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Encyclopedia > Inbreeding

Inbreeding is breeding between close relatives, whether plant or animal. If practiced repeatedly, it often leads to a reduction in genetic diversity. A concomitant increase in homozygousity of recessive traits can, over time, result in inbreeding depression. This may result in inbred individuals exhibiting reduced health and fitness and lower levels of fertility. Biological reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ... Kinship is a biological and/or familial relationship between two organisms. ... Genetic diversity is a characteristic of ecosystems and gene pools that describes an attribute which is commonly held to be advantageous for survival -- that there are many different versions of otherwise similar organisms. ... Homozygote cells are diploid or polyploid and have the same alleles at a locus (position) on homologous chromosomes. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into inbreeding. ...

Livestock breeders often practice inbreeding to "fix" desirable characteristics within a population. However, they must then cull unfit offspring, especially when trying to establish the new and desirable trait in their stock. Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... To cull is to remove from a group of animals those individuals who show signs of weakness. ...

In plant breeding, inbred lines are used as stocks for the creation of hybrid lines to make use of the heterosis effect. Inbreeding in plants also occurs naturally in the form of self-pollination. Plant breeding is the purposeful manipulation of plant species in order to create desired genotypes and phenotypes for specific purposes. ... This article is about a biological term. ... Heterosis is increased strength of different characteristics in hybrids; the possibility to obtain a better individual by combining the virtues of its parents. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Self-pollination is the activity that arises when a flower has both stamen and pistils. ...


Results of inbreeding

Inbreeding may result in a far higher phenotypic expression of deleterious recessive genes within a population than would normally be expected.[1] As a result, first-generation inbred individuals are more likely to show physical and health defects, including: It has been suggested that dominant allele be merged into this article or section. ...

Natural selection works to remove individuals who acquire the above types of traits from the gene pool. Therefore, many more individuals in the first generation of inbreeding will never live to reproduce. Over time, with isolation such as a population bottleneck caused by purposeful (assortative) breeding or natural environmental stresses, the deleterious inherited traits are culled. Fertility is the natural capability of giving life. ... A spermatozoon or spermatozoan ( spermatozoa), from the ancient Greek σπέρμα (seed) and (living being) and more commonly known as a sperm cell, is the haploid cell that is the male gamete. ... A genetic disorder is a condition caused by abnormalities in genes or chromosomes. ... In evolutionary psychology, symmetry especially facial symmetry is one of a number of traits, including averageness and youthfulness, associated with health, physical attractiveness and beauty of a person or animal. ... is the death of infants in the first year of life. ... See economic growth Growth rate (group theory) Population growth rate This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For the adult insect stage, see Imago. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... A population bottleneck (or genetic bottleneck) is an evolutionary event in which a significant percentage of a population or species is killed or otherwise prevented from reproducing, and the population is reduced by 50% or more, often by several orders of magnitude. ... In medical terms, stress is the disruption of homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli. ...

The cheetah once was reduced by disease, habitat restriction, overhunting of prey, competition from other predators (primarily lions, competition from human land use, etc.) to a very small number of individuals.[2][3] All cheetahs now come from this very small gene pool. Should a virus appear that none of the cheetahs have resistance to, extinction is always a possibility. Currently, the threatening virus is feline infectious peritonitis, which has a disease rate in domestic cats from 1%-5%; in the cheetah population it is ranging between 50% to 60%. The cheetah is also known, in spite of its small gene pool, for few genetic illnesses. This article is about the animal. ... For other uses, see Lion (disambiguation). ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ... FIP-infected kidney showing inflammatory response Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal, incurable disease that affects cats. ... Incidence is a measure of the risk of developing some new condition within a specified period of time. ...

Island species are often very inbred, as their isolation from the larger group on a mainland allows for natural selection to work upon their population. This type of isolation may result in the formation of race or even speciation, as the inbreeding first removes many deleterious genes, and allows expression of genes that allow a population to adapt to an ecosystem. As the adaptation becomes more pronounced the new species or race radiates from its entrance into the new space, or dies out if it cannot adapt and, most importantly reproduce.[4]

The reduced genetic diversity that results from inbreeding may mean a species may not be able to adapt to changes in environmental conditions. Each individual will have similar immune systems, as immune systems are genetically based. Where a species becomes endangered, the population may fall below a minimum whereby the forced interbreeding between the remaining animals will result in extinction. For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ...

In the South American sea lion, there was concern that recent population crashes would reduce genetic diversity. Historical analysis indicated that a population expansion from just two matrilineal lines were responsible for most individuals within the population. Even so, the diversity within the lines allowed for great variation in the gene pool that may inoculate the South American sea lion from extinction.[5] South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Sea Lion (disambiguation). ...

Natural breedings include inbreeding by necessity, and most animals only migrate when necessary. In many cases, the closest living mate is a mother, sister, grandmother, father, grandfather... In all cases the environment presents stresses to select or remove those individuals who cannot survive because of illness from the population.

In lions, prides are often followed by related males in bachelor groups. When the dominant male is killed or driven off by one of these bachelors, a father may be replaced with his son. There is no mechanism for preventing inbreeding or to ensure outcrossing. In the prides, most lionesses are related to one another. If there is more than one dominant male, the group of alpha males are usually related. Two lines then are being "line bred". Also, in some populations such as the Crater lions, it is known that a population bottleneck has occurred. Far greater genetic heterozygosity than what was expected was found.[6] In fact, predators are known for low genetic variance, along with most of the top portion of the tropic levels of an ecosystem.[7] Additionally, the alpha males of two neighboring prides can potentially be from the same litter; one brother may come to acquire leadership over another's pride, and subsequently mate with his 'nieces' or cousins. However, killing another male's cubs, upon the takeover, allows for the new selected gene complement of the incoming alpha male to prevail over the previous male. There are genetic assays being scheduled for lions to determine their genetic diversity. The preliminary studies show results inconsistent with the outcrossing paradigm based on individual environments of the studied groups.[8] Pride is the name of an emotion which refers to a strong sense of self-respect, a refusal to be humiliated as well as joy in the accomplishments of oneself or a person, group, nation or object that one identifies with. ... An alpha male or alpha female is the individual in the community to whom the others follow and defer. ... Heterozygote cells are diploid or polyploid and have different alleles at a locus (position) on homologous chromosomes. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... An assay is a procedure where the concentration of a component part of a mixture is determined. ...

There was an assumption that wild populations do not inbreed; this is not what is observed some cases in the wild. However, in species such as horses, animals in wild or feral conditions often drive off the young of both genders, thought to be a mechanism by which the species instinctively avoids some of the genetic consequences of inbreeding.[9] Who ever deleted my page is a prat and i wil hunt them down on lucy and shout at them loudly! RAAAAARRR! connie sansom ... A feral horse (an American mustang) in Wyoming A feral animal or plant is one that has escaped from domestication and returned, partly or wholly, to its wild state. ...

Inbreeding in domestic animals

Breeding in domestic animals is assortative breeding primarily (see selective breeding). Without the sorting of individuals by trait, a breed could not be established, nor could poor genetic material be removed. Selective breeding in domesticated animals is the process of developing a cultivated breed over time. ...

Inbreeding is used by breeders of domestic animals to fix desirable genetic traits within a population or to attempt to remove deleterious traits by allowing them to manifest phenotypically from the genotypes. Inbreeding is defined as the use of close relations for breeding such as mother to son, father to daughter, brother to sister. Breeders must cull unfit breeding suppressed individuals and/or individuals who demonstrate either homozygosity or heterozygosity for genetic based diseases.[10] The issue of casual breeders who inbreed irresponsibly is discussed in the following quote on cattle...

Meanwhile, milk production per cow per lactation increased from 17,444 lbs to 25,013 lbs from 1978 to 1998 for the Holstein breed. Mean breeding values for milk of Holstein cows increased by 4,829 lbs during this period (http://aipl.arsusda.gov/main/data.html#gtrend). High producing cows are increasingly difficult to breed and are subject to higher health costs than cows of lower genetic merit for production (Cassell, 2001). Intensive selection for higher yield has increased relationships among animals within breed and increased the rate of casual inbreeding. Many of the traits that affect profitability in crosses of modern dairy breeds have not been studied in designed experiments. Indeed, all crossbreeding research involving North American breeds and strains is very dated (McAllister, 2001) if it exists at all.


Linebreeding, a specific form of inbreeding, is accomplished through breedings of cousins, aunt to nephew, half brother to half sister. This was used to isolate breeds within the companion and livestock industry. For instance an animal with a desirable colour is bred back within the lines with identified selection traits whether it be milk production or adherence to breed standard of appearance or behavior. Breeders must then cull unfit individuals, and in some cases the breeders will then outbreed to increase the level of genetic diversity. Again casual breeding is problematical as it is without the requisite culling of individuals who are either maladaptive, not to breed standard or carriers of poor genetic material that must be removed from a healthy breeding program. [12] Heterosis is increased strength of different characteristics in hybrids; the possibility to obtain a better individual by combining the virtues of its parents. ...

Outcrossing is where two unrelated individuals have been crossed to produce progeny. In outcrossing, unless there is verifiable genetic information, one may find that all individuals are distantly related to an ancient progenitor. If the trait carries throughout a population, all individuals can have this trait. This is called the founder's effect. In the well established breeds, that are commonly bred,a large gene pool is present. For example, in 2004, over 18,000 Persian cats were registered.[13] A possibility exists for a complete outcross, if no barriers exist between the individuals to breed. However it is not always the case, and a form of distant linebreeding occurs. Again it is up to the assortative breeder to know what sort of traits both positive and negative exist within the diversity of one breeding. This diversity of genetic expression, within even close relatives, increases the variability and diversity of viable stock. [14] Outcrossing is the practice of introducing unrelated genetic material into a breeding line. ...

The two dog sites above also point out that in the registered dog population, the onset of large numbers of casual breeders has cooresponded with an increase in the number of genetic illnesses of dogs by not understanding how, why and which traits are inherited. The dog sites indicate that the largest percentage of dog breeders in the US are casual breeders. Therefore the investment in a papered animal,with an expected short term profit, motivates some to ignore the practice of culling. Casual breeders in companion animals often ignore breeding restrictions within their contracts with source companion animal breeders. The casual breeders breed the very culls that a genetics based breeder has released as a pet. The casual breeder also was cited in the quotes above on cattle raising. A backyard breeder is a person who practices random or ignorant dog breeding on a small scale. ...

Inbreeding is also deliberately induced in laboratory mice in order to guarantee a consistent and uniform animal model for experimental purposes. ... Animal model refers to a non-human animal with a disease that is similar to a human condition. ...

Inbreeding in humans

The taboo of incest has been discussed by many social scientists. Anthropologists attest that it exists in most cultures. As inbreeding within the first generation often produces expression of recessive traits, the prohibition has been discussed as a possible functional response to the requirement of culling those born deformed, or with undesirable traits.[citation needed] Some anthropologists like Charles Davenport advocated the traditional forms of assortative breeding to form better human stock. Incest is defined as sexual intercourse between closely related persons. ... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... Charles B. Davenport at a 1921 eugenics conference. ...

Ancient Egypt

Some Egyptian Pharaohs married their sisters; in such cases we find a special combination between endogamy and polygamy. Normally the son of the old ruler and the ruler's oldest (half-)sister became the new ruler. Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XIII, married and named co-rulers of ancient Egypt following their father's death, were brother and sister. Not only this, but all rulers of the Ptolemaic dynasty from Ptolemy II on engaged in inbreeding among brothers and sisters, so as to keep the Ptolemaic blood "pure". Numerous instances of inbreeding in the general polulation are also attested in the papyri. For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... Endogamy is the practice of marrying within a social group. ... Polygamy has been a feature of human culture since earliest history. ... Cleopatra redirects here. ... Ptolemy XIII (lived 62 BC/61 BC -January 13? 47 BC, reigned 51 BC - January 13?, 47 BC) was one of the last members of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt. ... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... Ptolemy, one of Alexander the Greats generals, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexanders death in 323 BC. In 305 BC he declared himself King Ptolemy I, later known as Soter (saviour). ... Head of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (309-246 BC), with Arsinoë II. Ptolemy II Philadelphus (309-246 BC), was of a delicate constitution, no Macedonian warrior-chief of the old style. ...

Royalty and nobility

Charles II of Spain was physically and mentally disabled, in large part due to generations of inbreeding.
Charles II of Spain was physically and mentally disabled, in large part due to generations of inbreeding.[15]

The royal and noble families of Europe have close blood ties which are strengthened by royal intermarriage; the most discussed instances of interbreeding relate to European monarchies. Examples abound in every royal family; in particular, the ruling dynasties of Spain and Portugal were in the past very inbred. Several Habsburgs, Bourbons and Wittelsbachs married aunts, uncles, nieces and nephews. Even in the British royal family, which is very moderate in comparison, there has scarcely been a monarch in 300 years who has not married a (near or distant) relative. Indeed, Queen Elizabeth II and her husband Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh are second cousins once removed, both being descended from King Christian IX of Denmark. They are also third cousins as great-great-grandchildren of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. European monarchies did avoid brother-sister marriages, though Jean V of Armagnac was an exception. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (674x880, 124 KB) Painting of King Charles II of Spain, from the 1670s or 1680s. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (674x880, 124 KB) Painting of King Charles II of Spain, from the 1670s or 1680s. ... Charles II of Spain. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Royal intermarriage is the practice of members of royal families marrying into other royal families. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Bourbon (from French) or Borbón (from Spanish) can refer to people, places, food and drink, political events, and popular culture. ... The Wittelsbach family is an European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Prince Philip redirects here. ... “Nephew” redirects here. ... Christian IX of Denmark (April 8, 1818 – January 29, 1906) was King of Denmark from November 15, 1863 to January 29, 1906. ... Queen Victoria redirects here. ... Jean V dArmagnac (1420-1473), vicomte de Lomagne while his father lived, the next-to-last comte dArmagnac of the older branch, was the controversial son of Jean IV and Princess Isabel of Navarre, an emblem of 15th century aristocratic violence, treachery and indiscipline, a wildman from one...

It is not necessarily the case that there was a greater amount of inbreeding within royalty than there is in the population as a whole: it may simply be better documented. Among genetic populations that are isolated, opportunities for exogamy are reduced. Isolation may be geographical, leading to inbreeding among peasants in remote mountain valleys. Or isolation may be social, induced by the lack of appropriate partners, such as Protestant princesses for Protestant royal heirs. Since the late Middle Ages, it is the urban middle class that has had the widest opportunity for outbreeding. Exogamy has two related definitions, both biological and cultural. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... Heterosis is increased strength of different characteristics in hybrids; the possibility to obtain a better individual by combining the virtues of its parents. ...

There were at times serious long-term health and political consequences to multi-generational interbreeding in royal families between persons who were closely related.[16] Most notable was Charles II of Spain, who had multiple, severe disabilities largely linked to inbreeding.[17] Not only was he developmentally disabled and could not chew his food properly, he also could not produce children,[18] thus leading to the collapse of his bloodline and the War of the Spanish Succession.[19] Charles II of Spain. ... Combatants Habsburg Empire England (1701-6) Great Britain (1707-14)[1] Dutch Republic Kingdom of Portugal Crown of Aragon Duchy of Savoy [2] Kingdom of France Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Bavaria Hungarian Rebels [3] Commanders Eugene of Savoy Margrave of Baden Count Starhemberg Duke of Marlborough Marquis de Ruvigny...

Other examples of royal family intermarriage include:

  • Some Peruvian Sapa Incas married their sisters; in such cases we find a special combination between endogamy and polygamy. Normally the son of the old ruler and the ruler's oldest (half-)sister became the new ruler.
  • The Inca had an unwritten rule that the new ruler must be a son of the Inca and his wife and sister. He then had to marry his sister (not half-sister), which ultimately led to the catastrophic Huascars reign, culminating in a civil war and then fall of the empire.
The family-tree of Charles II of Spain shows an extraordinary number of uncle-niece and cousin unions of varying degrees

Intermarriage in European royal families is no longer practiced as often as in the past. This is likely due to changes in the importance of marriage as a method of forming political alliances through kinship ties between nobility, as well as an awareness of modern medical science. These ties were often sealed only upon the birth of progeny within the arranged marriage. Marriage was seen as a union of lines of nobility, not of a contract between individuals as it is seen today. More marry for "love", best illustrated by the second marriage of Prince Charles of the United Kingdom. During the tumult of the removal, sometimes by revolution, of most lines of nobility from state government, it became less important to marry for the good of the respective monarchies and the states they governed. The ruler of the Inca Empire (quechua: Inka Qhapaq) used the title of Sapa (the only one) and Apu (divinity). ... Endogamy is the practice of marrying within a social group. ... Polygamy has been a feature of human culture since earliest history. ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... Alternate meaning: Huáscar (warship) Huascar, in full Inti Cusi Huallpa Huáscar (“Sun of Joy”) (died 1532). ... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 777 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (783 × 604 pixel, file size: 36 KB, MIME type: image/png) The Ancestry of King Charles II of Spain (1661-1700) Created by user:Lec CRP1 Title edited by Cfvh on November 16th, 2006. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 777 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (783 × 604 pixel, file size: 36 KB, MIME type: image/png) The Ancestry of King Charles II of Spain (1661-1700) Created by user:Lec CRP1 Title edited by Cfvh on November 16th, 2006. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Charles II of Spain. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Spanish monarchy, referred to as the Crown of Spain (Corona de España) in the Spanish Constitution of 1978, is the office of the King or Queen of Spain. ... Image:Isabel of Portugal (Karl V.).jpg Isabel of Portugal, Queen of Spain and Empress of the Holy Roman Empire, by Titian. ... Infante D. João of Portugal. ... Joan, Infanta of Spain (Spanish: Juana), of the Habsburg family, was the daughter of Emperor Charles V who was the first king of united Spain (officially King of Aragon and king of Castile), and his consort Infanta Isabel of Portugal, daughter of King Manuel I of Portugal. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Mary, Queen of Scots redirects here. ... Henry Stuart, Duke of Albany (7 December 1545 – 9 or 10 February 1567), commonly known as Lord Darnley, king consort of Scotland, was the first cousin and second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, and the father of her son King James VI, who also succeded Elizabeth I of England. ... Louis XIV redirects here. ... Marie Thérèse redirects here. ... William III of England, II of Scotland and III of Orange (The Hague, 14 November 1650 – Kensington Palace, 8 March 1702) was a Dutch aristocrat, the Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28 June 1672, King of England and King... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... George I (George Louis; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727)[1] was King of Great Britain and Ireland, from 1 August 1714 until his death. ... Sophia Dorothea (15 September 1666 – 13 November 1726) was the wife and cousin of George Louis, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, later George I of Great Britain, and mother of George II through an arranged marriage of state, instigated by the machinations of Duchess Sophia of Hanover. ... King Philip V of Spain (December 19, 1683 – July 9, 1746) or Philippe of Anjou was king of Spain from 1700 to 1746, the first of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. ... Maria Luisa of Savoy by Jean Garavaque, 1701, The Louvre Museum Maria Luisa of Savoy (November 17, 1688 - February 14, 1714) was the first wife of king Philip V of Spain. ... Gustav III, King of the Swedes, the Goths and the Vends, etc. ... Sofia Magdalena of Denmark and Norway (Christiansborg Palace, Denmark, 3 July 1743 - Ulriksdal Palace, Sweden, 21 August 1813) was a Queen consort of Sweden. ... King Christian VII Christian VII (January 29, 1749–March 13, 1808), King of Denmark and Norway, Duke of Schleswig and Holstein. ... Princess Caroline Matilda of Wales (Danish: ) (11 July 1751 - 10 May 1775), was a princess of Great Britain and Ireland, sister of George III and queen of Denmark from 1766 to 1772. ... George IV (George Augustus Frederick) (12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was king of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Hanover from 29 January 1820 until his death. ... Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (later Queen Caroline; 17 May 1768 – 7 August 1821) was the queen consort of George IV of the United Kingdom from 29 January 1820 to her death. ... William I (William Frederick Louis, German: ) (March 22, 1797 – March 9, 1888) of the House of Hohenzollern was a King of Prussia (January 2, 1861 – 9 March 1888) and the first German Emperor (18 January 1871 – 9 March 1888). ... Princess Augusta Marie Luise Katharina of Saxe-Weimar, Duchess in Saxony (September 30, 1811–January 7, 1890), later the Queen of Prussia and German Empress was the consort of William I, German Emperor. ... Queen Victoria redirects here. ... Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (in full Francis Charles Augustus Albert Emmanuel), later The Prince Consort, (26 August 1819 – 14 December 1861) was the husband and consort of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Franz Joseph I (in Hungarian I. Ferenc József, in English Francis Joseph I) (August 18, 1830 – November 21, 1916) of the Habsburg Dynasty was Emperor of Austria, Apostolic King of Hungary, King of Bohemia from 1848 until 1916 and a German prince (Deutscher Fürst). ... Elisabeth in a riding habit, from Vanity Fair, 1884. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, which he created from the British branch of the German House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... Mary of Teck (Victoria Mary Augusta Louise Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes; 26 May 1867 – 24 March 1953) was the Queen Consort of George V. Queen Mary was also the Empress of India. ... Gustaf Adolf, Gustaf Adolf Oscar Fredrik Arthur Edmund (April 22, 1906–January 26, 1947), Prince of Sweden, Duke of Västerbotten, was the eldest son of Gustaf VI Adolf of Sweden and his first wife Princess Margaret of Connaught. ... Princess Sibylla of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (18 January 1908–28 November 1972) was Duchess of Västerbotten and a Princess of Sweden, and the mother of the future Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden. ... Carl XVI Gustaf, King of Sweden (Carl Gustaf Folke Hubertus; born 30 April 1946) is the current Swedish monarch and head of state of the Kingdom of Sweden. ... Princess Sophie of Sweden (Swedish: , German: Sophie von Schweden), sometimes called Sofia Wilhelmina of Vasa (May 21, 1801 - July 6, 1865), was a consort Grand Duchess of Baden. ... Leopold I, Grand Duke of Baden (* 29 August 1790; † 24 April 1852). ... Marriage is an interpersonal relationship with governmental, social, or religious recognition, usually intimate and sexual, and often created as a contract, or through civil process. ... A political alliance or political coalition is an agreement for cooperation between different political parties, often for purposes of contesting an election to mutually benefit by collectively clearing election thresholds or otherwise benefiting from characteristics of the voting system. ... Marriage à-la-mode by William Hogarth: a satire on arranged marriages and prediction of ensuing disaster The purpose of an arranged marriage is to form a new family unit by marriage while respecting the chastity of all people involved. ... “Prince Charles” redirects here. ...

See also

The prohibited degree of kinship refers to a degree of consanguinity (relatedness) below which sexual interrelationships are regarded as incestuous. ... A cousin couple is a pair of cousins with a romantic or sexual relationship. ... Outbreeding depression This phenomenon can occur in two ways. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into inbreeding. ... In population genetics, Sewall Wrights coefficient of relationship or relatedness is the probability that at a random locus, the alleles there will be identical by descent. ... Consanguinity, literally meaning common blood, describes how close a person is related to another in the sense of a family. ... Exogamy has two related definitions, both biological and cultural. ... Selective breeding in domesticated animals is the process of developing a cultivated breed over time. ... Self-incompatibility (SI) is one of the most important means to prevent selfing and promote the generation of new genotypes in plants, and it is considered as one of the causes for the spread and success of the angiosperms, on our planet. ... F-statistics in population genetics, are concerned with the level of heterozygosity in a population and the cause of (usually) a reduction in heterozygosity when compared to Hardy-Weinberg expectation. ... A heterozygote advantage (heterozygous advantage or overdominance) describes the case in which the heterozygote genotype has a higher relative fitness than either the homozygote dominant or homozygote recessive genotype. ...


  1. ^ Griffiths, Anthony J. F.; Jeffrey H. Miller, David T. Suzuki, Richard C. Lewontin, William M. Gelbart (1999). An introduction to genetic analysis. New York: W. H. Freeman, 726-727. ISBN 0-7167-3771-X. 
  2. ^ Cheetahs
  3. ^ M Menotti-Raymond and S J O'Brien. "Dating the genetic bottleneck of the African cheetah." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 April 15; 90(8): 3172–3176.
  4. ^ [http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/JFO/v051n02/p0168-p0173.pdf CHARLES F. LECK. "ESTABLISHMENT OF NEW POPULATION CENTERS WITH CHANGES IN MIGRATION PATTERNS." New Population Centers Vol. 51, No. 2]
  5. ^ http://www.dur.ac.uk/anthropology.journal/vol13/iss1/posters/freilich.pdf
  6. ^ http://services.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/tslogin?url=http://www.oxfordjournals.org%2Fjnls%2Flist%2Fjhered%2Ffreepdf%2F82-378.pdf
  7. ^ http://www.iupac.org/publications/pac/1998/pdf/7011x2079.pdf
  8. ^ http://services.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/tslogin?url=http://www.oxfordjournals.org%2Fjnls%2Flist%2Fjhered%2Ffreepdf%2F82-378.pdf
  9. ^ "ADVS 3910 Wild Horses Behavior," web page accessed June 22, 2007 at http://www.advs.usu.edu/academics/pdf/ADVS3910WildHorses.pdf
  10. ^ http://muextension.missouri.edu/explore/agguides/ansci/g02036.htm
  11. ^ http://www.nimss.umd.edu/homepages/home.cfm?trackID=2354
  12. ^ http://showcase.netins.net/web/royalair/libreeding.htm
  13. ^ http://www.petplace.com/cats/top-cat-breeds-for-2004/page1.aspx
  14. ^ http://www.bulldoginformation.com/breeding-quality.html
  15. ^ http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?groupid=1761&HistoryID=ab50 History of Spain, Habsburg inbreeding and Spanish succession: 17th c. AD]
  16. ^ "Medical Consequences of Dating a Relative." Web page accessed September 23, 2007
  17. ^ http://www.hapsburg.com/menu5.htm "The Imperial House of Hapsburg: Chapter 5. Web page accessed September 23, 2007]
  18. ^ Id.
  19. ^ "English Monarchs-The House of Stuart-The War of the Spanish Succession" Web page accessed September 23, 2007
  20. ^ [http://www.msu.edu/course/lbs/333/fall/hapsburglip.html "The Hapsburg Lip." Topics in the History of Genetics and Molecular Biology, Fall 2000
  21. ^ http://www.hapsburg.com/menu5.htm "The Imperial House of Hapsburg: Chapter 5. Web page accessed September 23, 2007]

  Results from FactBites:
Inbreeding - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1081 words)
Inbreeding may result in a far higher expression of deleterious genes within a population than would normally be expected.
Inbreeding is used by breeders of domestic animals to fix desirable genetic traits within a population.
Inbreeding is also deliberately induced in laboratory mice in order to guarantee a consistent and uniform animal model for experimental purposes.
Inbreeding and Linebreeding (1577 words)
Since all pure breeds of animal trace back to a relatively limited number of foundation dogs, all pure breeding is by this definition inbreeding, although the term is not generally used to refer to matings where a common ancestor does not occur behind sire and dam in a four or five generation pedigree.
However, the process of inbreeding used to create these strains generally results in loss of fertility (first seen in these mammals as a reduction in litter size) which actually kills off the majority of the strains between 8 and 12 generations of this extent of inbreeding.
Robert Lacy for the calculation of the inbreeding coefficient, kinship coefficients among animals in the breeding pool, percent contributions of varying founding ancestors, and related output, assuming full pedigrees to the foundation stock were available for all animals currently in the breeding population.
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