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Encyclopedia > Impressionism

Impressionism was a 19th century art movement that began as a loose association of Paris-based artists, who began exhibiting their art publicly in the 1860s. The name of the movement is derived from the title of a Claude Monet work, Impression, Sunrise (Impression, soleil levant), which provoked the critic Louis Leroy to coin the term in a satiric review published in Le Charivari. An impressionist is a performer whose act consists of giving the impression of being someone else by imitating the other persons voice and mannerisms. ... Image File history File links Composite of three images of Monets Paintings. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a restricted period of time, or, at least, with the heyday of the movement more or less strictly so restricted (usually a few months, years or... This article is about the capital of France. ... The definition of an artist is wide-ranging and covers a broad spectrum of activities to do with creating art, practicing the arts and/or demonstrating an art. ... Art exhibitions are traditionally the space in which art objects (in the most general sense) meet an audience. ... // The First Transcontinental Railroad in the USA was built in the six year period between 1863 and 1869. ... Claude Monet also known as Oscar-Claude Monet or Claude Oscar Monet (November 14, 1840 – December 5, 1926)[1] was a founder of French impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movements philosophy of expressing ones perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein... Impression, Sunrise (Impression, soleil levant) Impression, Sunrise (Impression, soleil levant) is a painting by Claude Monet, for which the Impressionist movement was named. ... Louis Leroy was the journalist and literary critique of the french journal Le Charivari, coining the famous word impressionism in an attempt to denigrate the painters of the modern movement of his time. ... Words and phrases are often created, or coined, by combining existing words, or by giving words new and unique suffixes and/or prefixes. ... Le Charivari was an illustrated newspaper published in Paris, France from 1832 to 1937. ...


Characteristics of Impressionist painting include visible brushstrokes, open composition, emphasis on light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, the inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles. Composition is the plan, placement or arrangement of the elements of art in a work. ...


The emergence of Impressionism in the visual arts was soon followed by analogous movements in other media which became known as Impressionist music and Impressionist literature. The Mona Lisa is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the Western world. ... The impressionist movement in music is a movement in European classical music that had its beginnings in the late nineteenth century and continued into the middle of the twentieth century. ... Headline text Influenced by the Impressionist art movement, many writers adopted a style that relied on associations. ...


Impressionism also describes art created in this style, but outside of the late 19th century time period. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Overview

Radicals in their time, early Impressionists broke the rules of academic painting. They began by giving colors, freely brushed, primacy over line, drawing inspiration from the work of painters such as Eugene Delacroix. They also took the act of painting out of the studio and into the world. Previously, not only still lifes and portraits, but also landscapes, had been painted indoors, but the Impressionists found that they could capture the momentary and transient effects of sunlight by painting en plein air. Painting realistic scenes of modern life, they emphasized vivid overall effects rather than details. They used short, "broken" brush strokes of pure and unmixed color, not smoothly blended, as was customary, in order to achieve the effect of intense color vibration. Eugène Delacroix (portrait by Nadar) Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (April 26, 1798 - August 13, 1863) was an important painter from the French romantic period. ... A still life is a work of art which represents a subject composed of inanimate objects. ... For other uses, see Portrait (disambiguation). ... The Harvesters, by Pieter Brueghel the Elder, 1565: Peace and agriculture in a pre-Romantic ideal landscape, without sublime terrors The term Landscape as most westerners use it, is completely entrenched in western notions of land, nature and art. ... Claude Monet Painting by the Edge of a Wood. ...


Although the rise of Impressionism in France happened at a time when a number of other painters, including the Italian artists known as the Macchiaioli, and Winslow Homer in the United States, were also exploring plein-air painting, the Impressionists developed new techniques that were specific to the movement. Encompassing what its adherents argued was a different way of seeing, it was an art of immediacy and movement, of candid poses and compositions, of the play of light expressed in a bright and varied use of color. Hay stacks by Giovanni Fattori a leading artist in the Macchiaioli movement The Macchiaioli movement was a school of 19th century Tuscan painters originating from the 1850s. ... Winslow Homer Winslow Homer (February 24, 1836 – September 29, 1910) was an North American landscape painter and printmaker, most famous for his marine subjects. ...


The public, at first hostile, gradually came to believe that the Impressionists had captured a fresh and original vision, even if it did not receive the approval of the art critics and establishment.


By recreating the sensation in the eye that views the subject, rather than recreating the subject, and by creating a welter of techniques and forms, Impressionism became seminal to various movements in painting which would follow, including Neo-Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Fauvism, and Cubism. Neo-Impressionism is a term coined by the French art critic Félix Fénéon in 1887[1] to characterise the late-19th century art movement led by Georges Seurat and Paul Signac, who first exhibited their work in 1884 at the exhibition of the Société des Artistes... Self-Portrait with sister, by Victor Borisov-Musatov 1898 Post-Impressionism is the term coined by the British artist and art critic Roger Fry in 1914, to describe the development of European art since Monet (Impressionism). ... Henri Matisse, Portrait of Madame Matisse (The green line), 1905, Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen, Denmark [[Image:Matissedance. ... Pablo Picasso, Le guitariste, 1910 Juan Gris, Portrait of Picasso, 1912, oil on canvas Georges BraqueWoman with a guitar, 1913 Juan Gris, Still Life with Fruit Dish and Mandolin, 1919, oil on canvas Cubist villa in Prague, Czech Republic Cubist House of the Black Madonna, Prague, Czech Republic, 1912 Cubism...

Download high resolution version (210x692, 65 KB)Composite of three images of Renoirs Paintings. ...

Beginnings

In an atmosphere of change as Empereur Napoléon III rebuilt Paris and waged war, the Académie des Beaux-Arts dominated the French art scene in the middle of the 19th century. The Académie was the upholder of traditional standards for French painting, both in content and style. Historical subjects, religious themes, and portraits were valued (landscape and still life were not), and the Académie preferred carefully finished images which mirrored reality when examined closely. Color was somber and conservative, and the traces of brush strokes were suppressed, concealing the artist's personality, emotions, and working techniques. This article is about the President of the French Republic and Emperor of the French. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The Académie des beaux-arts (Academy of Fine Arts) is a French learned society. ...


The Académie held an annual, juried art show, the Salon de Paris, and artists whose work displayed in the show won prizes, garnered commissions, and enhanced their prestige. The standards of the juries reflected the values of the Académie, represented by the highly polished works of such artists as Jean-Léon Gérôme and Alexandre Cabanel. Honoré Daumier satirized the bourgeoises scandalized by the Salons Venuses, 1864 The Paris Salon (French: Salon de Paris) is the official art exhibit of the Académie des beaux-arts in Paris, France. ... Pollice Verso by Jean-Léon Gérôme, 1872, is the immediate source of the thumbs down gesture in popular culture. ... Alexandre Cabanel, Self Portrait (1847). ...


The young artists painted in a lighter and brighter manner than painters of the preceding generation, extending further the realism of Gustave Courbet and the Barbizon school. They were more interested in painting landscape and contemporary life than in recreating scenes from history. Each year, they submitted their art to the Salon, only to see the juries reject their best efforts in favour of trivial works by artists working in the approved style. A core group of young realists, Claude Monet, Pierre Auguste Renoir, Alfred Sisley, and Frédéric Bazille, who had studied under Charles Gleyre, became friends and often painted together. They soon were joined by Camille Pissarro, Paul Cézanne, and Armand Guillaumin. For other uses, see Realism (disambiguation). ... Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet (10 June 1819 – 31 December 1877) was a French painter who led the Realist movement in 19th-century French painting. ... The Gleaners. ... Claude Monet also known as Oscar-Claude Monet or Claude Oscar Monet (November 14, 1840 – December 5, 1926)[1] was a founder of French impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movements philosophy of expressing ones perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein... Pierre-Auguste Renoir (February 25, 1841 - December 3, 1919) was a preeminent French painter. ... Alfred Sisley. ... 1865–1866. ... Evening, or Lost Illusions (Le Soir Ou Les Illusions Perdues). ... The garden of Pontoise, painted 1875. ... Cezanne redirects here. ... Armand Guillaumin. ...


In 1863, the jury rejected The Luncheon on the Grass (Le déjeuner sur l'herbe) by Édouard Manet primarily because it depicted a nude woman with two clothed men at a picnic. While nudes were routinely accepted by the Salon when featured in historical and allegorical paintings, the jury condemned Manet for placing a realistic nude in a contemporary setting.[1] The jury's sharply worded rejection of Manet's painting, as well as the unusually large number of rejected works that year, set off a firestorm among French artists. Manet was admired by Monet and his friends, and led the discussions at Café Guerbois where the group of artists frequently met. Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Luncheon on the Grass (Le déjeuner sur lherbe), originally titled The Bath (Le Bain), is an oil on canvas painting by Édouard Manet. ... “Manet” redirects here. ... Bohèmes au café. (1886) Jean-François Raffaelli. ...


After seeing the rejected works in 1863, Emperor Napoleon III decreed that the public be allowed to judge the work themselves, and the Salon des Refusés (Salon of the Refused) was organized. While many viewers came only to laugh, the Salon des Refusés drew attention to the existence of a new tendency in art and attracted more visitors than the regular Salon.[2] The Salon des Refusés (Salon of the Rejected) was an art exhibition in Paris. ...


Artists' petitions requesting a new Salon des Refusés in 1867, and again in 1872, were denied. In April of 1874 a group consisting of Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, Sisley, Cézanne, Berthe Morisot, and Edgar Degas organized their own exhibition at the studio of the photographer Nadar. They invited a number of other progressive artists to exhibit with them, including the slightly older Eugène Boudin, whose example had first persuaded Monet to take up plein air painting years before.[3] Another painter who greatly influenced Monet and his friends, Johan Jongkind, declined to participate, as did Manet. In total, thirty artists participated in the exhibition, which was the first of eight that the group would present between 1874 and 1886. Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Berthe Morisot in a portrait by Édouard Manet, 1872 Berthe Morisot (January 14, 1841 – March 2, 1895) was an Impressionist painter. ... Edgar Degas (19 July 1834 – 27 September 1917), born Hilaire-Germain-Edgar Degas (IPA ), was a French artist famous for his work in painting, sculpture, printmaking and drawing. ... Nadar (self-portrait). ... Rivage de Portrieux, Cotes-du-Nord by Eugène Boudin. ... The Seine and Notre-Dame in Paris, 1864, Johan Jongkind, Musée dOrsay, Paris. ...


The critical response was mixed, with Monet and Cézanne bearing the harshest attacks. Critic and humorist Louis Leroy wrote a scathing review in the Le Charivari newspaper in which, making wordplay with the title of Claude Monet's Impression, Sunrise (Impression, soleil levant), he gave the artists the name by which they would become known. Derisively titling his article The Exhibition of the Impressionists, Leroy declared that Monet's painting was at most, a sketch, and could hardly be termed a finished work. Louis Leroy was the journalist and literary critique of the french journal Le Charivari, coining the famous word impressionism in an attempt to denigrate the painters of the modern movement of his time. ... Impression, Sunrise (Impression, soleil levant) Impression, Sunrise (Impression, soleil levant) is a painting by Claude Monet, for which the Impressionist movement was named. ...

He wrote, in the form of a dialog between viewers, Download high resolution version (210x625, 46 KB)Composite of three images of Degas Paintings. ...

Impression — I was certain of it. I was just telling myself that, since I was impressed, there had to be some impression in it … and what freedom, what ease of workmanship! Wallpaper in its embryonic state is more finished than that seascape.[4]

The term "Impressionists" quickly gained favour with the public. It was also accepted by the artists themselves, even though they were a diverse group in style and temperament, unified primarily by their spirit of independence and rebellion.


Monet, Sisley, Morisot, and Pissarro may be considered the "purest" Impressionists, in their consistent pursuit of an art of spontaneity, sunlight, and color. Degas rejected much of this, as he believed in the primacy of drawing over color and belittled the practice of painting outdoors.[5] Renoir turned against Impressionism for a time in the 1880s, and never entirely regained his commitment to its ideas. Édouard Manet, despite his role as a leader to the group, never abandoned his liberal use of black as a color, and never participated in the Impressionist exhibitions. He continued to submit his works to the Salon, where his Spanish Singer had won a 2nd class medal in 1861, and he urged the others to do likewise, arguing that "the Salon is the real field of battle" where a reputation could be made.[6]


Among the artists of the core group (minus Bazille, who had died in the Franco-Prussian War in 1870), defections occurred as Cézanne, followed later by Renoir, Sisley, and Monet, abstained from the group exhibitions in order to submit their works to the Salon. Disagreements arose from issues such as Guillaumin's membership in the group, championed by Pissarro and Cézanne against opposition from Monet and Degas, who thought him unworthy.[7] Degas invited Mary Cassatt to display her work in the 1879 exhibition, but he also caused dissention by insisting on the inclusion of Jean-François Raffaëlli, Ludovic Lepic, and other realists who did not represent Impressionist practices, leading Monet in 1880 to accuse the Impressionists of "opening doors to first-come daubers".[8] The group divided over the invitation of Signac and Seurat to exhibit with them in 1886. Pissarro was the only artist to show at all eight Impressionist exhibitions. Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with South German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III François Achille Bazaine Patrice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta Otto von Bismarck Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at wars beginning 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000... Self-portrait (1878) by painter Mary Cassatt Mary Stevenson Cassatt (May 22, 1844 – June 14, 1926) was an American painter and printmaker. ... Jean-François Raffaëlli (1850 - 1924) was a French Impressionist artist, known for his paintings, sculpture and graphic work, but also active as actor and writer. ... The Papal Palace, Avignon, oil on canvas, 1900 Paul Signac (November 11, 1863 - August 15, 1935) was a French neo-impressionist painter who, working with Georges Seurat, helped develop the pointillist style. ... Le Chahut was painted by Seurat from 1889 to 1890. ...


The individual artists saw few financial rewards from the Impressionist exhibitions, but their art gradually won a degree of public acceptance. Their dealer, Durand-Ruel, played a major role in this as he kept their work before the public and arranged shows for them in London and New York. Although Sisley would die in poverty in 1899, Renoir had a great Salon success in 1879. Financial security came to Monet in the early 1880s and to Pissarro by the early 1890s. By this time the methods of Impressionist painting, in a diluted form, had become commonplace in Salon art.[9] Paul Durand-Ruel (1831 – 1922) was a French art dealer who is associated with the Impressionists. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


Impressionist techniques

  • Short, thick strokes of paint are used to quickly capture the essence of the subject, rather than its details. The paint is often applied impasto.
  • Colors are applied side-by-side with as little mixing as possible, creating a vibrant surface. The optical mixing of colors occurs in the eye of the viewer.
  • Grays and dark tones are produced by mixing complementary colors. In pure Impressionism the use of black paint is avoided.
  • Wet paint is placed into wet paint without waiting for successive applications to dry, producing softer edges and an intermingling of color.[1]
  • Impressionist paintings do not exploit the transparency of thin paint films (glazes) which earlier artists built up carefully to produce effects. The surface of an Impressionist painting is typically opaque.
  • The play of natural light is emphasized. Close attention is paid to the reflection of colors from object to object.
  • In paintings made en plein air (outdoors), shadows are boldly painted with the blue of the sky as it is reflected onto surfaces, giving a sense of freshness and openness that was not captured in painting previously. (Blue shadows on snow inspired the technique.)
Lydia Leaning on Her Arms in a theatre box (1879) by Mary Cassatt

Painters throughout history had occasionally used these methods, but Impressionists were the first to use all of them together, and with such boldness. Earlier artists whose works display these techniques include Frans Hals, Diego Velázquez, Peter Paul Rubens, John Constable, and J. M. W. Turner. Image:Jane Frank Crgs And Crevices. ... Complementary colors are pairs of colors that are of “opposite” hue in some color model. ... Claude Monet Painting by the Edge of a Wood. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (831x1000, 215 KB) Title: Lydia Leaning on Her Arms (in a theatre box) Date: 1879 File links The following pages link to this file: Mary Cassatt ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (831x1000, 215 KB) Title: Lydia Leaning on Her Arms (in a theatre box) Date: 1879 File links The following pages link to this file: Mary Cassatt ... Frans Hals (c. ... For others named Velázquez, see Velazquez (disambiguation). ... Peter Paul Rubens (June 28, 1577 – May 30, 1640) was a prolific seventeenth-century Flemish and European painter, and a proponent of an exuberant Baroque style that emphasized movement, color, and sensuality. ... A self portrait by John Constable John Constable (11 June 1776 – 31 March 1837) was an English Romantic painter. ... J. M. W. Turner, English landscape painter The fighting Temeraire tugged to her last berth to be broken up, painted 1839. ...


French painters who prepared the way for Impressionism include the Romantic colorist Eugène Delacroix, the leader of the realists Gustave Courbet, and painters of the Barbizon school such as Théodore Rousseau. The Impressionists learned much from the work of Camille Corot and Eugène Boudin, who painted from nature in a style that was close to Impressionism, and who befriended and advised the younger artists. Romantics redirects here. ... Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (April 26, 1798 – August 13, 1863) was one of the most important of the French Romantic painters. ... Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet (10 June 1819 – 31 December 1877) was a French painter who led the Realist movement in 19th-century French painting. ... Pierre Étienne Théodore Rousseau (April 15, 1812 - December 22, 1867), French painter of the Barbizon school, was born in Paris, of a bourgeois family which included one or two artists. ... Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot (portrait by Nadar) Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot (July 26, 1796 – February 22, French landscape painter. ... Rivage de Portrieux, Cotes-du-Nord by Eugène Boudin. ...


Impressionists took advantage of the mid-century introduction of premixed paints in lead tubes (resembling modern toothpaste tubes) which allowed artists to work more spontaneously, both outdoors and indoors. Previously, painters made their own paints individually, by grinding and mixing dry pigment powders with linseed oil, which were then stored in animal bladders.[10]


Content and composition

Before the Impressionists other painters, notably such 17th century Dutch painters as Jan Steen, had focused on common subjects, but their approaches to composition were traditional. They arranged their compositions in such a way that the main subject commanded the viewer's attention. The Impressionists relaxed the boundary between subject and background so that the effect of an Impressionist painting often resembles a snapshot, a part of a larger reality captured as if by chance.[11] Photography was gaining popularity, and as cameras became more portable, photographs became more candid. Photography inspired Impressionists to capture the moment, not only in the fleeting lights of a landscape, but in the day-to-day lives of people. Johannes Vermeer Milkmaid 1658-1660 The Dutch Golden Age was a period in Dutch history, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world. ... // Steen was born in Leiden, where his well-to-do, Catholic family had run the tavern The Red Halbert for several generations. ... Composition is the plan, placement or arrangement of the elements of art in a work. ... Photography [fәtɑgrәfi:],[foʊtɑgrәfi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ...


The rise of the impressionist movement can be seen in part as a reaction by artists to the newly established medium of photography. The taking of fixed or still images challenged painters by providing a new medium with which to capture reality. Initially photography’s presence seemed to undermine the artist’s depiction of nature and their ability to mirror reality. Both portrait and landscape paintings were deemed somewhat deficient and lacking in truth as photography “produced lifelike images much more efficiently and reliably”. [12] This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


In spite of this, photography actually inspired artists to pursue other means of artistic expression, and rather than competing with photography to emulate reality, artists focused “on the one thing they could inevitably do better than the photograph – by further developing into an art form its very subjectivity in the conception of the image, the very subjectivity that photography eliminated”.[12] The Impressionists sought to express their perceptions of nature, rather than create exacting reflections or mirror images of the world. This allowed artists to subjectively depict what they saw with their “tacit imperatives of taste and conscience”. [13] Photography encouraged painters to exploit aspects of the painting medium, like colour, which photography then lacked; “the Impressionists were the first to consciously offer a subjective alternative to the photograph”.[12]


Another major influence was Japanese art prints (Japonism), which had originally come into France as wrapping paper for imported goods. The art of these prints contributed significantly to the "snapshot" angles and unconventional compositions which would become characteristic of the movement. Van Gogh - Portrait of Pere Tanguy Example of ukiyo-e influence in Western art Japonism (also in French Japonisme and Japonaiserie) is the influence of Japanese art on Western, primarily French, artists. ...


Edgar Degas was both an avid photographer and a collector of Japanese prints.[14] His The Dance Class (La classe de danse) of 1874 shows both influences in its asymmetrical composition. The dancers are seemingly caught off guard in various awkward poses, leaving an expanse of empty floor space in the lower right quadrant. Edgar Degas (19 July 1834 – 27 September 1917), born Hilaire-Germain-Edgar Degas (IPA ), was a French artist famous for his work in painting, sculpture, printmaking and drawing. ...


Post-Impressionism

Main article: Post-Impressionism

Post-Impressionism developed from Impressionism. From the 1880s several artists began to develop different precepts for the use of color, pattern, form, and line, derived from the Impressionist example: Vincent Van Gogh, Paul Gauguin, Georges Seurat, and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. These artists were slightly younger than the Impressionists, and their work is known as post-Impressionism. Some of the original Impressionist artists also ventured into this new territory; Camille Pissarro briefly painted in a pointillist manner, and even Monet abandoned strict plein air painting. Paul Cézanne, who participated in the first and third Impressionist exhibitions, developed a highly individual vision emphasizing pictorial structure, and he is more often called a post-Impressionist. Although these cases illustrate the difficulty of assigning labels, the work of the original Impressionist painters may, by definition, be categorized as Impressionism. Self-Portrait with sister, by Victor Borisov-Musatov 1898 Post-Impressionism is the term coined by the British artist and art critic Roger Fry in 1914, to describe the development of European art since Monet (Impressionism). ... van Gogh redirects here. ... Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin (7 June 1848 – 8 May 1903) was a leading Post-Impressionist painter. ... Le Chahut was painted by Seurat from 1889 to 1890. ... Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (IPA ) (November 24, 1864 – September 9, 1901) was a French painter, printmaker, draftsman, and illustrator, whose immersion in the decadent and theatrical life of fin de siècle Paris yielded an oeuvre of provocative images of modern life. ... The garden of Pontoise, painted 1875. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cezanne redirects here. ...


Painters known as Impressionists

The central figures in the development of Impressionism in France, listed alphabetically, were:

Among the close associates of the Impressionists were several painters who adopted their methods to some degree. These include Giuseppe De Nittis, an Italian artist living in Paris who participated in the first Impressionist exhibit at the invitation of Degas, although the other Impressionists disparaged his work.[16] Federico Zandomeneghi was another Italian friend of Degas who showed with the Impressionists. Eva Gonzalès was a follower of Manet who did not exhibit with the group. James Abbott McNeill Whistler was an American-born painter who played a part in Impressionism although he did not join the group and preferred grayed colors. Walter Sickert, an English artist, was initially a follower of Whistler, and later an important disciple of Degas; he did not exhibit with the Impressionists. In 1904 the artist and writer Wynford Dewhurst wrote the first important study of the French painters to be published in English, Impressionist Painting: its genesis and development, which did much to popularize Impressionism in Great Britain. 1865–1866. ... Self-portrait Gustave Caillebotte (August 19, 1848 – February 21, 1894), was a French painter, member and patron of the group of artists known as Impressionists, stamp collector, and yacht engineer. ... Self-portrait (1878) by painter Mary Cassatt Mary Stevenson Cassatt (May 22, 1844 – June 14, 1926) was an American painter and printmaker. ... Cezanne redirects here. ... Edgar Degas (19 July 1834 – 27 September 1917), born Hilaire-Germain-Edgar Degas (IPA ), was a French artist famous for his work in painting, sculpture, printmaking and drawing. ... Armand Guillaumin. ... “Manet” redirects here. ... Claude Monet also known as Oscar-Claude Monet or Claude Oscar Monet (November 14, 1840 – December 5, 1926)[1] was a founder of French impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movements philosophy of expressing ones perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein... Berthe Morisot in a portrait by Édouard Manet, 1872 Berthe Morisot (January 14, 1841 – March 2, 1895) was an Impressionist painter. ... The garden of Pontoise, painted 1875. ... Pierre-Auguste Renoir (February 25, 1841–December 3, 1919) was a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style. ... Alfred Sisley. ... Giuseppe De Nittis (February 25, 1846 – August 12, 1884) was an Italian painter whose work merges the styles of Salon art and Impressionism. ... Federico Zandomeneghi (June 2, 1841 – December 31, 1917) was an Italian Impressionist painter. ... Portrait of Eva Gonzalès (1869-1870) by Manet Eva Gonzalès (April 19, 1849 – May 6, 1883) was a French impressionist painter. ... James Abbott McNeill Whistler (July 14, 1834 - July 17, 1903) was an American painter and etcher. ... Walter Sickert Walter Richard Sickert (May 31, 1860 in Munich (Germany) – January 22, 1942) was an English impressionist painter. ... Wynford Dewhurst, R.B.A. (b Manchester, 26 Jan 1864; d Burton upon Trent, Staffordshire, 9 July 1941) was an English Impressionist painter and important writer on art. ...


By the early 1880s, Impressionist methods were affecting, at least superficially, the art of the Salon. Fashionable painters such as Jean Beraud and Henri Gervex found critical and financial success by brightening their palettes while retaining the smooth finish expected of Salon art.[17] Works by these artists are sometimes casually referred to as Impressionism, despite their remoteness from Impressionist practice. Jean Béraud (January 12th, 1849 Saint Petersbourg - October 4th,1935 Paris) was a French impressionist painter. ... Henri Gervex (10 December 1852 - 1929) was a French painter born in Paris, and studied painting under Cabanel, Brisset and Fromentin. ...


As the influence of Impressionism spread beyond France, artists, too numerous to list, became identified as practitioners of the new style. Some of the more important examples are:

Impressionism, a style of painting characterized by loose brushwork and vivid colors, was practiced widely among American artists in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Frederick Carl Frieseke (1874 - 1939) was an American Impressionist painter. ... Frederick Childe Hassam (October 17, 1859 - August 27, 1935) was an American Impressionist painter. ... Willard Leroy Metcalf (July 1, 1858 – March 9, 1925) was an American artist. ... Self-Portrait (1892) Lilla Cabot Perry, (January 13, 1848 – February 28, 1933), was one of the first American artists to embrace impressionism during the late 19th century. ... Theodore Robinson (July 3, 1852 – April 2, 1896) was an American Impressionist painter. ... John Henry Twachtman (August 4, 1853-August 8, 1902) was a US impressionist painter. ... The Red Bridge, ca. ... Self-portrait with skeleton, 1896. ... Max Liebermann in 1904 Max Liebermann (July 20, 1847 in Berlin - February 8, 1935) was a German painter. ... Max Slevogt (born October 8th, 1868 in Landshut, Germany - died September 20th, 1932 in Rhenish Palatinate, Germany) was a German painter of the Impressionism who specialized on landscapes. ... Konstantin Alekseyevich Korovin (Russian: Константин Алексеевич Коровин) (November 23 (N.S. December 5), 1861, Moscow - September 11, 1939, Paris) was a Russian painter. ... Self-portrait, 1880ies Valentin Alexandrovich Serov (Russian: Валентин Александрович Серов) (1865 - 1911) was a Russian painter. ... Francisco Manuel Oller y Cestero (June 17, 1833 – May 17, 1917), born in Bayamon, Puerto Rico, was a major Puerto Rican artist. ... Laura Muntz Lyall, born June 18, 1860 - died December 9, 1930, was a Canadian Impressionist painter. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw PodkowiÅ„ski (4 february 1866 Warszawa - 5 january 1895 Warszawa) - polish painter. ... La mort du fossoyeur (The death of the gravedigger) by Carlos Schwabe is a visual compendium of Symbolist motifs. ... Nazmi Ziya Güran (1881 – 1937) was a Turkish Impressionist painter. ... A portrait of the artist by Prof. ...

Other visual artists known as Impressionists

The sculptor Auguste Rodin is sometimes called an Impressionist for the way he used roughly modeled surfaces to suggest transient light effects. Pictorialist photographers whose work is characterized by soft focus and atmospheric effects have also been called Impressionists. Examples are Kirk Clendinning, Alvin Langdon Coburn, Robert Farber, Eduard Steichen, Alfred Stieglitz, and Clarence H. White. Auguste Rodin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Pictorialism was a photographic movement in vogue from around 1885 following the widespread introduction of the dry-plate process, and reached its height in the early years of the 20th century and declined rapidly after 1914. ... :Alvin Langdon Coburn was born in 1882 and died in 1966. ... He was a loser. ... Clarence Hudson White, photographed by Fred Holland Day Clarence Hudson White (1871 - 1925) was an American photographer and a founding member of the Photo-Secession movement. ...


French impressionist filmmakers include Abel Gance, Jean Epstein, Germaine Dulac, Marcel L’Herbier, and Louis Delluc, and Dmitry Kirsanoff. French impressionist cinema took place between 1918 and 1929 and was a time where a new generation of filmmakers began to explore film as an art form. ... Abel Gance (October 25, 1889 - November 10, 1981) was a world-renowned French film director, producer, writer, actor and editor. ... Jean Epstein, born 25 March 1897, died 3 April 1953, Paris, France, was a film director and early film theoretician. ... Germaine Dulac, born 17 November 1882 in Amiens, France, died 20 July 1942, was a French film director and early film theorist. ... Louis Delluc (1890-1924) was a French film director, screen writer and film critic. ...


Impressionism in music and literature

Main article: Impressionist music

Musical Impressionism is the name given to a movement in European classical music that arose in the late nineteenth century and continued into the middle of the twentieth century. Originating in France, musical Impressionism is characterized by suggestion and atmosphere, and eschews the emotional excesses of the Romantic era. Impressionist composers favored short forms such as the nocturne, arabesque, and prelude, and often explored uncommon scales such as the whole tone scale. Perhaps the most notable innovations used by Impressionist composers were the first uses of major 7th chords and the extension of chord structures in 3rds to five and six part harmonies. The impressionist movement in music is a movement in European classical music that had its beginnings in the late nineteenth century and continued into the middle of the twentieth century. ... Headline text Influenced by the Impressionist art movement, many writers adopted a style that relied on associations. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... The era of Romantic music is defined as the period of European classical music that runs roughly from 1820 to 1900, as well as music written according to the norms and styles of that period. ... For the ancient form of Christian night prayer, see Nocturns. ... A prelude is a short piece of music, usually in no particular internal form, which may serve as an introduction to succeeding movements of a work that are usually longer and more complex. ... In music, a whole tone scale (set form 6-35, 02468t) is a scale in which each note is separated from its neighbors by the interval of a whole step. ...


The influence of visual Impressionism on its musical counterpart is debatable. Claude Debussy and Maurice Ravel are generally considered the greatest Impressionist composers, but Debussy disavowed the term, calling it the invention of critics. Erik Satie was also considered to be in this category although his approach was considered to be less serious, more of musical novelty in nature. Paul Dukas is another French composer sometimes considered to be an Impressionist but his style is perhaps more closely aligned to the late Romanticists. Musical Impressionism beyond France includes the work of such composers as Ralph Vaughan Williams and Ottorino Respighi. Claude Debussy, photo by Félix Nadar, 1908. ... Maurice Ravel. ... Selfportrait of Erik Satie. ... Paul Abraham Dukas (October 1, 1865-May 17, 1935) was a Parisian-born French composer and teacher of classical music. ... A statue of Ralph Vaughan Williams in Dorking. ... Elsa and Ottorino Respighi in the 1920s Ottorino Respighi (Bologna, July 9, 1879 - Rome, April 18, 1936) was an Italian composer, musicologist, pianist, violist and violinist. ...


The term Impressionism has also been used to describe works of literature in which a few select details suffice to convey the sensory impressions of an incident or scene. Impressionist literature is closely related to Symbolism, with its major exemplars being Baudelaire, Mallarmé, Rimbaud, and Verlaine. Authors such as Virginia Woolf and Joseph Conrad have written works which are Impressionistic in the way that they describe, rather than interpret, the impressions, sensations and emotions that constitute a character's mental life. “Baudelaire” redirects here. ... Portrait of Stéphane Mallarmé by Édouard Manet. ... Rimbaud redirects here. ... Paul Verlaine Paul-Marie Verlaine (IPA: ; March 30, 1844–January 8, 1896) was a French poet associated with the Symbolist movement. ... For the American writer, see Virginia Euwer Wolff. ... // Joseph Conrad (born Teodor Józef Konrad NaÅ‚Ä™cz-Korzeniowski, 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924) was a Polish-born novelist who spent most of his adult life in Britain. ...


Impressionism in cinema

While generally a term used to describe static artworks, impressionism is a label that has also been attached to cinema; generally - as a refutation of sorts of the common practise of cerating cinema solely as a commercial venture - it is used to describe examples of cinematography that exhibit at least as much artistry for artistry's sake as commercial traits; thus, the practise of cinematography as an art form rather than a commercial venture.[citation needed]


See also

Impressionism, a style of painting characterized by loose brushwork and vivid colors, was practiced widely among American artists in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Image:Jane Frank Crgs And Crevices. ... French impressionist cinema took place between 1918 and 1929 and was a time where a new generation of filmmakers began to explore film as an art form. ... The Heidelberg School was an Australian art movement of the late 19th century. ...

Resources

Notes

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Impressionist paintings
Look up impressionism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  1. ^ Denvir (1990), p.133.
  2. ^ Denvir (1990), p.194.
  3. ^ Denvir (1990), p.32.
  4. ^ Rewald (1973), p. 323.
  5. ^ Gordon; Forge (1988), pp. 11-12.
  6. ^ Richardson (1976), p. 3.
  7. ^ Denvir (1990), p.105.
  8. ^ Rewald (1973), p. 603.
  9. ^ Rewald, (1973), p. 475-476.
  10. ^ Renoir and the Impressionist Process, The Phillips Collection
  11. ^ Rosenblum (1989), p. 228.
  12. ^ a b c Levinson, Paul (1997) The Soft Edge; a Natural History and Future of the Information Revolution, Routledge, London and New York
  13. ^ Sontag, Susan (1977) On Photography, Penguin, London
  14. ^ Baumann; Karabelnik, et al. (1994), p. 112.
  15. ^ Denvir (1990), p.140.
  16. ^ Denvir (1990), p.152.
  17. ^ Rewald (1973), p.476-477.

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ...

References

  • Baumann, Felix; Karabelnik, Marianne, et al. (1994). Degas Portraits. London: Merrell Holberton. ISBN 1-85894-014-1
  • Denvir, Bernard (1990). The Thames and Hudson Encyclopaedia of Impressionism. London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-20239-7
  • Gordon, Robert; Forge, Andrew (1988). Degas. New York: Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 0-8109-1142-6
  • Gowing, Lawrence, with Adriani, Götz; Krumrine, Mary Louise; Lewis, Mary Tompkins; Patin, Sylvie; Rewald, John (1988). Cezanne: The Early Years 1859-1872. New York: Harry N. Abrams.
  • Moskowitz, Ira; Sérullaz, Maurice (1962). French Impressionists: A Selection of Drawings of the French 19th Century. Boston and Toronto: Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 0-316-58560-2
  • Rewald, John (1973). The History of Impressionism (4th, Revised Ed.). New York: The Museum of Modern Art. ISBN 0-87070-360-9
  • Richardson, John (1976). Manet (3rd Ed.). Oxford: Phaidon Press Ltd. ISBN 0-7148-1743-0
  • Rosenblum, Robert (1989). Paintings in the Musée d'Orsay. New York: Stewart, Tabori & Chang. ISBN 1-55670-099-7

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Impressionism (art) - MSN Encarta (1667 words)
Impressionism (art), a movement in painting that originated in France in the late 19th century.
Leroy argued that as soon as these artists had suggested an impression of a subject by means of a few abrupt, shorthand brushstrokes, they were satisfied and stopped work.
Art historians tended to overlook the work of Morisot despite her similar technique and participation in the original 1874 exhibition—partly because she was a woman and partly because she had fewer works in circulation than the others.
Impressionism - LoveToKnow 1911 (3607 words)
A typical picture of this period is the "Musique aux Tuileries," refused by the Salon of 1863.
Impressionism is the art that surveys the field and determines which of the shapes and tones are of chief importance to the interested eye, enforces these, and sacrifices the rest.
Construction, the logic of the object rendered, determines partly this action of the eye, and also decoration, the effects of rhythm in line and harmony in fields of colour.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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