000 km² (308,882 sq mi)
 - 1527 2,000,000 km² (772,204 sq mi)
Population
 - 1438[1] est. 12,000,000 
     Density 15 /km²  (38.8 /sq mi)
 - 1527 est. 20,000,000 
     Density 10 /km²  (25.9 /sq mi)

The Inca Empire (or Inka Empire) was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. The administrative, political and military center of the empire was located in Cuzco. The Inca Empire arose from the highlands of Peru sometime in early 13th century. From 1438 to 1533, the Incas used a variety of methods, from conquest to peaceful assimilation, to incorporate a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean mountain ranges, including large parts of modern Ecuador, Peru, western and south central Bolivia, northwest Argentina, north and north-central Chile, and southern Colombia. The Incas identified their king as "child of the sun." Inca redirects here. ... Map of the Kigdom of Cusco. ... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... Events Pachacuti who would later create Tahuantinsuyu, or Inca Empire became the ruler of Cuzco In Italy, the siege of Brescia by the condottieri troops of Niccolò Piccinino was raised after the arrival of Scaramuccia da Forlì. January 1 - Albert II of Habsburg becomes King of Hungary March 18 - Albert... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 504 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1178 × 1402 pixel, file size: 247 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Created in 1542, the Viceroyalty of Peru (in Spanish, Virreinato del Perú) contained most of Spanish-ruled South America until the creation of the separate viceroyalties of New Granada (now Colombia, Ecuador, Panamá and Venezuela, the last-named previously in the Viceroyalty of New Spain) in 1717 and Río... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (1357 × 628 pixel, file size: 36 KB, MIME type: image/png) Media:Example. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... The Church of La Compañía on the Plaza de Armas in Cuzco Cuzco is a city in southeastern Peru in the Huatanay Valley (Sacred Valley), of the Andes mountain range. ... Events Pachacuti who would later create Tahuantinsuyu, or Inca Empire became the ruler of Cuzco In Italy, the siege of Brescia by the condottieri troops of Niccolò Piccinino was raised after the arrival of Scaramuccia da Forlì. January 1 - Albert II of Habsburg becomes King of Hungary March 18 - Albert... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... The Aymara are a native ethnic group in the Andes region of South America; about 2. ... Puquina is an extinct language, which was spoken by the ancient Inca in the region surrounding Lake Titicaca and in the north of what is now Chile. ... Aymaran (also Jaqi, Aru, Jaqui, Aimara, Haki) is one of the two dominant language families of the central Andes, along with Quechuan. ... Mochica (also Yunga, Yunca, Chimú, Muchic, Mochika, Muchik, Chimu) is a Chimuan language formerly spoken along the northwest coast of Peru and in some inland village. ... The Sun Temple complex at Písac. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... The ruler of the Inca Empire (quechua: Inka Qhapaq) used the title of Sapa (the only one) and Apu (divinity). ... Pachacuti as drawn by Guaman Poma Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui (or Pachacutec; Quechua Pachakutiq, literally world-turner, i. ... Drawing of Tupac Inca Yupanqui by Guaman Poma (1615 CE) Tupac Inca Yupanqui (a. ... Huayna Capac (Quechua Wayna Qhapaq splendid youth) was the eleventh Sapa Inca (1493 - 1527) of the Inca Empire, and sixth of the Hanan dynasty. ... Alternate meaning: Huáscar (warship) Huascar, in full Inti Cusi Huallpa Huáscar (“Sun of Joy”) (died 1532). ... Lifetime portrait of Atahuallpa, the last sovereign Inca emperor Atahualpa or Atawallpa (c. ... The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the Americas continent. ... Pachacuti as drawn by Guaman Poma Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui (or Pachacutec; Quechua Pachakutiq, literally world-turner, i. ... Combatants Inca Empire apart from northern territories, allied city-state Tumebamba, conservatives Confederate Northern Inca Empire (1527-1532), separatists Commanders Huascar, Inca emperor and claimant to the northern regions Atahualpa, Northern Inca emperor (legitimate) Strength ~200,000, with another 2 million reservists +50,000, later expanded up to 250,000... Spanish colonization of the Americas began with the arrival in the Americas of Christopher Columbus in 1492. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... Events Pachacuti who would later create Tahuantinsuyu, or Inca Empire became the ruler of Cuzco In Italy, the siege of Brescia by the condottieri troops of Niccolò Piccinino was raised after the arrival of Scaramuccia da Forlì. January 1 - Albert II of Habsburg becomes King of Hungary March 18 - Albert... January 5 - Felix Manz, co-founder of the Swiss Anabaptists, was drowned in the Limmat in Zürich by the Zürich Reformed state church. ... Events Pachacuti who would later create Tahuantinsuyu, or Inca Empire became the ruler of Cuzco In Italy, the siege of Brescia by the condottieri troops of Niccolò Piccinino was raised after the arrival of Scaramuccia da Forlì. January 1 - Albert II of Habsburg becomes King of Hungary March 18 - Albert... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... January 5 - Felix Manz, co-founder of the Swiss Anabaptists, was drowned in the Limmat in Zürich by the Zürich Reformed state church. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the Americas continent. ... This article is the city in Peru. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Events Pachacuti who would later create Tahuantinsuyu, or Inca Empire became the ruler of Cuzco In Italy, the siege of Brescia by the condottieri troops of Niccolò Piccinino was raised after the arrival of Scaramuccia da Forlì. January 1 - Albert II of Habsburg becomes King of Hungary March 18 - Albert... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ...


The Quechua name for the empire was Tawantinsuyu[2] which can be translated as The Four Regions or The Four United Regions. Before the Quechua spelling reform it was written in Spanish as Tahuantinsuyo. Tawantin is a group of four things (tawa "four" with the suffix -ntin which names a group); suyu means "region" or "province". The empire was divided into four Suyus, whose corners met at the capital, Cusco (Qosqo), in modern-day Peru. The official language of the empire was Quechua, although scores if not hundreds of local languages were spoken. There were many local forms of worship, most of them concerning local sacred "Huacas", but the Inca leadership encouraged the worship of Inti — the sun god — and imposed its sovereignty above other cults such as that of Pachamama.[3] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... In recent years, the spelling of place names in Peru and Bolivia has been revised among Quechua and Aymara speakers. ... This article is the city in Peru. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... In Quechua, a Native American language of South America, a huaca or waka is an object that represents something revered, typically a monument of some kind. ... Inti or Sun of May of the flag of Argentina, 1818 In Inca mythology, Inti was the sun god, as well a patron deity of Tahuantinsuyu. ... This article is about the inca goddess. ...

Contents

History

Origin myths

See also: Inca mythology
Manco Capac and Mama Ocllo, sons of the Inti.
Manco Capac and Mama Ocllo, sons of the Inti.

The Incas had various origin myths. In one, Ticci Viracocha sent forth his four sons and four daughters (known as the Ayar brothers) from Pacaritambo to establish a village. Along the way, Sinchi Roca was born to Manco and Ocllo, and Sinchi Roca led them to the valley of Cusco where they founded their new village. There Manco became their leader and became known as Manco Capac.[4] Inca mythology includes a number of stories and legends that are mythological and helps explain or symbolizes Inca beliefs. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Inti or Sun of May of the flag of Argentina, 1818 In Inca mythology, Inti was the sun god, as well a patron deity of Tahuantinsuyu. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Apu Qun Tiqsi Wiraqutra In Inca mythology, Apu Qun Tiqsi Wiraqutra, commonly known today as Con-Tici Viracocha or simply Viracocha, was the creator of civilization, and one of the most important deities in the Inca canon. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: nonsense If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... Sinchi Roca (a. ... Categories: Historical stubs | Inca emperors ... In Inca mythology, Mama Ocllo was deified as a mother and fertility goddess. ... Categories: Historical stubs | Inca emperors ...


In another origin myth, the sun god Inti ordered Manco Capac and Mama Ocllo to emerge from the depths of Lake Titicaca. They were born in the lake and wandered north to establish the city of Cusco. They travelled by means of underground caves until they reached Cusco where they established Hurin Cusco, or the first dynasty of the Kingdom of Cusco. Inti or Sun of May of the flag of Argentina, 1818 In Inca mythology, Inti was the sun god, as well a patron deity of Tahuantinsuyu. ... In Inca mythology, Mama Ocllo was deified as a mother and fertility goddess. ... Lake Titicaca sits 3,812 m (12,507 feet) above sea level making it the highest commercially navigable lake in the world. ... The ruler of the Inca Empire (quechua: Inka Qhapaq) used the title of Sapa (the only one) and Apu (divinity). ...


These myths were apparently transmitted via oral tradition until early Spanish colonists recorded them; however some scholars believe that they may have been recorded on quipus (Andean knotted string records).[5] Inca Quipu. ...


Kingdom of Cusco

Main article: Kingdom of Cusco

The Inca people began as a tribe in the Cusco area around the 12th century. Under the leadership of Manco Capac, they formed the small city-state of Cuzco (Quechua Qusqu), shown in red on the map. In 1438 they began a far-reaching expansion under the command of Sapa Inca (paramount leader) Pachacuti, whose name literally meant "earth-shaker". During his reign, he and his son brought much of the Andes mountains (roughly modern Peru and Ecuador) under Inca control. Map of the Kigdom of Cusco. ... Categories: Historical stubs | Inca emperors ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... The ruler of the Inca Empire (quechua: Inka Qhapaq) used the title of Sapa (the only one) and Apu (divinity). ... Pachacuti as drawn by Guaman Poma Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui (or Pachacutec; Quechua Pachakutiq, literally world-turner, i. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ...


Reorganization and formation of the Empire

Inca expansion (1438–1527)
Inca expansion (1438–1527)

Pachacuti reorganized the kingdom of Cuzco into an empire, the Tahuantinsuyu, a federalist system which consisted of a central government with the Inca at its head and four provincial governments with strong leaders: Chinchasuyu (NW), Antisuyu (NE), Contisuyu (SW), and Collasuyu (SE). Pachacuti is also thought to have built Machu Picchu, either as a family home or as a summer retreat. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 324 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,730 × 3,200 pixels, file size: 304 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 324 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,730 × 3,200 pixels, file size: 304 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... A map displaying todays federations. ... Chinchasuyu was the northwestern provincial region of the Tahuantinsuyu, or Inca Empire. ... Antisuyu was the southeastern provincial region of the Tahuantinsuyu, or Inca Empire. ... Contisuyu was the southwestern provincial region of the Tahuantinsuyu, or Inca Empire. ... Collasuyu was the southwestern provincial region of the Tahuantinsuyu, or Inca Empire. ... Machu Picchu (Quechua: Machu Pikchu Old Peak) is a pre-Columbian Inca city located at 2,430 m (7,970 ft) altitude[1] on a mountain ridge above the Urubamba Valley in Peru, about 70 km (44 mi) northwest of Cusco. ...


Pachacuti sent spies to regions he wanted in his empire; they brought reports on the political organization, military might and wealth. He would then send messages to the leaders of these lands extolling the benefits of joining his empire, offering them presents of luxury goods such as high quality textiles, and promising that they would be materially richer as subject rulers of the Inca. Most accepted the rule of the Inca as a fait accompli and acquiesced peacefully. The ruler's children would then be brought to Cuzco to be taught about Inca administration systems, then return to rule their native lands. This allowed the Inca to indoctrinate the former ruler's children into the Inca nobility, and, with luck, marry their daughters into families at various corners of the empire. Here are some examples of French words and phrases used by English speakers. ...


Expansion and consolidation of the Tawantinsuyu

It was traditional for the Inca's son to lead the army; Pachacuti's son Túpac Inca began conquests to the north in 1463, and continued them as Inca after Pachucuti's death in 1471. His most important conquest was the Kingdom of Chimor, the Inca's only serious rival for the coast of Peru. Túpac Inca's empire stretched north into modern day Ecuador and Colombia. Drawing of Tupac Inca Yupanqui by Guaman Poma (1615 CE) Tupac Inca Yupanqui was head of the Inca army from 1463 CE through 1471 CE and became the second Inca of Tahuantinsuyu after his fathers death in 1471 CE. He ruled the Inca empire until his death in 1493... Late Intermediate Period Cultures Chimu Piece - Imperial Epoch, 1300 A.D. to 1532 A.D.Larco Museum Collection Chimor (also Kingdom of Chimor) was the political grouping of the Chimú culture that ruled the northern coast of Peru, beginning around 850 AD and ending around 1470 AD. Chimor was the...


Túpac Inca's son Huayna Cápac added significant territory to the south. At its height, Tahuantinsuyu included Peru and Bolivia, most of what is now Ecuador, a large portion of what is today Chile north of Maule River, where they met massive resistance by the Mapuche tribes. The empire also extended into corners of Argentina and Colombia. However, most of the southern portion of the Inca empire, the portion denominated as Collasuyu, was desert wasteland. Huayna Capac (1493 - 1527) was an Inca emperor. ... The Maule river (in Mapudungun rainy) is one of the most important rivers of Chile and is inextricably linked to this countrys pre-Hispanic (Inca) times, the countrys conquest, colonial period, wars of Independence, modern history, agriculture (wine, traditional crops), culture (literature, poetry, folklore), religion, economy and politics. ... Mapuche test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Mapuche (Mapudungun; Che, People + Mapu, of the Land) are the Indigenous inhabitants of Central and Southern Chile and Southern Argentina. ... Collasuyu was the southwestern provincial region of the Tahuantinsuyu, or Inca Empire. ...


Tahuantinsuyu was a patchwork of languages, cultures and peoples. The components of the empire were not all uniformly loyal, nor were the local cultures all fully integrated. The Inca empire as a whole had an economy based on exchange and taxation of luxury goods and labour[citation needed] (it is said that Inca tax collectors would take the head lice of the lame and old as a symbolic tribute). Look up disability in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Inca civil war and Spanish conquest

Main articles: Inca war of succession and Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire
Sacsayhuamán, the Inca stronghold of Cuzco
Sacsayhuamán, the Inca stronghold of Cuzco

Spanish conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro and his brothers explored south from Panama, reaching Inca territory by 1526. It was clear that they had reached a wealthy land with prospects of great treasure, and after one more expedition (1529), Pizarro traveled to Spain and received royal approval to conquer the region and be its viceroy.[citation needed] Combatants Inca Empire apart from northern territories, allied city-state Tumebamba, conservatives Confederate Northern Inca Empire (1527-1532), separatists Commanders Huascar, Inca emperor and claimant to the northern regions Atahualpa, Northern Inca emperor (legitimate) Strength ~400,000, 100,000 from Tumebamba, with another 2 million reservists +50,000, later expanded... The Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire was a process through which a group of Spaniards led by Francisco Pizarro succeeded in toppling the Inca Empire in the early 16th-century. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (637x850, 264 KB) The Inca fortress of Sacsayhuaman. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (637x850, 264 KB) The Inca fortress of Sacsayhuaman. ... Ruins of Sacsayhuamán with view of the city of Cusco in the background Sacsayhuamán (also known as Saksaq Waman) is a walled complex near the old city of Cusco. ... The Church of La Compañía on the Plaza de Armas in Cuzco Cuzco is a city in southeastern Peru in the Huatanay Valley (Sacred Valley), of the Andes mountain range. ... Conquistador (Spanish: kōn-kÄ“-stŏ-dōr) (meaning Conqueror in the Spanish language) is the term used to refer to the soldiers, explorers, and adventurers who brought much of the Americas and Asia Pacific under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 17th centuries, starting with the 1492 settlement... “Pizarro” redirects here. ...


At the time they returned to Peru, in 1532, a war of the two brothers between Huayna Capac's sons Huascar and Atahualpa and unrest among newly-conquered territories — and perhaps more importantly, smallpox, which had spread from Central America — had considerably weakened the empire. It was an unfortunate fact for the Inca that the Spaniards arrived at the height of a civil war, fueled almost certainly by the devastating diseases that preceded the European colonization. Combatants Inca Empire apart from northern territories, allied city-state Tumebamba, conservatives Confederate Northern Inca Empire (1527-1532), separatists Commanders Huascar, Inca emperor and claimant to the northern regions Atahualpa, Northern Inca emperor (legitimate) Strength ~200,000, with another 2 million reservists +50,000, later expanded up to 250,000... Alternate meaning: Huáscar (warship) Huascar, in full Inti Cusi Huallpa Huáscar (“Sun of Joy”) (died 1532). ... Lifetime portrait of Atahuallpa, the last sovereign Inca emperor Atahualpa or Atawallpa (c. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ...


Pizarro did not have a formidable force; with just 180 men, 1 cannon and only 27 horses, he often needed to talk his way out of potential confrontations that could have easily wiped out his party. The Spanish horseman, fully armored, had great technological superiority over the Inca forces. The traditional mode of battle in the Andes was a kind of siege warfare where large numbers of usually reluctant draftees were sent to overwhelm opponents. The Spaniards had developed one of the finest military machines in the premodern world, tactics learned in their centuries' long fight against Moorish kingdoms in Iberia. Along with this tactical and material superiority, the Spaniards also had acquired tens of thousands of native allies who sought to end the Inca control of their territories. This, combined with an audacious military attack by the Spaniards in Cajamarca, allowed them to capture the emperor and send the Inca elite into a huge and paralyzing political struggle. Atahualpa ordered the death of his opponent, Huascar, and the Spaniards skillfully manipulated the various factions within the Inca state. They also were able to continually increase their native allies and ultimately launched a successful attack on the capital city of Cuzco. Francisco Pizarro ( 1475–June 26, 1541) was a Spanish conquistador, conqueror of the Inca Empire and founder of the city of Lima. ... For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... A siege is a prolonged military blockade and assault of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... “Conscript” redirects here. ... In an historical context, Premodernity is the period in Western civilization that came after Ancient history and before Modernity, which is usually recognized to have begun in the mid-1400s, marked by the invention of movable type and the printing press. ... Look up moor, Moor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The name Iberia refers to two distinct regions of the old world: The Iberian Peninsula, in Southwest Europe, location of modern-day Spain and Portugal, home to the pre-Roman Iberians. ... This article is about the city of Cajamarca. ... The Church of La Compañía on the Plaza de Armas in Cuzco Cuzco is a city in southeastern Peru in the Huatanay Valley (Sacred Valley), of the Andes mountain range. ...


Their first engagement was the Battle of Puná, near present-day Guayaquil, Ecuador on the Pacific Coast; Pizarro then founded the city of Piura in July 1532. Hernando de Soto was sent inland to explore the interior, and returned with an invitation to meet the Inca, Atahualpa, who had defeated his brother in the civil war and was resting at Cajamarca with his army of 80,000 troops. The Battle of Puná, a peripheral engagement of Francisco Pizarros conquest of Peru, was fought in April 1531 on the island of Puná (in the Gulf of Guayaquil). ... This article is about the city of Guayaquil. ... Piura: Plaza de Armas Piura is a city in northwestern Peru. ... Hernando de Soto is a: Spanish explorer. ... This article is about the city of Cajamarca. ...


Pizarro and some of his men, most notably a friar by the name of Vincente de Valverde met with the Inca, who had brought only a small retinue. Through an interpreter Friar Vincente demanded that he and his empire accept the yoke of King Charles I of Spain and convert to Christianity. Due to the language barrier and perhaps poor interpretation, Atahualpa became somewhat puzzled by the friar's description of Christian faith and was said to have not fully understood the envoy's intentions. After Atahualpa attempted further enquiry into the doctrines of the Christian faith under which Pizarro's envoy served, the Spanish became frustrated and impatient, attacking the Inca's retinue (see Battle of Cajamarca) and capturing Atahualpa as hostage. Vincente de Valverde was a Spanish bishop. ... Charles (February 24, 1500 – September 21, 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor (as Charles V) from 1519-1558; he was also King of Spain from 1516_1556, officially as Charles I of Spain, although often referred to as Charles V (Carlos Quinto or Carlos V) in Spain and Latin America. ... Combatants Aragon and Castille Inca Empire Commanders Francisco Pizarro Atahualpa Strength 106 infantry 62 cavalry 3 guns 80,000 soldiers of Atahualpas personal army Casualties 5 dead[1], 2 wounded 7,000 The Battle of Cajamarca was a surprise attack on the Inca royal entourage orchestrated by Francisco Pizarro. ...


Atahualpa offered the Spaniards enough gold to fill the room he was imprisoned in, and twice that amount of silver. The Inca fulfilled this ransom, but Pizarro deceived them refusing to release the Inca afterwards. During Atahualpa's imprisonment Huascar was assassinated elsewhere. The Spaniards maintained that this was at Atahualpa's orders; this was used as one of the charges against Atahualpa when the Spaniards finally decided to put him to death, in August 1533. The Ransom room from the outside El Cuarto del Rescate (The Ransom Room) is a small room located in Cajamarca, Peru. ... assassin, see Assassin (disambiguation) Jack Ruby assassinated Lee Harvey Oswald in a very public manner. ...


The last Incas

A view of Machu Picchu, "the Lost City of the Incas".

The Spanish installed Atahualpa's brother Manco Inca Yupanqui in power; for some time Manco cooperated with the Spanish, while the Spanish fought to put down resistance in the north. Meanwhile an associate of Pizarro's, Diego de Almagro, attempted to claim Cuzco for himself. Manco tried to use this intra-Spanish feud to his advantage, recapturing Cuzco (1536), but the Spanish retook the city afterwards. Manco Inca then retreated to the mountains of Vilcabamba, Peru, where he and his successors ruled for another 36 years, sometimes raiding the Spanish or inciting revolts against them. In 1572 the last Inca stronghold was conquered, and the last ruler, Túpac Amaru, Manco's son, was captured and executed. This ended resistance to the Spanish conquest under the political authority of the Inca state. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 1116 KB) This Picture was taken the 9th of April 2005 6. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 1116 KB) This Picture was taken the 9th of April 2005 6. ... Machu Picchu (Quechua: Machu Pikchu Old Peak) is a pre-Columbian Inca city located at 2,430 m (7,970 ft) altitude[1] on a mountain ridge above the Urubamba Valley in Peru, about 70 km (44 mi) northwest of Cusco. ... In the popular imagination lost cities were real, prosperous, well-populated areas of human habitation that fell into terminal decline and whose location was later lost. ... Manco Inca Yupanqui (b. ... Diego de Almagro Diego de Almagro (b. ... The Church of La Compañía on the Plaza de Armas in Cuzco Cuzco is a city in southeastern Peru in the Huatanay Valley (Sacred Valley), of the Andes mountain range. ... Vilcabamba a city founded by Manco Inca in 1539 and was the last refuge of the Inca Empire until it fell to the Spaniards in 1572, signalling the end of Inca resistance to Spanish rule. ... For other uses, see Tupac Amaru (disambiguation). ...


After the fall of Tahuantinsuyu, the new Spanish rulers brutally repressed the people and their traditions. Many aspects of Inca culture were systematically destroyed, including their sophisticated farming system. The Spaniards used the Inca mita (mandatory public service) system to literally work the people to death. One member of each family was forced to work in the gold and silver mines, the foremost of which was the titanic silver mine at Potosí. When a family member died, which would usually happen within a year or two, the family would be required to send a replacement.[citation needed] Mita was mandatory public service by society in ancient South America. ... Potosí is a city, the capital of the department of Potosí in Bolivia. ...


The effects of smallpox on Tahuantinsuyu (or the Inca empire) were even more devastating. Beginning in Colombia, smallpox spread rapidly before the Spanish invaders first arrived in the empire. The spread was probably aided by the efficient Inca road system. Within months, the disease had killed the Sapa Inca Huayna Capac, his successor, and most of the other leaders. Two of his surviving sons warred for power and, after a bloody and costly war of the two brothers, Atahualpa become the new Sapa Inca.[1] As Atahualpa was returning to the capital Cuzco, Francisco Pizarro arrived and through a series of deceits captured the young leader and his best general. Within a few years smallpox claimed between 60% and 94% of the Inca population, with other waves of European disease weakening them further. Smallpox was only the first epidemic.[6] Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... For the a general view of Inca civilisation, people and culture, see Incas. ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... Major highways of the Inca Empire Among the many roads and trails constructed in pre-Columbian South America, the Inca road system (El Camino Inca) of Peru was the most extensive. ... The ruler of the Inca Empire (quechua: Inka Qhapaq) used the title of Sapa (the only one) and Apu (divinity). ... Huayna Capac (Quechua Wayna Qhapaq splendid youth) was the eleventh Sapa Inca (1493 - 1527) of the Inca Empire, and sixth of the Hanan dynasty. ... Combatants Inca Empire apart from northern territories, allied city-state Tumebamba, conservatives Confederate Northern Inca Empire (1527-1532), separatists Commanders Huascar, Inca emperor and claimant to the northern regions Atahualpa, Northern Inca emperor (legitimate) Strength ~200,000, with another 2 million reservists +50,000, later expanded up to 250,000... Lifetime portrait of Atahuallpa, the last sovereign Inca emperor Atahualpa or Atawallpa (c. ... This article is the city in Peru. ... “Pizarro” redirects here. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ...


Typhus (probably) in 1546, influenza and smallpox together in 1558, smallpox again in 1589, diphtheria in 1614, measles in 1618 - all ravaged the remains of Inca culture For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ... FLU redirects here. ...


Society

Main articles: Inca society and Inca education

It has been suggested that Women and clothing in Incan Society be merged into this article or section. ... Amauta Inca education during the time of the Inca Empire was divided into two principal spheres: education for the upper classes and education for the general population. ...

Organization of the Empire

The four suyus of the empire.
The four suyus of the empire.

The most powerful figure in the empire was the Sapa Inca ('the unique Inca'). Only descendants of the original Inca tribe ever ascended to the level of Inca. Most young members of the Inca's family attended Yachay Wasis (houses of knowledge) to obtain their education. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The ruler of the Inca Empire (quechua: Inka Qhapaq) used the title of Sapa (the only one) and Apu (divinity). ... Amauta Inca education during the time of the Inca Empire was divided into two principal spheres: education for the upper classes and education for the general population. ...


The Tawantinsuyu was a federalist system which consisted of a central government with the Inca at its head and four provinces: Chinchay Suyu (NW), Anti Suyu (NE), Kunti Suyu (SW), and Qulla Suyu (SE). The four corners of these provinces met at the center, Cuzco. Each province had a governor who oversaw local officials, who in turn supervised agriculturally-productive river valleys, cities and mines. There were separate chains of command for both the military and religious institutions, which created a system of partial checks and balances on power[citation needed]. The local officials were responsible for settling disputes and keeping track of each family's contribution to the mita (mandatory public service). A map displaying todays federations. ... Banner of Chinchay Suyu Chinchasuyu was the northwestern provincial region of the Tawantin Suyu, or Inca Empire. ... Antisuyu flag Anti Suyu is the eastern part of the Inca Empire which bordered with modern-day Upper Amazon region where the Anti inhabited. ... Banner of the Kunti Suyu Kunti Suyu or Contisuyu was the southwestern provincial region of the Inca Empire. ... Qulla Suyu (also Collasuyu) was the southeastern provincial region of the Inca Empire. ... Mita was mandatory public service by society in ancient South America. ...


Social status and the ayllus

Life, education and beliefs

Approximately 200 varieties of potatoes were cultivated by the Incas and their predecessors
Approximately 200 varieties of potatoes were cultivated by the Incas and their predecessors

The Inca diet consisted primarily of potatoes and grains, supplemented by fish, vegetables, nuts, and maize (corn). Camelid (llama and alpaca) meat and cuyes (guinea pigs) were also eaten in large quantities.[citation needed]. In addition, they hunted various wild animals for meat, skins and feathers. Maize was malted and used to make chicha, a fermented alcoholic beverage. The Inca road system was key to farming success as it allowed distribution of foodstuffs over long distances. The Inca also constructed vast storehouses, which allowed them to live through El Niño years while neighboring civilizations suffered[citation needed]. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2864x1861, 1195 KB) The potato is the vegetable of choice in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2864x1861, 1195 KB) The potato is the vegetable of choice in the United States. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... For other uses, see Guinea pig (disambiguation). ... Chicha served with pipeño Chicha is a Spanish word for any variety of fermented beverage. ... The word drink is primarily a verb, meaning to ingest liquids, see Drinking. ... Major highways of the Inca Empire Among the many roads and trails constructed in pre-Columbian South America, the Inca road system (El Camino Inca) of Peru was the most extensive. ... Chart of ocean surface temperature anomaly [°C] during the last strong El Niño in December 1997 El Niño and La Niña (also written in English as El Nino and La Nina) are major temperature fluctuations in surface waters of the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean. ...


The Inca believed in reincarnation.[7] Those who obeyed the Incan moral code — ama suwa, ama llulla, ama quella (do not steal, do not lie, do not be lazy) — "went to live in the Sun's warmth while others spent their eternal days in the cold earth"[citation needed]. The Inca also practiced cranial deformation.[8] They achieved this by wrapping tight cloth straps around the heads of newborns in order to alter the shape of their still-soft skulls into a more conical form. Studies are needed to determine whether these deformations caused actual brain damage. This article is about the theological concept. ...


Aqllawasi

The Aqllawasi (Acllahuasi) which means "house of the sun virgins" was developed under the Incans in Peru at about 1438–1532 CE[citation needed]. Its central purpose was in the manufacturing of garments for the Inca royalty and the worship of the sun god, Inti.


Work, agriculture and animal husbandry

Arts and technology

Inca tunic
Inca tunic
Coca leaves
Coca leaves

Download high resolution version (800x944, 1796 KB)Tupa Inca tunic held at Dumbarton Oaks library[1] The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100... Download high resolution version (800x944, 1796 KB)Tupa Inca tunic held at Dumbarton Oaks library[1] The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... For other uses, see Coca (disambiguation). ...

Monumental architecture

Architecture was by far the most important of the Inca arts, with pottery and textiles reflecting motifs that were at their height in architecture. The main example is the capital city of Cuzco itself. The breathtaking site of Machu Picchu was constructed by Inca engineers. The stone temples constructed by the Inca used a mortarless construction that fit together so well that you couldn't fit a knife through the stonework. This was a process first used on a large scale by the Pucara (ca. 300 BC–AD 300) peoples to the south in Lake Titicaca, and later in the great city of Tiwanaku (ca. AD 400–1100) in present day Bolivia. The Inca imported the stoneworkers of the Tiwanaku region to Cuzco when they conquered the lands south of Lake Titicaca[citation needed]. The rocks used in construction were sculpted to fit together exactly by repeatedly lowering a rock onto another and carving away any sections on the lower rock where the dust was compressed. The tight fit and the concavity on the lower rocks made them extraordinarily stable. This article is about building architecture. ... Machu Picchu (Quechua: Machu Pikchu Old Peak) is a pre-Columbian Inca city located at 2,430 m (7,970 ft) altitude[1] on a mountain ridge above the Urubamba Valley in Peru, about 70 km (44 mi) northwest of Cusco. ... Inca redirects here. ... Area of the Middle Horizon The Gate of the Sun Tiwanaku (Spanish spellings: Tiahuanaco and Tiahuanacu) is an important Pre-Columbian archaeological site in Bolivia. ...


Ceramics, precious metal work, and textiles

Almost all of the gold and silver work of the empire was melted down by the conquistadores. Ceramics were painted in numerous motifs including birds, waves, felines, and geometric patterns. The most distinctive Inca ceramic objects are the Cusco bottles or ¨aryballos¨. [9] Many of these pieces are on display in Lima in the Larco Archaeological Museum and the National Museum of Archaeology, Anthropology and History. The Larco Museum (Spanish: ) is located in the Pueblo Libre District in Lima, Peru. ...


Mathematics and astronomy

A very important Inca technology was the Quipu, which were assemblages of knotted strings used to record information, the exact nature of which is no longer known. Originally it was thought that Quipu were used only as mnemonic devices or to record numerical data. Recent discoveries, however, have led to the theory that these devices were instead a form of writing in their own right[citation needed]. Inca Quipu. ...


The Inca made many discoveries in medicine. They performed successful skull surgery, which involved cutting holes in the skull to release pressure from head wounds[citation needed]. Coca leaves were used to lessen hunger and pain, as they still are in the Andes. The Chasqui (messengers) chewed coca leaves for extra energy to carry on their tasks as runners delivering messages throughout the empire. 18th century French illustration of trepanation Trepanation (also known as trepanning, trephination, trephining or burr hole) is a form of surgery in which a hole is drilled or scraped into the skull, thus exposing the dura mater in order to treat health problems related to intracranial diseases, though in the... For other uses, see Coca (disambiguation). ... Representation of a Chasqui The Chasquis were agile and highly trained runners who delivered messages and royal delicacies throughout the Inca Empire, principally serving the Sapa Inca. ...


Weapons, armor, and warfare

A detail of a Inca stone work
A detail of a Inca stone work

The Incas used weapons and had wars with other civilizations in the area. The Inca army was the most powerful in the area at that time, because they could turn an ordinary villager or farmer into a soldier, ready for battle. This is because every male Inca had to take part in war at least once so as to be prepared for warfare again when needed. By the time the empire had reached its large size, every section of the empire contributed in setting up an army for war. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


The Incas had no iron or steel, and their weapons were no better than those of their enemies. They went into battle with the beating of drums and the blowing of trumpets. The armor used by the Incas included:

  • Helmets made of wood, copper, bronze, cane, or animal skin; some were adorned with feathers
  • Round or square shields made from wood or hide
  • Cloth tunics padded with cotton and small wooden planks to protect spine

The Inca weaponry included:

  • Bronze or bone-tipped spears
  • Two-handed wooden swords with serrated edges (notched with teeth, like a saw)
  • Clubs with stone and spiked metal heads
  • Woolen slings and stones
  • Stone or copper headed battle-axes
  • Stones fastened to lengths of cord (bola)

Roads allowed very quick movement for the Inca army, and shelters called quolla were built one day's distance in travelling from each other, so that an army on campaign could always be fed and rested.


Inca flag

The rainbow flag
The rainbow flag

There are 16th and 17th century chronicles and references that support the idea of a banner, or flag, attributable to the Inca. Image File history File links Banner_of_the_Inca_Empire. ... Image File history File links Banner_of_the_Inca_Empire. ...


Francisco López de Jerez[10]wrote in 1534:

"all of them came distributed into squads, with their flags and captains commanding them, as well-ordered as Turks"
("todos venían repartidos en sus escuadras con sus banderas y capitanes que los mandan, con tanto concierto como turcos").

The chronicler, Bernabé Cobo, wrote:

"The royal standard or banner was a small square flag, ten or twelve spans around, made of cotton or wool linen, placed on the end of a long staff, stretched and stiff such that it did not wave in the air, and on it each king painted his arms and emblems, for each one chose different ones, though the sign of the Incas was the rainbow."
(...el guión o estandarte real era una banderilla cuadrada y pequeña, de diez o doce palmos de ruedo, hecha de lienzo de algodón o de lana, iba puesta en el remate de una asta larga, tendida y tiesa, sin que ondease al aire, y en ella pintaba cada rey sus armas y divisas, porque cada uno las escogía diferentes, aunque las generales de los Incas eran el arco celeste.)
-Bernabé Cobo, Historia del Nuevo Mundo (1653)

Guaman Poma's 1615 book, El primer nueva corónica y buen gobierno, shows numerous line drawings of Inca flags.[11] Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala, best known as Guaman Poma, (c. ...


In modern times the rainbow flag has been associated with the Tawantinsuyu and is displayed as a symbol of Inca heritage in Peru and Bolivia. There is debate over the interpretation of the sources that refer to an Inca, or Tawantisuyo, flag or banner. It is contended that the Rainbow flag originated the early 1920s[citation needed] or with an Indian revolt in the 19th century. The city of Cusco flies the Rainbow Flag. Peruvian President Alejandro Toledo (2001–2006) flew the Rainbow Flag in Lima's presidential palace. The Rainbow Flag was taken down by President Alan Garcia in July 2006[citation needed]. The actual rainbow colors in the PACE flag (Italian for peace) A rainbow flag is a multi-colored flag consisting of stripes in the colors of the rainbow. ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... Alejandro Toledo (Alejandro Celestino Toledo Manrique) (born 28 March 1946) is a Peruvian politician. ... For other uses, see Lima (disambiguation). ... Alan Garc rez (born May 23, 1949 in Lima) was President of Peru from 1985 to 1990. ...

See also: Wiphala and Rainbow flag#Andean peoples and social movements

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The actual rainbow colors in the PACE flag (Italian for peace) A rainbow flag is a multi-colored flag consisting of stripes in the colors of the rainbow. ...

Legacy

The major languages of the empire, Quechua and Aymara, were employed by the Roman Catholic Church to evangelize in the Andean region. In some cases, these languages were taught to peoples who had originally spoken other indigenous languages. Today, Quechua and Aymara remain the most widespread Amerindian languages. Quechua (Runa Simi in Quechua; Runa, human + Simi, speech, literally mouth; i. ... Aymara is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara of the Andes. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... The word Andean refers to the geographic area in and around the Andes Mountains of South America, and to the indigenous peoples that inhabit the area, such as the Inca. ... Native American languages are the indigenous languages of the Americas, spoken from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America. ...


References

  • Popenoe, Hugh, Steven R. King, Jorge Leon, Luis Sumar Kalinowski, and Noel D. Vietmeyer. Lost Crops of the Incas. Washington DC: National Academy Press, 1989.
  • De la Vega, Garcilaso . The Incas: The Royal Commentaries of the Inca. New York: The Orion Press, 1961.
  • Mc Neill, William H. "How The Potato Changed The World's History." Social Research 66.1 (1999) 16 Sep 2006.
  • John Hemming. The Conquest of the Incas Harvest Press 2003. ISBN 978-0156028264.

Notes

  1. ^ The Inca Empire. Created by Katrina Namnama & Kathleen DeGuzman
  2. ^ Tawantin suyu derives from the Quechua "tawa" (four), to which the suffix "-ntin" (together or united) is added, followed by "suyu" (region or province), which roughly renders as "The four lands together". The four suyos were: Chinchay Suyo (North), Anti Suyo (East. The Amazon jungle), Colla Suyo (South) and Conti Suyo (West).
  3. ^ http://www.allempires.com/article/index.php?q=inca
  4. ^ Gary Urton, The History of a Myth: Pacariqtambo and the Origin of the Inkas (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1990).
  5. ^ Gary Urton, Signs of the Inka Khipu: Binary Coding in the Andean Knotted-String Records (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2003).
  6. ^ Millersville University Silent Killers of the New World
  7. ^ http://www.netside.net/~manomed/inca.htm
  8. ^ Burger, R.L. and L.C. Salazar. 2004. Machu Picchu: Unveiling the Mystery of the Incas. Yale University Press, p. 45. ISBN 0-300-09763-8.
  9. ^ Berrin, Katherine & Larco Museum. The Spirit of Ancient Peru:Treasures from the Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera. New York:Thames and Hudson,
  10. ^ Francisco López de Jerez,Verdadera relacion de la conquista del Peru y provincia de Cuzco, llamada la Nueva Castilla, 1534.
  11. ^ Guaman Poma, El primer nueva corónica y buen gobierno, (1615/1616), pp. 256, 286, 344, 346, 400, 434, 1077, this pagination corresponds to the Det Kongelige Bibliotek search engine pagination of the book. Additionally Poma shows both well drafted European flags and coats of arms on pp. 373, 515, 558, 1077, 0. On pages 83, 167-171 Poma uses a european heraldic graphic convention, a shield, to place certain totems related to Inca leaders.

The Larco Museum (Spanish: ) is located in the Pueblo Libre District in Lima, Peru. ...

See also

The actual territory of Peru was not only the main center of the Tahuantinsuyo, but also the center of the powerful Inca Empire, and after the Spanish conquer, the biggest Spanish Viceroyalty in America. ... This is a chart of the Peruvian cultural periods used by archaeologist studying the area. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants Inca Empire apart from northern territories, allied city-state Tumebamba, conservatives Confederate Northern Inca Empire (1527-1532), separatists Commanders Huascar, Inca emperor and claimant to the northern regions Atahualpa, Northern Inca emperor (legitimate) Strength ~200,000, with another 2 million reservists +50,000, later expanded up to 250,000... Garcilaso de la Vega, (b. ... Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala, best known as Guaman Poma, (c. ... The Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire was a process through which a group of Spaniards led by Francisco Pizarro succeeded in toppling the Inca Empire in the early 16th-century. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... Natives of North America. ... An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ... Pachamanca, a traditional dish consisting of food prepared in a huatia. ... The Tumi Logo Tumi is a manufacturer of suitcases and bags for travel. ... A Tambo (Quechua: tampu, inn) was an Incan structure built for administrative and military purposes. ... The fortress of Cochabamba, in the province of Leimebamba, Amazonas. ...

External links

  • "Guaman Poma - El Primer Nueva Corónica Y Buen Gobierno" – A high-quality digital version of the Corónica, scanned from the original manuscript.
  • Conquest of Peru, Prescott, 1847 Full text, free to read and search.
  • Inca Land by Hiram Bingham (published 1912–1922 CE).
  • Inca Artifacts, Peru, and Machu Picchu 360 degree movies of inca artifacts and Peruvian landscapes.
  • Inca civilization and other ancient civilizations by Genry Joil.
  • Inca stone cutting techniques: theory on how the Inca walls fit so perfectly.
  • Ancient Civilizations - Inca Great research site for kids.
  • "Ice Treasures of the Inca" National Geographic site.
  • Incan Ice Mummies NOVA site based on their series about the 1996 expedition that discovered Incan ice mummies.
  • Incan Religion
  • History of the Inca Empire Inca history, society and religion.
  • Engineering in the Andes Mountains MIT asst. professor gives 40 minute lecture on Incan suspension bridges.
 v  d  e 
Pre-Columbian Civilizations and Cultures
North America Ancient Pueblo (Anasazi)FremontMississippian
Mesoamerica HuastecIzapaMixtecOlmecPipilTarascanTeotihuacánToltecTotonacZapotec
South America Norte ChicoChavínChibchaChimorChachapoyaHuariMocheNazcaTaironaTiwanakuMapuche
The Aztec Empire The Maya civilization The Inca Empire
(Inca civilisation)
Language Nahuatl language Mayan languages Quechua
Writing Aztec writing Mayan writing
Religion Aztec religion Maya religion Inca religion
Mythology Aztec mythology Maya mythology Inca mythology
Calendar Aztec calendar Maya calendar
Society Aztec society Maya society Inca society
Infrastructure Chinampas Maya architecture Inca architecture (road system)
Incan agriculture
History Aztec history Inca history
People Moctezuma I
Moctezuma II
Cuitlahuac
Cuauhtémoc
Pacal the Great
Tecun Uman
Manco Capac
Pachacutec
Atahualpa
Conquest Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire
(Hernán Cortés)
Spanish conquest of Yucatán
(Francisco de Montejo)
Spanish conquest of Guatemala
(Pedro de Alvarado)
Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire
(Francisco Pizarro)
See also
Indigenous peoples of the AmericasPopulation history of American indigenous peoples – Pre-Columbian art

Hiram Bingham, formally Hiram Bingham III, (19 November 1875 – 6 June 1956) was an American academic, explorer and politician. ... The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the Americas continent. ... Cliff Palace, Mesa Verde National Park White House Ruins, Canyon de Chelly National Monument Ancient Pueblo People or Ancestral Puebloans were a prehistoric Native American culture centered around the present-day Four Corners area of the Southwest United States, noted for their distinctive pottery and dwelling construction styles. ... --24. ... The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American culture that flourished in what is now the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States from approximately 800 to 1500 A.D., varying regionally. ... It has been suggested that Huastecs be merged into this article or section. ... // Overview Izapa was a very large pre-Columbian site located in Chiapas, Mexico, often placed in the Late Formative period. ... Jade mask found in Tomb 7, Monte Alban, c. ... Monument 1, one of the four Olmec colossal heads at La Venta. ... The Pipil are an indigenous people who live in western El Salvador. ... The Tarascan state was a state in precolumbian Mesoamerica roughly covering the geographic area of the present day mexican state of Michoacan. ... Teotihuacán[1] was, at its height in the first half of the 1st millennium CE, the largest pre-Columbian city in the Americas. ... The Atlantes – columns in the form of Toltec warriors in Tula. ... The Totonac people resided in the eastern coastal and mountainous regions of Mexico at the time of the Spanish arrival in 1519. ... Extent of the Zapotec civilization The Zapotec civilization was an indigenous pre-Columbian civilization that flourished in the Valley of Oaxaca of southern Mesoamerica. ... The Norte Chico civilization (also Caral or Caral-Supe civilization) was a complex Pre-Columbian society that included as many as 30 major population centers in what is now the Norte Chico region of north-central coastal Peru. ... The Chavín were an early civilization that existed in present-day Peru. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Late Intermediate Period Cultures Chimu Piece - Imperial Epoch, 1300 A.D. to 1532 A.D.Larco Museum Collection Chimor (also Kingdom of Chimor) was the political grouping of the Chimú culture that ruled the northern coast of Peru, beginning around 850 AD and ending around 1470 AD. Chimor was the... The Chachapoyas, also called the Warriors of the Clouds, were an Andean people living in the cloud forests of the Amazonas region of present-day Peru. ... Middle Horizon The Huari (or Wari) was a Middle Horizon civilization that flourished in the Andes in the south of modern day Peru, from about 500 to 1200 A.D. The capital city of the same name is located near the modern city of Ayacucho, Peru. ... The Moche civilization (alternately, the Mochica culture, Early Chimu, Pre-Chimu, Proto-Chimu, etc. ... Late Intermediate Period Cultures The Nazca culture flourished in the Nazca region between 300 BC and 800 AD. They created the famous Nazca lines and built an impressive system of underground aqueducts that still function today. ... Tairona figure pendants Monument in Santa Marta depicting Taironas. ... Area of the Middle Horizon The Gate of the Sun Tiwanaku (Spanish spellings: Tiahuanaco and Tiahuanacu) is an important Pre-Columbian archaeological site in Bolivia. ... Mapuche test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Mapuche (Mapudungun; Che, People + Mapu, of the Land) are the original Amerindian inhabitants of Central and Southern Chile and Southern Argentina. ... Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political and military dominance over large parts of Mesoamerica in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, a period referred to as the Late post-Classic... This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... Inca redirects here. ... Nahuatl ( [1] is a term applied to a group of related languages and dialects of the Aztecan [2] branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family, indigenous to central Mexico. ... “Maya language” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... Aztec or Nahuatl writing is a pictographic pre-Columbian writing system used in central Mexico by the Nahua peoples. ... Maya glyphs in stucco at the Museo de sitio in Palenque, Mexico The Maya script, commonly known as Maya hieroglyphs, was the writing system of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization of Mesoamerica, presently the only deciphered script of the Mesoamerican writing systems. ... Aztec religion was a Mesoamerican religion combining elements of polytheism, shamanism and animism within a framework of astronomy and calendrics. ... The indigenous religious beliefs and practices of the ancient and modern Maya vary greatly over space and time, but certain common features can be discerned, all of which are consistent with other Mesoamerican religions. ... The Sun Temple complex at Písac. ... The Aztec civilization recognized a polytheistic mythology, which contained the many gods and supernatural creatures from their religious beliefs. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Inca mythology includes a number of stories and legends that are mythological and helps explain or symbolizes Inca beliefs. ... The Aztec calendar was the calendar of the Aztec people of Pre-Columbian Mexico. ... The Maya calendar is a system of distinct calendars and almanacs used by the Maya civilization of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, and by some modern Maya communities in highland Guatemala. ... // Aztec society traditionally was divided into two classes; the macehualli (people) or peasantry and the pilli or nobility. ... It has been suggested that Maya women be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Women and clothing in Incan Society be merged into this article or section. ... Chinampas is an Aztec term referring to a method of ancient Mesoamerican agriculture through floating gardens—small, rectangle-shaped areas of fertile arable land used for agriculture in the Xochimilco region of the Basin of Mexico. ... As unique and spectacular as any Greek or Roman architecture, Maya architecture spans many thousands of years. ... View of Machu Picchu Incan architecture is the most significant pre-Columbian architecture in South America. ... Major highways of the Inca Empire Among the many roads and trails constructed in pre-Columbian South America, the Inca road system (El Camino Inca) of Peru was the most extensive. ... This section needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... The Aztecs were a Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican people of central Mexico in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. ... The Inca Empire was an empire centered in what is now Peru from AD 1438 to AD 1533. ... Moctezuma Ilhuicamina, or Moctezuma I (also known as Montezuma I) (the surname meaning solitary one who shoots an arrow into the sky) was born to Huitzilihuitl, the second Aztec Emperor. ... Moctezuma or Montezuma II, also known as Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin (c. ... Cuitláhuac was the Aztec ruler (Tlatoani) of the city of Tenochtitlán from June to October 1520. ... For other uses, see Cuauhtémoc (disambiguation). ... Pacal II, also known as Pacal the Great (the most recent work gives his full name as Kinich Janaab Pakal[1] (26 March 603 - 31 August 683), was ruler of the Maya polity of Palenque. ... Tecún Umán was the last king of the Quiché people, in the highlands of what is now Guatemala. ... Categories: Historical stubs | Inca emperors ... Pachacuti as drawn by Guaman Poma Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui (or Pachacutec; Quechua Pachakutiq, literally world-turner, i. ... Lifetime portrait of Atahuallpa, the last sovereign Inca emperor Atahualpa or Atawallpa (c. ... Aztec empire The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of America. ... Hernán(do) Cortés Pizarro, 1st Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who became famous for leading the military expedition that initiated the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. ... The Spanish Conquest of Yucatán was the campaign undertaken by the Spanish conquistadores against the Late Postclassic Maya states and polities, particularly in the northern and central Yucatán Peninsula but also involving the Maya polities of the Guatemalan highlands region. ... Francisco de Montejo (c. ... // The Maya civilization thrived throughout much of Guatemala and the surrounding region for close to 2000 years before the Spanish arrived in the early 16th century. ... Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras (Badajoz, c. ... The Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire was a process through which a group of Spaniards led by Francisco Pizarro succeeded in toppling the Inca Empire in the early 16th-century. ... “Pizarro” redirects here. ... Native Americans redirects here. ... Natives of North America. ... Pre-Columbian art is the art of Central and South America in the time prior to the arrival of European colonizers in the 16th century. ...


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Inca Empire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2926 words)
Inca Empire was conceived like an ambitious and audacious civilizing project, based on a mythical thought, in which the harmony of the relationships between the human being, nature and Gods was truly essential.
For instance, the Chimú used money in their commerce, while the Inca empire as a whole had an economy based on exchange and taxation of luxury goods and labour (it is said that Inca tax collectors would take the head lice of the lame and old as a symbolic tribute).
Subjects of the empire were allowed to worship their ancestral gods as long as they accepted the supremacy of Inti, the sun god, which was the most important god worshipped by the Inca leadership.
Inca Empire - Printer-friendly - MSN Encarta (3038 words)
Inca society was strictly organized, from the emperor and royal family down to the peasants.
The Incas called their empire Tawantinsuyu, a Quechuan word meaning “Land of the Four Quarters.” One suyu, the Antisuyu, stretched to the east of Cuzco and contained deep, forest-covered valleys that gradually descended into the jungles of the Amazon basin.
The Incas also worshiped the sun god, Inti, from whom the royal family was believed to be descended, and a number of other nature gods that were vital to the success of their crops.
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