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Encyclopedia > Imperialism
For the computer game, see Imperialism (computer game).
Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. Founded the De Beers Mining Company and owned the British South Africa Company, which established Rhodesia for itself. He liked to "paint the map British red", and declared: "all of these stars ... these vast worlds that remain out of reach. If I could, I would annex other planets".
Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. Founded the De Beers Mining Company and owned the British South Africa Company, which established Rhodesia for itself. He liked to "paint the map British red", and declared: "all of these stars ... these vast worlds that remain out of reach. If I could, I would annex other planets".[1]

Imperialism has two meanings, one describing an action and the other describing an attitude. Most commonly it is understood in relation to Empire building, as the forceful extension of a nation's authority by territorial conquest establishing economic and political domination of other nations. In its second meaning the term describes the imperialistic attitude of superiority, subordination and dominion over foreign peoples. Imperialism is often autocratic, e.g. in early 20th century Japan,[2] and sometimes monolithic [3] in character. While the term imperialism often refers to a political or geographical domain such as the Ottoman Empire[4] the British Empire,[5] or the Russian Empire,[6] etc, the term can equally be applied to domains of knowledge, beliefs, values and expertise, such as the empires of Christianity (see Christendom)[7] or Islam (see Caliphate).[8] Imperialism is a turn-based strategy game for Microsoft Windows and Apple Macintosh computers, developed by Frog City Software and published by Strategic Simulations, Inc. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 463 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2069 × 2681 pixel, file size: 242 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): British Empire Imperialism... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 463 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2069 × 2681 pixel, file size: 242 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): British Empire Imperialism... Cecil Rhodes Cecil John Rhodes, PC, DCL, (July 5, 1853 – March 26, 1902[1]) was a British-born South African businessman, mining magnate, and politician. ... Rhodes: Cape to Cairo The Cape-Cairo Railway is an uncompleted project to cross Africa from south to north by rail. ... The De Beers Group is a Johannesburg- and London-based diamond mining and trading corporation. ... The flag of the British South Africa Company The British South Africa Company (BSAC) was established by Cecil Rhodes through the amalgamation of the Central Search Association and the Exploring Company, Ltd. ... This article is about the former British colony of Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ... This article is about the political and historical term. ... Types of administrative and/or political territories include: A legally administered territory, which is a non-sovereign geographic area that has come under the authority of another government. ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... Autocracy is a form of government where unlimited power is held by a single individual. ... Something that is monolithic is something created in one piece, resembling a monolith such as an obelisk. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... This T-and-O map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ...

Contents

Overview

Imperialism is found in the ancient histories of Roman Empire, Greece, the Persian Empire, China (see Ten Great Campaigns), the Ottoman Empire (see Ottoman wars in Europe), the Islamic Caliphate, India, Egypt, Africa, the Aztec empire, and many other areas. Although the practice has existed for thousands of years, the term "Age of Imperialism" refers to the Scramble for Africa, along with the Scramble for India. The term 'Imperialism' was coined in the sixteenth century, [9] reflecting the imperial policies of Portugal, Spain, Britain, France, and the Netherlands into Africa, Asia, and the Americas.[citation needed] Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Persia redirects here. ... The Ten Great Campaigns were a series of wars fought during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor, much celebrated in the official Qing Dynasty annals. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... The wars of the Ottoman Empire in Europe are also sometimes referred to as the Ottoman Wars or as Turkish Wars, particularly in older, European texts. ... Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalifah, Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Aztec (disambiguation). ... A cartoon portraying the British Empire as an octopus, reaching into foreign lands Imperialism is a policy of extending the control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires, either through direct territorial or through indirect methods of exerting control on the politics... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... The Kingdom of Spain or Spain (Spanish and Galician: Reino de España or España; Catalan: Regne dEspanya; Basque: Espainiako Erresuma) is a country located in the southwest of Europe. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...


Currently, there is an effort to broaden the definition of "imperialism" so it applies to any instance of a greater power acting or being perceived to act at the expense of a lesser power. Including 'perception' in the definition makes it circular, solipsistic, and subjective. Under this broader definition, 'imperialism' not only describes colonial, territorial policies;but also describes economic dominance and influence.


European dominance of the east through economic exploitation and political rule, (as distinct from the word colonialism, which usually implied establishment of settler colonies often with slavery as the labor system), the word was coined in the mid-nineteenth century.


Lenin's theory of imperialism

European intellectuals first developed formal theories of imperialism. In Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism (1916), V.I. Lenin said capitalism necessarily induced monopoly capitalism as imperialism to find new business and resources, representing the last and highest stage of capitalism.[10] The necessary expansion of capitalism beyond the boundaries of nation-states — a foundation of Leninism — was shared by Rosa Luxemburg (The Accumulation of Capital: A Contribution to an Economic Explanation of Imperialism[11]) and liberal philosopher Hannah Arendt.[12] Since then, Marxist scholars extended Lenin's theory to be synonymous with capitalist international trade and banking.[13] Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism (1916) by Vladimir Lenin is a classic Marxist theoretical treatise on the relationship between capitalism and imperialism. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ... The theory of state monopoly capitalism (Stamocap or Stamokap theory) was initially a Marxist-Leninist doctrine popularised after World War II. Lenin had claimed in 1917 that World War I had transformed monopoly capitalism into state monopoly capitalism, but he did not publish any extensive theory about the topic. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Max Barry set up Jennifer Government: NationStates, a game on the World Wide Web inspired by, and promoting, his novel Jennifer Government. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin, and by other theorists who claim to be carrying on Lenins work. ... Rosa Luxemburg Rosa Luxemburg (March 5, 1870 or 1871 – January 15, 1919, in Polish Róża Luksemburg) was a Jewish Polish-born Marxist political theorist, socialist philosopher, and revolutionary. ... The Accumulation of Capital (full title : The Accumulation of Capital: A Contribution to an Economic Explanation of Imperialism, Die Akkumulation des Kapitals: Ein Beitrag zur ökonomischen Erklärung des Imperialismus) is the principal book length work of Rosa Luxemburg first published in 1913. ... Hannah Arendt (October 14, 1906 – December 4, 1975) was a German Jewish political theorist. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... The field of finance refers to the concepts of time, money and risk and how they are interelated. ...


Although Karl Marx did not publish a theory of imperialism, he identified colonialism (cf. Das Kapital) as an aspect of the prehistory of the capitalist mode of production. Lenin's definition: "the highest stage of capitalism" addressed the time when monopoly finance capital was dominant, forcing nations and private corporations to compete to control the world's natural resources and markets. Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... Das Kapital (Capital, in the English translation) is an extensive treatise on political economy written by Karl Marx in German. ... The capitalist mode of production is a concept in Karl Marx’s critique of political economy. ...


Marxist imperialism theory, and the related dependency theory, emphasise the economic relationships among countries (and within countries), rather than formal political and military relationships. Thus, imperialism is not necessarily direct formal control of one country by another, but the economic exploitation of one by another. This Marxism contrasts with the popular conception of imperialism, as directly-controlled colonial and neocolonial empires. Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Main International Relations Theories Politics Portal This box:      Dependency theory is a body of social science theories, both from developed and developing nations, that create a worldview which suggests that poor underdeveloped states of the periphery are exploited by wealthy developed nations of the centre, in order to sustain economic... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... Exploitation means many different things. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... Neocolonialism is the term describing international economic arrangements wherein former colonial powers maintained control of colonies and dependencies after World War II. Neocolonialism can obfuscate the understanding of current colonialism, given that some colonial governments continue administrating foreign territories and their populations in violation of United Nations resolutions[1] and...


Per Lenin, Imperialism is Capitalism, with five simultaneous features:


(1) Concentration of production and capital led to the creation of national and multinational monopolies — not as in liberal economics, but as de facto power over their markets — while "free competition" remains the domain of local and niche markets:


Free competition is the basic feature of capitalism, and of commodity production generally; monopoly is the exact opposite of free competition, but we have seen the latter being transformed into monopoly before our eyes, creating large-scale industry and forcing out small industry, replacing large-scale by still larger-scale industry, and carrying concentration of production and capital to the point where out of it has grown and is growing monopoly: cartels, syndicates and trusts, and merging with them, the capital of a dozen or so banks, which manipulate thousands of millions. At the same time the monopolies, which have grown out of free competition, do not eliminate the latter, but exist above it and alongside it, and thereby give rise to a number of very acute, intense antagonisms, frictions and conflicts. Monopoly is the transition from capitalism to a higher system. (Ch. VII)


[Following Marx's value theory, Lenin saw monopoly capitalism limited by the law of falling profit, as the ratio of constant capital to variable capital increased. Per Marx, only living labour (variable capital) creates profit in the form of surplus-value. As the ratio of surplus value to the sum of constant and variable capital falls, so does the rate of profit on invested capital.] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


(2) Finance capital replaces industrial capital (the dominant capital), (reiterating Rudolf Hilferding's point in Finance Capital), as industrial capitalists rely more upon bank-generated finance capital. Financial capital, or economic capital, is any liquid medium or mechanism that represents wealth, or other styles of capital. ... Rudolf Hilferding (1877 - 1941) was an Austrian Marxist economist and a popularizer of the economic reading of Karl Marx. ...


(3) Finance capital exportation replaces the exportation of goods (though they continue in production);


(4) The economic division of the world, by multi-national enterprises via international cartels; and


(5) The political division of the world by the great powers, wherein exporting finance capital to their colonies allows their exploitation for resources and continued investment. This superexploitation of poor countries allows the capitalist industrial nations to keep some of their own workers content with slightly higher living standards. (cf. labor aristocracy; globalization) Superprofit (or surplus profit or extra surplus-value; in German: extra-Mehrwert), is a concept in Karl Marxs critique of political economy, subsequently elaborated by Lenin and other Marxist thinkers. ... Labor aristocracy (or aristocracy of labor) has two meanings: as a term with Marxist theoretical underpinnings, and as a specific type of trade unionism. ... Economic globalization has had an impact on the worldwide integration of different cultures. ...


Claiming to be Leninist, the U.S.S.R. proclaimed itself foremost enemy of imperialism, supporting armed, national independence or communist movements in the Third World [14][15] while simultaneously dominating Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Marxists and Maoists to the left of Trotsky, such as Tony Cliff, claim the Soviet Union was imperialist. Maoists claim it occurred after Khrushchev's ascension in 1956; Cliff says it occurred under Stalin in the 1940s (see Soviet occupations).[16] Harry Magdoff's Age of Imperialism (1954) discusses Marxism and imperialism. Soviet redirects here. ... Anti-imperialism, strictly speaking, is a term that may be applied to or movement opposed to some form of imperialism. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... // Map of Soviet Central Asia Soviet Central Asia is a reference to the five Central Asian republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan that were part of the Soviet Union from 1924-1991. ... Tony Cliff (May 20, 1917 – May 9, 2000) was a Trotskyist revolutionary activist. ... Nikita Khrushchev in 1962 Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: Ники́та Серге́евич Хрущёв) (nih-KEE-tah khroo-SHCHYOFF) (April 17, 1894 – September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... Image of one of banners posted at the 1968 Red Square demonstration (For your and our freedom) Soviet occupations[1][2][3] is a term used for military occupations and force-backed political influence of Soviet Union since the prelude to World War II. Typically, Soviets established of Soviet-type... Harry Magdoff Henry Samuel Magdoff (August 21, 1913 – January 1, 2006), was a prominent American socialist commentator. ...


Lenin's theory of imperialism has been critiqued by many scholars. One problem with Lenin's theory concerns the measured volumes of trade and capital flow among European capitalist societies and between European capitalist societies and poor Third World societies. European capitalist systems since the nineteenth century have always done the vast bulk of their trading among themselves, with a relative sliver of trade and capital flow going out to non-developed societies in comparison with trade and capital flow within the great European systems.


Lenin's theory also contradicts Marx's doctrine of the reserved army of the unemployed (i.e. the lumpen proletariat), which holds that capitalism, for systemic reasons, cannot generate enough capital to employ all those who want to work. Lenin failed to see the contradiction, between the claim that capitalism builds up so much capital that it must send the excess overseas to "exploit" less developed societies, and the claim that capitalism cannot generate enough capital to sustain full employment.


The aforementioned contradiction can be seen as a distortion of Marxist-Leninist Theory. It is true that Marx uncovered systematic failures inherent to capitalism such as the inability of capitalism to provide work for all people. For instance, many modern Nations have an unemployment rate significantly greater than zero. The United States is one particular example. However, Marx attributed such a failure to the dynamics of capitalist production. Capitalists, in general, own the means of production (e.g. factories) and make profit. What is important here is how the profit is re-invested into the capitalist system. Rather than pay their workers higher wages or hire a larger work force, capitalists spend a significant portion of their profits on technological development. For example, the modern assembly line relies heavily on machinery. These machines take away the jobs of human workers. At the same time, capitalists are able to churn out more products using such machinery. Capital, then, can be increased (at least for a short time). In terms of imperialism, Lenin's theory does not contradict Marx's analysis of capitalism. Both men believed in and witnessed the formation of monopolies. Both men also stressed the insatiable appetite of capitalism to search for new markets that can increase profit. Since the bottom line for monopolies is to increase profit, Lenin was right insofar as imperialism is caused by the search for new markets.


Currently, Marxists view globalization as imperialism's latest incarnation.[citation needed] Economic globalization has had an impact on the worldwide integration of different cultures. ...


See also

It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... Neocolonialism is the term describing international economic arrangements wherein former colonial powers maintained control of colonies and dependencies after World War II. Neocolonialism can obfuscate the understanding of current colonialism, given that some colonial governments continue administrating foreign territories and their populations in violation of United Nations resolutions[1] and... {{}} // The term imperialism was used from the third quarter of the nineteenth century to describe various forms of political control by a greater power over less powerful territories or nationalities, although analytically the phenomena which it denotes may differ greatly from each other and from the New imperialism. ... // The accumulation theory The accumulation theory, conceived largely by J.A. Hobson and later Lenin, centres on the accumulation of surplus capital during the Second Industrial Revolution. ... Ultra-imperialism, or occasionally Hyperimperialism, is a potential phase of capitalism described by Karl Kautsky. ... Cultural imperialism is the practice of promoting, distinguishing, separating, artificially injecting of the culture or language of one nation in another. ... Islamic imperialism uses Islam as a mandate for world domination and global expansion. ... Scientific imperialism is a term that appears to have been coined by Dr Ellis T Powell when addressing the Commonwealth Club of Canada on 8 September 1920. ... This article is about the political and historical term. ... Main article: Empire This is an alphabetical list of empires that stretched far beyond their geographical and cultural limits to govern other parts of the world. ... The Imperial Presidency by Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the late modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the... Oil imperialism theories characterize a broad group of political science theories which assert that direct and indirect control of world petroleum reserves is a root factor in current international politics. ...

References

  1. ^ S. Gertrude Millin, Rhodes, London, 1933, p.138
  2. ^ http://www.global-labour.org/katayama1.htm Sen Katayama, The Labor Movement in Japan, Global Labour Institute
  3. ^ http://pubs.socialistreviewindex.org.uk/isj93/rees.htm John Rees, Imperialism: globalisation, the state and war, International Socialism Journal 93, Winter 2001
  4. ^ http://i-cias.com/e.o/ottomans.htm Ottoman Empire, Encylcopaedia of the Orient
  5. ^ http://www.britishempire.co.uk/ The British Empire
  6. ^ http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/empire/ The Empire that was Russia, Library of Congress
  7. ^ http://www.religion-online.org/showarticle.asp?title=3350 John B Cobb, Christianity and Empire,
  8. ^ http://www.pbs.org/empires/islam/ Islam Empire of Faith
  9. ^ Oxford English Dictionary online (subscription required
  10. ^ In Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism
  11. ^ See The Accumulation of Capital, 1913.
  12. ^ See Hannah Arendt, op.cit.
  13. ^ Lenin, Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism
  14. ^ Soviet Union - Central and South America
  15. ^ Profile: Mengistu Haile Mariam, BBC
  16. ^ Soviet imperialism

Sarah Gertrude Millin, born Sarah Gertrude Liebson (1889 - 1968) was a Lithuania-born South African writer. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...

Further reading

  • Robert Bickers/Christian Henriot (Hg.): New frontiers : imperialism's new communities in East Asia, 1842-1953, Manchester [u.a.] : Manchester University Press 2000, ISBN 0-7190-5604-7
  • Empire, by Michael Hardt and Toni Negri, Harvard University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-674-00671-2

{{ otheruses4|Empire (Book)|novels|Empire (2006 novel)]] or [[Empire (1987 novel) }} Cover of the Swedish edition (Imperiet) Empire is a text written by Marxist philosophers Antonio Negri and Michael Hardt. ... The Harvard University Press is a publishing house, a division of Harvard University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ...

External links

Hans-Hermann Hoppe (born September 2, 1949) is an Austrian school economist, an anarcho-capitalist (libertarian) philosopher, and a professor at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. ...

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