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Encyclopedia > In vivo

In vivo (Latin for (with)in the living). In vivo is used to indicate the presence of a whole/living organism, in distinction to a partial or dead organism, or a computer model. Latin is the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... In biology and ecology, an organism (in Greek organon = instrument) is an assembly of organs that influence each other in such a way that they function as a more or less stable whole and have properties of life. ...


For example, In vivo biological research differentiates whole organism research from in vitro research, which is performed on organs, tissues, cells, cellular components, proteins, or biomolecules. Clinical trials are a form of in vivo research, albeit on humans. In silico research refers to numerical simulation on a computer of, for example, a reaction between two proteins. Wiktionary has a definition of: In vitro In vitro (Latin: within glass) means within a test tube, or, more generally, outside a living organism or cell. ... In biology, an organ (Latin organum: instrument, tool) is a group of tissues, which perform a specific function or group of functions. ... Biological tissue is a substance made up of cells that perform a similar function. ... Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the structural and functional unit of all living organisms, sometimes called the building blocks of life. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... In medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is a research study. ... A computer is a device or machine for processing information according to a program — a compiled list of instructions. ... Protein-protein docking is a field of theoretical, quantum and, computational chemistry and, in particular, of theoretical biochemistry aimed at predicting properties of the associations between two or more proteins. ...


The in vivo-in vitro dichotomy is also frequently used in a medical context, e. g. in vivo-in vitro fertilization. Categories: Biology stubs ...


In vivo Research

In vivo research is more suited to observe an overall effect than in vitro research, which is better suited to deduce mechanisms of action. In vitro research aims to describe and understand the effect of an experimental variable on a subset of an organism's components. In vitro research has the advantage over in vivo research that there are fewer variables which can confound an experiment, and that if an experimental effect is subtle the result will be more clearly visible.


In vivo research has the advantage, over in vitro research, that the experimental system is a more complex biological system. This means that in vivo research will likely give a better indication of what will happen in a population when a compound is administered to or a procedure is performed on an animal model of disease. This is why all new drugs must first undergo animal testing, followed by clinical trials, before they are released to the general population. A chemical compound is a chemical substance formed from two or more elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition. ... An animal model usually refers to a non-human animal with a disease or altered health state that is similar to a human condition, these test subjects are often termed as animal models of disease. ...


Christopher Lipinski's rationale for this observation is: In 1997 Christopher A. Lipinski published a seminal paper identifying a series of features commonly found in orally active drugs. ...

Whether the aim is to discover drugs or to gain knowledge of biological systems, the nature and properties of a chemical tool cannot be considered independently of the system it is to be tested in. Compounds that bind to isolated recombinant proteins are one thing; chemical tools that can perturb cell function another; and pharmacological agents that can be tolerated by a live organism and perturb its systems are yet another. If it were simple to ascertain the properties required to develop a lead discovered in vitro to one that is active in vivo, drug discovery would be as reliable as drug manufacturing. (Lipinski 2004)

The massive adoption of low-cost, in vitro, molecular biology techniques has caused a move away from in vivo research, which is considered too idiosyncratic and, above all, expensive compared to its molecular counterpart. Currently, in vitro models and experiments are a vital and highly productive research tool. Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ...


The guinea pig was previously such a commonly used in vivo experimental model that they became part of idiomatic English: 'being a guinea-pig for someone/something'. Their use in research has been substantially replaced by the smaller, cheaper and faster breeding rats and mice. Species Cavia porcellus Cavia aperea Cavia tschudii Cavia guianae Cavia anolaimae Cavia nana Cavia fulgida Cavia magna Guinea pigs (also called cavies) are rodents belonging to the family Caviidae and the genus Cavia. ... Species 50 species; see text *Several subfamilies of Muroids include animals called rats. ...


As the term is in Latin, it is written in italics.


See also: ex vivo, in utero, in situ, in vitro, in silico. Ex vivo is an experimental technique where either the experiment is performed in vivo and then analyzed in vitro or where part of the subject is removed, the experiment is performed, and the part is returned. ... In Utero is Nirvanas third and final studio album, released in September 1993. ... In situ (in place in Latin), a term used in: biology, where it means to examine the phenomenon exactly in place where it occurs (without removing it in some special medium etc. ... Wiktionary has a definition of: In vitro In vitro (Latin: within glass) means within a test tube, or, more generally, outside a living organism or cell. ... in silico is literally in silicon and means performed on computer or via computer simulation. ...


References

Lipinski, C. & Hopkins, A. Navigating chemical space for biology and medicine. Nature. 2004. 432: 855-861.


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CiteULike: Diffusion tensor imaging of in vivo and excised rat spinal cord at 7 T with an icosahedral encoding scheme. (0 words)
CiteULike: Diffusion tensor imaging of in vivo and excised rat spinal cord at 7 T with an icosahedral encoding scheme.
Diffusion tensor imaging of in vivo and excised rat spinal cord at 7 T with an icosahedral encoding scheme.
Regional values of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (D(av)) of in vivo and excised rat spinal cords were measured using an iscosahedral encoding scheme that is based on 21 uniformly distributed and alternating gradient directions with an echo planar imaging (EPI) readout.
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