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Encyclopedia > Imperial Way Faction
Kyokujitsu-ki, the Flag of Imperial Japan, symbol of the Imperial Way Faction, before and during their government administrative period.
Kyokujitsu-ki, the Flag of Imperial Japan, symbol of the Imperial Way Faction, before and during their government administrative period.

The Imperial Way Faction (皇道派 kōdōha) was a Japanese right-wing nationalist political grouping, active in the 1930s. It was the political wing for the Japanese military, aiming to establish the military government. It was largely supported by junior officers of the Imperial Japanese Army, and promoted totalitarianism, militarism and expansionism in its doctrine. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Naval_Ensign_of_Japan. ... Image File history File links Naval_Ensign_of_Japan. ... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ... ... The Imperial Japanese Army (: 大日本帝國陸軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国陸軍 Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun) was the official ground based armed force of Japan from 1867 to 1945 when it was Imperial Japan. ... Totalitarianism is a term employed by political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... Expansionism is the doctrine of expanding the territorial base (or economic influence) of a country, usually by means of military aggression. ...


One of the founders was Sadao Araki, leader of the movement. Hideki Tojo, leader of the opposing military faction leader, became the effective dictator of Japan in 1941, with command of Imperial forces during the first periods of the Pacific War, until the Saipan disaster in 1944. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Dictator was the title of a magistrate in ancient Rome appointed by the Senate to rule the state in times of emergency. ... Combatants China (from 1937) United States (from 1941) United Kingdom (from 1941) British India (1941) Australia (1941) Free France (1941) Philippines (1941) Netherlands (1941) New Zealand (1941) Canada (1941) Soviet Union (from 1945) Mongolia (from 1945) Empire of Japan Wang Jingwei Government (1940) Thailand (1942) Manchukuo Mengjiang Free India (1943... Saipan seen from the air A map of Saipan, Tinian & Aquijan Saipan (IPA: in English) is the largest island and capital of the United States Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), a chain of 15 tropical islands belonging to the Marianas archipelago in the western Pacific Ocean (15°10...

Contents

Origins of the movement

Political environment

The origins of this party in the 1920s saw the last of the old-style samurai officers going and a new radical breed taking their place in the Japanese military. Officer groups, such as the Double Leaf Society, which were secret societies themselves and with ties to the other secret groups, were formed with the fanatical beliefs of ultranationalism and the need for a purge of the Chōshū elements of the army. The Army became divided between the Kodaha (Imperial Benevolent Rule or Action Group) led by Colonel (later General) Sadao Araki and the Toseiha (Control Group) led by General Kazushige Ugaki. The groups later merged and incorporated ideas from right-wing, fascist ideologies and political philosophies. Influences were Kita Ikki and Nakano Seigo, amongst others. It drew on the secret political societies of the 1920s. Together, both groups formed a political movement to gain power by democratic elections, or if necessary, by force. Japanese samurai in armour, 1860s. ... The Double Leaf Society (双葉会 Futabakai) was a Japanese military secret society of the 1920s, comprising radical officers with a belief in ultranationalism and the need for a purge of the corrupt Choshu elements of the Imperial Japanese Army. ... Ultra-nationalists are extreme nationalists or patriots. ... ChōshÅ« may refer to any of the following: Nagato Province ) in Japan ChōshÅ« Domain ) in Japan The wrestler Riki Choshu ) Category: ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Toseiha (統制派) was a faction in the Japanese military, active in the 1920s and 1930s. ... Kazushige Ugaki (宇垣 一成 Ugaki Kazushige; August 21, 1868, Okayama prefecture, Japan - 30 April 1956, Tokyo) was a Japanese general. ... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Kita Ikki (北 一輝 Kita Ikki, April 3, 1883 - August 19, 1937) was a Japanese author and intellectual who was executed for his alleged role in the February 26 Incident. ... Nakano Seigō (中野正剛) (1886-October 1943) was a Japanese political leader who advocated a fascist Japan to complete the Meiji Restoration. ...


After friction with the civilian government, the Army became more isolated and more of a power unto itself. The government had a better control over the Imperial Japanese Navy, but the grip was weakening, too. Faced with the limits imposed by the Washington Armaments Conference of 1921, the Navy was split into two factions, the Fleet Faction and the Treaty Faction. The latter group prevailed in the beginning, and in the process won a public relations victory. During the 1920s, the civilian government largely managed to keep the radicals in the military in check. The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) (: 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍   or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun), officially Navy of Empire of Greater Japan, also known as the Japanese Navy or Combined Fleet was the Navy of Empire of Japan from 1869 until 1947, when it was dissolved following Japans constitutional renunciation of the use of force... The Washington Naval Conference was a diplomatic conference, called by the administration of President Warren G. Harding and held in Washington, D.C. from November 1921 to February 1922. ... The Fleet Faction was a group within the Imperial Japanese Navy of the 1920s times, who wanted unlimited naval growth to build the mightiest navy on the face of the earth; thus to challenge the supremacy of powers such as the United States and Russia. ... The Treaty Faction in the Imperial Japanese Navy of the 1920s realized the Japanese economy could not support a large naval expansion. ...


Osachi Hamaguchi replaced Tanaka Giichi as Prime Minister in 1928 and formed a new cabinet. Initial public confidence bolstered Hamaguchi's government and allowed him to successfully challenge the military radicals and get the London Naval Conference of 1930 treaty ratified. That was the last pre-war instance of true civilian government, and real challenge to the military radicals. Hamaguchi was the target of an assassination attempt on November 14, 1930. The assassin was Tomeo Sagoya, a member of the Aikoku-sha (Love of Country Association), yet another ultranationalist secret sect. Hamaguchi survived but was hospitalized for several months. He returned to his post in March 1931 but resigned a month later. Hamaguchi Osachi (浜口 雄幸 April 1, 1870–August 26, 1931) was a Japanese politician and the 27th Prime Minister of Japan from July 2, 1929 to April 14, 1931. ... Tanaka Giichi (田中 義一 Tanaka Giichi February 5, 1866–November 20, 1949) was a Japanese politician and the 26th Prime Minister of Japan from April 20, 1927 to July 2, 1929. ... There were three major international naval conferences in London, the first in 1908-09, the second in 1930 and the third in 1935. ... November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 47 days remaining. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... Aikokusha (literally, patriot society in Japanese), can mean Aikoku Koto, a liberal political party of the nineteenth century Aikokusha (secret society), a violent far-right group active in the 1930s It also more generally is applied to a range of patriotic organizations, as a generic term. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Following the war, had a peace movement developed in Japan; the militarists might have begun to lose their power. Several events conspired, however, to destroy any hopes of ousting them. A major influence was the way in which the United States acted, and came to be perceived in Japan: America grew to become Japan's clear rival during this period. The USA opposed Japan's territorial acquisitions, and any geo-political moves Japan would make, as Japan pursued her emerging colonial aspirations. Relations, already soured, continued a gradual but steady decline with each year. Geopolitics analyses politics, history and social science with reference to geography. ... In general, the word colonial means of or relating to a colony. In United States history, the term Colonial is used to refer to the period before US independence. ...


Factional strife continued until December 25, 1926 when the weak Emperor Taisho died. Crown Prince Hirohito took over the throne. The Great Depression saw unchecked military plots. The target was the overt colonization of Manchuria and other key parts of China. Shortly the Kwantung Army took matters into its own hands, and moved through Manchuria. Emperor Taisho (大正天皇 Taishō Tennō) (August 31, 1879 – December 25, 1926), whose given name was Yoshihito (嘉仁), was the 123rd imperial Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession, from 1912 until his death in 1926. ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 — January 7, 1989) was the 124th emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death. ... The Great Depression was a worldwide economic downturn which started in October of 1929 and lasted through most of the 1930s. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colonialism. ... The Kwantung Army or Guandong Army (関東軍 Japanese: Kantōgun) was a unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that originated from a Guandong garrison established in 1906 to defend the Kwantung Leased Territory and the areas adjacent to the South Manchurian Railway. ... Manchuria (Manchu: Manju; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; Simplified Chinese: 满洲; pinyin: MÇŽnzhōu, Russian: ) is a vast territorial region in northeast Asia. ...


Japanese military politics

The Kodoha faction, later a real party, was a political wing of the Imperial Armed forces. The real idea of the Army militarists, in the right-wing line, was a return to the old Shogunate system, but in the form of a modern Military Shogunate. In such a government the Emperor would once more be a figurehead (as in the Edo period). Real power would fall to a leader, in fact very similar to a Führer or Duce, though with the power less nakedly held. On the other hand, the Navy militarists defended the Emperor and a monarchical constitution. For them the religious aspect was significant. For Imperial Japanese forces, see Imperial Japanese Army Imperial Japanese Navy. ... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... This page is about the Japanese ruler and military rank. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Edo Period. ...   (Fuehrer when an umlaut is not used) is a proper noun meaning leader or guide in the German language. ... Duce was an Italian word meaning leader, derived from Latin word dux of the same meaning. ...


From 1905 and victory in the Russo-Japanese War, the Army and Navy had high confidence in their ability to roll back the Western great powers, given only time and resources. From that point of view, democratic institutions existed on tolerance. Combatants Russian Empire Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov† Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo Strength 500,000 Soldiers 400,000 Soldiers Casualties 24,844 killed; 146,519 wounded; 59,218 POW; unknown Chinese civilians 47,387 killed; 173,425 wounded; unknown Chinese civilians Greater... One of the hallmarks of contemporary Great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ...


The actual position of the Showa Emperor has been much discussed. He was most important as nationalist symbol, taking its place in the constructed State Shintoism. Subjects believed him to be the supreme leader, with power to promote or dismiss in central government. While the popular image was that he was well and effectively advised, as well as holding power, a group of fictional advisers and non-military aristocrats, without real function, constituted those nearest the Throne. The military men operated at a little distance. Hirohito (裕仁), the Shōwa Emperor (昭和天皇), (April 29, 1901 - January 7, 1989) reigned over Japan from 1926 to 1989. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... A torii at Itsukushima Shrine Shintō (Japanese: 神道) is the native religion of Japan and was the state religion of Japan for Japanese militarism in times from about end of the 19th century to the end of World War II. It involves the worship of kami, which could...


Industrialists and militarism

At same time, the capitalist groups or zaibatsu (principally Mitsubishi, Mitsui, Sumitomo, Yasuda) could see themselves as the Krupps of the future. Raw materials were a major concern. Fumimaro Konoye synthesised pressing social concerns, and the needs of capital, as a planned expansionist mission. Zaibatsu , lit. ... Mitsubishi Logo The Mitsubishi Group ), Mitsubishi Group of Companies, or Mitsubishi Companies, all refer to a large grouping of independently operated Japanese companies which share the Mitsubishi brand name. ... Mitsui (三井) is one of the largest corporate conglomerates (Keiretsu) in Japan and one of the largest publicly traded companies in the world. ... The Sumitomo Group is a group of related japanese companies, (keiretsu). ... Yasuda (安田) was formed by Yasuda Zenjiro. ... For the U.S. town, see Krupp, Washington. ... material is the substance or matter from which something is or can be made, or also items needed for doing or creating something. ... Fumimaro Konoe (近衛 文麿 Konoe Fumimaro) (sometimes Konoye, October 12, 1891–December 16, 1945) was a Japanese politician and the 34th (June 4, 1937–January 5, 1939), 38th (July 22, 1940–July 18, 1941) and 39th (July 18, 1941–October 18, 1941) Prime Minister...


The seeds of World War II which were long in germinating were planted in the mid 19th century. In hindsight, the reasons for the war were largely economic. The seizure or protection of spheres of influence, the maintenance of territorial integrity, the acquisition of raw materials as well as Asian markets for the commercial opportunities they presented were all reasons which would eventually account for so much loss of life and national treasure. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... A sphere of influence is a metaphorical region of political influences surrounding a country. ... Territorial integrity is the principle under international law that nation-states should not attempt to promote secessionist movements or to promote border changes in other nation-states. ... material is the substance or matter from which something is or can be made, or also items needed for doing or creating something. ...


Western nations, notably Great Britain, France, and the United States, had for more than one hundred years prior to the outbreak of hostilities exhibited great interest in the commercial opportunities in China and other parts of Asia. These opportunities had attracted Western investment for the exploitation of raw materials for the manufacture of products not only for domestic consumption but for export of finished goods back to the Orient World map showing the location of Asia. ... The term Western World or the West (also on rare occasions called the Occident) can have multiple meanings depending on its context (i. ... material is the substance or matter from which something is or can be made, or also items needed for doing or creating something. ... The term the Orient - literally meaning sunrise, east - is traditionally used to refer to Near, Middle, and Far Eastern countries. ...


These opportunities were eyed covetously by Japan through what was to become known as the Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere. The Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere was an attempt by Japan to create a bloc of Asian nations free of influence from Western nations. ...


Once outright war was joined, the Domei Tsushin Press Agency would celebrate the quality of Japan's armaments. Mitsubishi and the others had taken the measure of the "white barbarians". Domei Tsushin (United News Agency) was Japans official news agency and most important news source in the 1930s and until 1945. ...


Circumstances that allowed the Japanese military to gain political power

In a close to chaotic political (and economic and social) situation, the military were considered politically "clean" in terms of political corruption, and assumed responsibility for 'restoring' the security of the nation. The armed forces took up criticism of the traditional democratic parties and regular government for many reasons (low funds for the armed forces, compromised national security, weakness of the leaders). They were also, by their composition, closely aware of the effects of economic depression on the middle and lower classes, and the communist threat. This explains the victory in elections for General Tojo, becoming Prime Minister, and the lack of effective obstacles to complete political power. World map of the Corruption Perceptions Index, which measures the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians. Blue colors indicate little corruption, red colors indicate much corruption In broad terms, political corruption is the misuse by government officials of their governmental powers for illegitimate... Democracy (literally rule by the people, from the Greek demos, people, and kratos, rule[1]) is a form of government. ... Security measures taken to protect the Houses of Parliament in London, England. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... A prime minister is the very most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ...


The massive economic growth the zaibatsu groups had enjoyed during WWI came to a grinding halt in the early 1920s, as the wartime levels of production glutted the markets and drove down prices. Radical leftists in the labor unions (syndicalists, and Communists with Soviet outside support), came in the wake of Japan's industrial birth, attracting violence and social unrest to their causes. The military saw danger and decided to take direct action. Zaibatsu , lit. ... Look up Glut in Wiktionary, the free dictionary The word glut may refer to: Fornjót (a jotun from Norse mythology) GLUT (OpenGL Utility Toolkit) Glucose transporter This is a disambiguation page—a list of articles associated with the same title. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... Syndicalism is a political and economic ideology which advocates giving control of both industry and government to labor union federations. ... This article is about communism as a form of society, as an ideology advocating that form of society, and as a popular movement. ... Soviet redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... // The Unobservable Although the term social is a crucial category in social science and often used in public discourse, its meaning is often vague, suggesting that it is a fuzzy concept. ... Unrest is an indie rock band from the Washington DC area. ...


Under the Peace Preservations Acts (mid-1920s), the Kempeitai and other police and government security groups started to crack down on the unrest, that would last until World War II began. During this time the Army became mutinous, and brought much more power into its grasp. Young recruits came from the harsh life of the peasantry. The Kempeitai (憲兵隊, Law Soldier Regiment) were the military police of the Imperial Japanese Army. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Militarists and secret society members waged a war against every moderating voice heard in Japanese politics. Assassinations and coups were the rule of the day. Even when they failed, they wrung concessions. Secret societies flourished, and the Kwantung Army and the Kempeitai became largely autonomous. The Second Sino-Japanese war in China brought matters to a head. A secret society is an organization that conceals its activities from outsiders. ... assassin, see Assassin (disambiguation) Jack Ruby assassinated Lee Harvey Oswald in a very public manner. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... The Kwantung Army or Guandong Army (関東軍 Japanese: Kantōgun) was a unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that originated from a Guandong garrison established in 1906 to defend the Kwantung Leased Territory and the areas adjacent to the South Manchurian Railway. ... Combatants Republic of China Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Mao Zedong, Peng Dehuai Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Matsui Iwane, Jiro Minami, Kesago Nakajima, Toshizo Nishio, Yasuji Okamura, Umezu Yoshijiro Strength 5,600,000[] 4,100,000 (including 900...


Political development

Sadao Araki has his day

Araki Sadao was an important figurehead and "political and thinking father" of the party; his first ideological works date from his leadership of the Kodaha (Imperial Benevolent Rule or Action Group), opposed by the Toseiha (Control Group) led by General Kazushige Ugaki. He linked the ancient (bushido code) and contemporary local and European fascist ideals (Japanese fascism), to form the ideological basis of the movement (Showa nationalism). This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Toseiha (統制派) was a faction in the Japanese military, active in the 1920s and 1930s. ... Kazushige Ugaki (宇垣 一成 Ugaki Kazushige; August 21, 1868, Okayama prefecture, Japan - 30 April 1956, Tokyo) was a Japanese general. ... Japanese samurai in armor, 1860s. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


From September 1932, the Japanese were becoming more locked into the course that would lead them into the Second World War and Araki was leading the way. Totalitarianism, militarism and expansionism were to become the rule and fewer voices would be able even to speak against it. In a September 23 news conference Araki first mentioned the philosophy of "Kodoha" (The Imperial Way). The concept of Kodo linked the Emperor, the people, land and morality as one and indivisible. This led to the creation of a "new" Shinto and increased Emperor worship. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Totalitarianism is a term employed by political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... Expansionism is the doctrine of expanding the territorial base (or economic influence) of a country, usually by means of military aggression. ... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... A landform comprises a geomorphological unit. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ...


Araki also devised Seishin Kyoiku (spiritual training) for the army and the Kikosaku security doctrine of the Kempeitai. The state was being transformed into a creation that served the Army and the Emperor, while the Army transformed into a fanatical force. Symbolically katana sword came back into fashion as the martial embodiment of these beliefs, and the Nambu pistol became its contemporary equivalent, with the implicit message that the Army doctrine of close combat would prevail. The Kempeitai (憲兵隊, Law Soldier Regiment) were the military police of the Imperial Japanese Army. ... A state is a set of institutions that possess the authority to make the rules that govern the people in one or more societies, having internal and external sovereignty over a definite territory. ... Fans that are determined to be the number one fans of celebrities get the chance to meet their idols and usually hang out for a day. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Marcus Valerius Martialis, known in English as Martial, was a Latin poet from Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula) best known for his twelve books of Epigrams, published in Rome between AD 86 and 103, during the reigns of the emperors Domitian, Nerva and Trajan. ... The Nambu pistol was a semi-automatic pistol used by the Imperial Japanese Army and Navy during the First and Second World Wars. ...


Hideki Tojo succeeds as party leader

Hideki Tojo, the Minister of War, tried to maintain control over the Army. In this respect, he has the reputation for having been the most able War Minister, and with the best results, since the outbreak of the Manchurian Incident in 1931. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... A defence minister ( Commonwealth English) or defense minister ( American English) is a cabinet portfolio (position) which regulates the armed forces in a sovereign nation. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... One aspect of the Manchurian Incident (January 1931) was an engagement of the Imperial Japanese Army with Chinese forces. ...


After the "2-26" Incident of 1936, Tojo did his best to eliminate the Emperor's distrust of the Army. After having been Vice-Minister of war (May-December 1938), Tojo became War Minister in July 1940. He reported various problems-whether large or small-to the Sovereign, and always went through three stages of presentation: initial precis, interim report, and definitive project. Distrust is a formal way of not trusting any one party too much in a situation of grave risk or deep doubt. ... Look up war in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... ... Look up Sovereign in Wiktionary, the free dictionary The adjective sovereign is used to refer to a state of sovereignty. ...


The views of Prime Minister Konoye and of Tojo clashed head-on. Konoye was planning to bring the parleys with the United States to a successful close, by agreeing to the withdrawal of Japanese troops from China. Tojo, on the other hand, regarded this course of action as leading to the utter nullification of Japan's continental policy, and he strongly opposed it Definition Withdrawing is the act of removing all or part of a military force from combat and moving to a safe location. ... The process of nullification may refer to: The Hartford Convention, in which New England Federalists considered secession from the United States of America. ... The Continental System was a foreign-policy cornerstone of Napoleon I of France in his struggle against the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ...


The difference in opinion gathered intensity after October 1941. Tojo spoke of the need to resolve upon war and urged such a policy to the Prime Minister. He told Konoye that it was sometimes necessary for a man to leap from the stage of Kiyomizu. The differences between Tojo and Konoye finally led to the fall of the Prince's third cabinet. Tojo, representing the "toughs" militarists and right-wing elements, was then recommended to head the succeeding government. Militarism expounds that the foundation of a societys security is its military capacity, and claims that the development and maintenance of the military to ensure that capacity is the most important goal for that society. ... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ...


The signal for war in the Pacific was given on August 26, 1941, at a session of the Black Dragon Society in Tokyo. At this meeting, War Minister Hideki Tojo ordered that preparation be made to wage a total war against the armed forces of the United States, and that Japanese guns be mounted and supplies and munitions concentrated in the Marshalls and Caroline groups of the mandated islands by November, 1941. Approving Tojo's war orders, former Foreign Minister Koki Hirota, head of the Black Dragons secret services, discussed the advantages and consequences of a conflict with the United States. Many of those at the meeting considered December, 1941, or February, 1942, the most suitable time for Japan to attack. For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... August 26 is the 238th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (239th in leap years). ... Kokuryu-kai (Amur River Society), also know as the Black Dragon Society, was a prominent underground ultra-nationalist group in Japan. ... ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ... Marshalls, Inc. ... Look out for the kooks who run a surf camp there. ... A minister for foreign affairs, or foreign minister, is a cabinet minister who helps form the governmental foreign policy of a sovereign nation. ... Koki Hirota Koki Hirota (広田 弘毅 Hirota Kōki, February 14, 1878–December 23, 1948) was a Japanese politician and the 32nd Prime Minister of Japan from March 9, 1936 to February 2, 1937. ...


This well-known Japanese legend underlay Tojo's exhortation that Japan undertake her bold leap ("a la Kiyomizu") in 1941. Kiyomizu-dera Kiyomizu-dera (or Kiyomizudera; Japanese: ) refers to several Buddhist temples but most commonly to Otowa-san Kiyomizu-dera () in Eastern Kyoto, and one of the best known sights of the city. ...


During September 1941 the situation worsened with continued sanctions imposed against Japanese trade and became irreversibly worse in October 1941, when Lieutenant-General Hideki Tojo became the party leader. At the same time he also became Japanese Prime Minister, with the support of the Nippon nation's powerful military establishment, the Gunbatsu, was represented in the Kodoha movement. For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The true name of Japan as said in Japanese ... Gunbatsu (Gumbatsu, more phonetically) is a Japanese language term for the military establishment of Japan up to World War II. That is, it covers: the Imperial Japanese forces, which were divided into the Imperial Japanese Navy and Imperial Japanese Army, often with incompatible ideas; the military men who increasingly from...


He stated that he would "start the war with America, and after sixty days reshuffle the cabinet and become a great dictator". Both predictions came true, confirming the long standing deadly antagonism of upper-crust Japanese in the Black Dragon Society toward the United States. In truth his powers were initially close to dictatorial. Continuity with Araki's thinking was maintained, and the government's grasp of power all over the occupied lands overseas (where Army and Navy independence had been quite marked) was increased.


After the formation of his new government, Tojo ordered the Cabinet Planning Board to re-examine the question of the possible effects upon national power if the United States, Great Britain, and the Netherlands were to cut off their trade with Japan. Tojo asked the Board to start from scratch and especially to ascertain the possibilities of Japan's avoidance of a crisis by stepping up the development of the synthetic petroleum industry. Teiichi Suzuki, the Chief of the Cabinet Planning Board, reported that the whole problem of synthetic fuel had been examined, and that it was assumed that 5,200,000 tons of petroleum would be required annually. Tojo was told that rapid achievement of self-sufficiency could not be expected. Even if intensive efforts were made, it would still take at least seven years before the desired results could be obtained;such problem was partially solved by Industrial technology for Coal Tar process,Shale Oil,Gasification installations provided by Germans debt at previous German-Japanese accords for interchange such technology. In chemistry, chemical synthesis is purposeful execution of chemical reactions in order to get a product, or several products. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Synthetic fuel or synfuel is any liquid fuel obtained from coal or from natural gas. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Autonomy is the condition of something that does not depend on anything else. ... Coal tar is the liquid by-product of the distillation of coal to make coke. ... Oil shale is a general term applied to a group of fine black to dark brown shales rich enough in bituminous material (called kerogen) to yield petroleum upon distillation. ... For the water carbonator, see Gasogene. ...


At same time the Prime Minister Tojo, assumed heavy control of more aspects in inner policies and other aspects in nation(education, culture, religion and moral, etc) for media of your respective ministries in central government, amongst the political organizations linked with political movement "Kodoha" and proper own political sections of Armed forces in country. A prime minister is the very most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... The Imperial Way Faction (Kodoha) was a right-wing nationalist Japanese political grouping, active in the 1930s. ...


On 5 November Prime Minister Tojo revealed to his inner circle the offensive plans for a defensive war that he felt was increasingly certain to happen. The eventual plan drawn up by Army and Navy Chiefs of Staff envisaged such a mauling of the western powers that a defence perimeter line established based on the abilities of Japanese tenaciousness, operating on interior lines for communications and western casualty counts, could not be breached. A prime minister is the very most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Joint Chiefs of Staff of the United States of America symbol The Joint Chiefs of Staff, photographed in the Joint Chiefs of Staff Gold Room in the Pentagon on Jan. ... The term Western World or the West (also on rare occasions called the Occident) can have multiple meanings depending on its context (i. ...


Japan had come to believe that the wars in Europe had weakened the imperialists that the Mikado could pick up an extended East Asian empire at will. The Japanese military hierarchy planned a line of defence based on islands stretching from Rabaul in the Bismarck Archipelago to the Kuriles north of Japan, intending to swallow and digest the insular possessions of France, Britain, Holland, Australia, the Portuguese, and of the United States too, while finishing off the Chinese meal began decades before with the notorious Twenty-One Demands. The "Indies" was the Crown Jewel to the Japanese conquest planners. Without it, the embargoes placed against Japan would bankrupt her. Japan had 2 years supply of oil reserve for non-military use, one year if she went to war, the growth of Japanese military dominance of East Asia. This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... A cartoon portraying the British Empire as an octopus, reaching into foreign lands Imperialism is a policy of extending the control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires, either through direct territorial or through indirect methods of exerting control on the politics... Mikado is: (jap. ... ... A view from Rabaul Volcano Observatory across the relatively undamaged western half of Rabaul and towards Tavurur Rabaul, Papua New Guinea, was the headquarters of German New Guinea and then the Australian mandatory territory of New Guinea from 1910 until 1937, the base of Japanese activities in the South Pacific... The Bismarck Archipelago is a group of islands off the northeastern coast of New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, named in honour of the German chancellor Otto von Bismarck and belonging to Papua New Guinea. ... The Kuril Islands The Kuril Islands (Russian: Кури́льские острова́), also known as Kurile Islands, stretch northeast from Hokkaido, Japan, to Kamchatka, separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the North Pacific Ocean. ... Holland is a region in the central-western part of the Netherlands with 6. ... The Twenty-One Demands were a set of demands which the Japanese government of Okuma Shigenobu sent to the Chinese government on January 18th, 1915, which China gave into and signed two treaties with Japan on May 25th. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... East Asia is a subregion of Asia that can be defined in either geographical or cultural terms. ...


In her conversations with the United States, Japan was prepared for either war or peace. While pursuing a policy of negotiation, Japan simultaneously proceeded with operational preparations. Operational denotes a working method or a philosophy that focuses principally on cause and effect of specific interest to a particular domain at a particular point in time. ...


On November 26, 1941, the United States submitted three proposals:

  1. repudiate the Nanking Reformed Government;
  2. evacuate China and Indo-China;
  3. repudiate the Tripartite Alliance.

The Japanese Government decided that these terms were inadmissible. At the Imperial Conference of December 1, it was determined to open war against the [[United States]], Great Britain, and the Netherlands. Indochina, or French Indochina, was a federation of French colonies and protectorates in south-east Asia, part of the French colonial empire. ... The Tripatite alliance refers to the parliamentary wing of a three part alliance between the ANC, the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) and the South African Communist Party (SACP). ...


Aggressive Japan's major problem lay in that with great modern industrial expansion she had turned into a major manufacturing nation and required sufficient raw materials that could be obtained over eastern Asia. Hence Japan's swift advance in securing these areas which brought on an immediate conflict with the western powers, who also had considerable political and economic interests in the Far East region. The Japanese move into French Indo-China and diplomatic discourse with Siam (Thailand) constituted a threat to the security of British Malaya, the American Philippines, Dutch East Indies and the southern lands of Australia and New Zealand. material is the substance or matter from which something is or can be made, or also items needed for doing or creating something. ... East Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... Indochina, or French Indochina, was a federation of French colonies and protectorates in south-east Asia, part of the French colonial empire. ... For the country formerly called Siam see Thailand SIAM is an acronym for Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. ... British Malaya was a set of states that were colonized by the British from the 18th and the 19th until the 20th century. ... The Dutch East Indies, or Netherlands East Indies, (Dutch: Nederlands-Indië) was the name of the colonies set up by the Dutch East India Company, which came under administration of the Netherlands during the 19th century (see Indonesia). ...


Although the Government thus decided upon hostilities, it possessed no feasible plans for bringing the war to an end. Of course, there was a so-called "Plan for Accelerating the Termination of War against the United States, England, and the Netherlands" (decided upon at the Liaison Conference of November 15, 1941):But this document merely summed up Japan's one-sided wishful thinking.


On Sunday 7 December the Imperial Japanese Navy hit the American military base at Pearl Harbor with an aerial onslaught. The elements of total war were clearly revealed by the undeclared surprise attack on Pearl Harbor. Itself in line with the practices of total warfare, was also in the Japanese military tradition, for they had begun other wars previously the same way. The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) (大日本帝國海軍 Dai-Nippon Teikoku Kaigun or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun) was the navy of Japan before 1945. ... Satellite image of Pearl Harbor. ... This article is about total warfare. ... Military tradition was a principle of the military that evolved out of the Middle Ages concept of chivalry. ...


In February 1942, while World War II was raging, the British government attempted to propose a peace agreement with Japan, due to their increasing fear of losing the most important of their overseas colonies: Australia, after their recent failure in defending Malaya and Singapore. Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A peace treaty is an agreement between two hostile parties, usually countries or governments, that formally ends a war or armed conflict. ... This article refers to a colony in politics and history. ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ...


The Fall of Singapore and Dutch Indies had grave consequences in the British Empire in the Far East, along with the loss of the two navy ships HMS Prince of Wales and HMS Repulse. Furthermore, with the abandonment of Malaya and Singapore, a Crown Colony, Great Britain was receiving an extremely heavy blow on the Empire, and was placing Australia at great risk. The Battle of Singapore was a battle of the South-East Asian theatre of World War II, from January 30, 1942 – February 15, 1942. ... The Dutch East Indies, or Netherlands East Indies, (Dutch: Nederlands Indië) was the name of the colonies set up by the Dutch East India Company, which came under administration of the Netherlands during the 19th century (see Indonesia). ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... The multinational Combined Task Force One Five Zero (CTF-150) The British Grand Fleet, the supreme naval force of World War I A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... HMS Prince of Wales was a King George V-class battleship of the Royal Navy, built at the Cammell Laird shipyard in Birkenhead, England. ... HMS Repulse was a Renown-class battlecruiser, the second to last battlecruiser built for the Royal Navy. ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ...


Elated by these early successes Admiral Yamamoto, the Chief of the Combined Fleet, convinced his superiors to expand further including the objectives of Midway, the Aleutians, and the Solomons, expanding the thin line of sea communications dangerously thinner. Individual Japanese commanders of the new "Rising Sun Empire of Asia" would go off on wild hunts to enhance their name after easy conquests unrelated to any overall strategic plan and was categorised as "victory disease" by the Japanese themselves. Admiral Yamamoto Isoroku Yamamoto (山本 五十六 Yamamoto Isoroku) (April 4, 1884 - April 18, 1943) was the outstanding Japanese naval commander of World War II. Family background Yamamoto was born Isoroku Takano (高野 五十六 Takano Isoroku) in Nagaoka in Niigata. ... Orthographic projection centred over Midway. ... Looking down the Aleutians from an airplane. ... The Solomon Islands is a nation in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Papua New Guinea and is part of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... Victory disease refers to the habit whereby military commanders, armies, and even whole nations, having experienced a series of previous military victories, becomes weak and susceptible to defeat. ...


The Sons of Nippon had triumphed beyond all expectations against united adversaries whose potential war machine capacity was some sixteen times greater. Fast moving flanking attacks were essential if considerable oil, rubber, tin, and bauxite ore of South East Asia and the South West Pacific were to be seized relatively undamaged during the early stages of hostilities and to avoid the north-east monsoon of the China Sea and violent gales of the north Pacific. But these land and air victories were hollow for miles away aircraft carrier versus aircraft carrier battles reversed the overwhelming Japanese victories enabling the Americans accompanied by their allies to open a counter attack offensive against unsinkable Pacific bastions of Bushido stubbornness. Latex being collected from a tapped rubber tree Rubber is an elastic hydrocarbon polymer which occurs as a milky colloidal suspension (known as latex) in the sap of several varieties of plants. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tin, Sn, 50 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Atomic mass 118. ... Bauxite with penny Bauxite with core of unweathered rock Bauxite is an aluminium ore which consists largely of the Al minerals gibbsite Al(OH)3, boehmite and diaspore AlOOH, together with the iron oxides goethite and hematite, the clay mineral kaolinite and small amounts of anatase TiO2. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The South West Pacific was one of two theatres of World War II in the Pacific region, between 1942 and 1945. ... The China Sea can refer to the: South China Sea, or East China Sea This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other meanings of pacific, see pacific (disambiguation). ... Four aircraft carriers, Principe de Asturias, USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and HMS Invincible (front-to-back), showing the difference in size between a supercarrier, light V/STOL carriers, and an amphibious assault carrier. ... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... Japanese samurai in armor, 1860s. ...


On 16 February 1942, the British diplomats secretly proposed a peace deal with Japan. A possible agreement was that if Great Britain formally recognised the authority of imperial Japan over Northern China and Manchuria, the Japanese would give Britain sovereignty over the Malay Peninsula and Singapore. February 16 is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Manchuria (Manchu: Manju; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; Simplified Chinese: 满洲; pinyin: Mǎnzhōu, Russian: ) is a vast territorial region in northeast Asia. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e. ... The Malay Peninsula (Malay: Semenanjung Tanah Melayu) is a major peninsula located in Southeast Asia. ...


At the same time as this diplomatic movement, a political confrontation was in progress between the Toho kai party and the Kodoha party. This was possibly the last internal political power struggle in the government before the Midway and Coral Sea defeats in 1943, which sent the Japanese military reeling. This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... The Coral Sea is a region off the north-east coast of Australia with a namesake chain of islands (uninhabited), including the Willis, Coringa, and Tregosse Islets. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ...


The ultranationalist Toho kai party was led by Nakano Seigo who appeared to have some political influence at the time and expressed his outright support and confidence for Japanese Navy. He anxiously awaited the approval of the peace talks, so as to stabilize the recent conquests in Southeast Asia. Seigo also wanted to prevented any further sacrifices by the Japanese people towards the war effort, and pressured the government to halt the ambitious conquest of Asia. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Nakano Seigō (中野正剛) (1886-October 1943) was a Japanese political leader who advocated a fascist Japan to complete the Meiji Restoration. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


On the other side was the largely pro-Imperialist faction, which represented the military interests of Japan, was led by Tojo. He displayed a completely different perspective over the issue. He reasoned that the successes in recent campaigns in Southeast Asia were extremely rapid, and continuation of the conquests could lead to gaining most of Asia and Australia before the United States and the Allies could react to further develop the so-called Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere. Imperialism is the policy of extending the control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires, either through direct territorial or through indirect methods of exerting control on the politics and/or economy of other countries. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... The Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere was an attempt by Japan to create a bloc of Asian nations free of influence from Western nations. ...


General Tojo rejected any form of peace processes in the conquered lands and gave authorization for more conquests. This angered and frustrated the Toho Kai until Seigo finally committed suicide on October 27, 1943. When Japan rejected such peace agreements, the imperial empire lost the opportunity to mantain their new territories in Southeast Asia in the long term. Japan was unable to reinforce the defensive infantries, which allowed the United States to launch counter-offensives by 1943. October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ...


The Japanese imperialist and militarist state was too busy celebrating their rapid victories to defend their land, and the decision by Tojo ultimately led to the downfall of Japan in World War II.


Hirohito appointed General Hideki Tojo to be Chief of the General Staff on February 21, 1944. Concerning this assumption of "two hats," the War Ministry authorities explained that the Minister of War Tojo was not merely taking on an additional post as Chief of Staff, but that he had been appointed because of his personal qualifications as an Army General. Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 — January 7, 1989) was the 124th emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death. ... A defence minister ( Commonwealth English) or defense minister ( American English) is a cabinet portfolio (position) which regulates the armed forces in a sovereign nation. ... The chief of staff is the chief aide to the commander of larger military formations and units. ...


Simultaneously, a system of selecting two deputy chiefs of staff was adopted, with General Jun Ushiroku the Senior Deputy Chief. Despite the military authorities' justification, for a War Minister simultaneously to assume the position of Chief of Staff was unprecedented since the very inception of the independent General Staff in March 1889. ... The chief of staff is the chief aide to the commander of larger military formations and units. ... A General Staff is a group of professional military officers who act in a staff or administrative role under the command of a general officer. ...


Behind Premier Tojo's reports to the Throne, submitted to the Emperor for his sanction, lay the fact that the High Command's operational demands had begun to overpower the management of affairs of state, and were influencing national policy. The direct motive was the necessity of reinforcing air power, a need which had been acutely felt since the American task force strike against Truk. By his personnel measures, Tojo aimed to link relations between the Supreme Command and the State closely together. The thrones for The Queen of Canada, and the Duke of Edinburgh in the Canadian Senate, Ottawa is usually occupied by the Governor General and her spouse at the annual State Opening of Parliament. ... A view of Chuuk Chuuk is an island group that comprises one of the four states of the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), along with Kosrae, Pohnpei, and Yap. ... A state is a set of institutions that possess the authority to make the rules that govern the people in one or more societies, having internal and external sovereignty over a definite territory. ...


The previously described personnel measures drew various criticisms among military circles, of which the following are typical:


The prerogative of the Supreme Command would be thrown into confusion.Prime Minister Tojo has become a feudal figure like the "Shogun" of old.Now that such a busy man as Tojo-already Premier and War Minister-has taken the additional post of Chief of Staff, the High Command would turn into a "commercial firm." Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate Shogun )   is a military rank and historical title in Japan. ... A premier is an executive official of government. ... ... The chief of staff is the chief aide to the commander of larger military formations and units. ... High command may refer to: Chain of command Commander-in-Chief Defence minister NeoCracer Category: Disambiguation ...


There were not a few, however, who favored the new setup, on the grounds that it expedited IGHQ affairs. In addition there was another pronounced opinion that the synchronization of state policy and High Command matters urgently demanded utmost efforts to diminish the rivalry between the Army and the Navy from the very first. The Imperial General Headquarters or Daihonei, as part of the Supreme War Council was the supreme command for Japanese military forces during the World War II era. ...


The objective in establishing a dual system of Deputy Chiefs of the General Staff was the strengthening of the High Command's authority, by stressing the duty of assisting the Chief. There were difficulties, however, in finding the right man for the job, In fact, there was overwhelming criticism, within military circles, of the Imperial appointment of General Ushiroku as Deputy Chief. Criticism of the system was further increased by the fact that the appointment of Jun Ushiroku was said to have been influenced by the personal relationship existing between Tojo and him, as old classmates at the Military Academy. Look up Dual in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A dual is a pair or a grouping of two. ... A military academy is a military educational institution. ...


As Minister of War, Tojo's attitude toward Army circles was severity personified; but toward the Navy he appeared markedly deferent. This was due to his opinion that Army-Navy co-operation was absolutely essential to the prosecution of the War. He showed respect for Navy intentions and was cautious even where trivial matters might be concerned, in order that cooperation between the two services might be improved even slightly.


Because of the American task force assault upon Truk,Tojo (as Minister of War) learned that Pacific ground defenses in Navy areas of responsibility were extremely tenuous. He believed that the primary cause which had led to such a state of affairs could be traced to the lack of rapport between the Army and the Navy. When he was appointed Chief of the General Staff and Admiral Shigetaro Shimada was named Chief of the Naval General Staff, Tojo took advantage of the opportunity to institute measures for the promotion of Army-Navy operational collaboration. A view of Chuuk Chuuk is an island group that comprises one of the four states of the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), along with Kosrae, Pohnpei, and Yap. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... The multinational Combined Task Force One Five Zero (CTF-150) The British Grand Fleet, the supreme naval force of World War I A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... Shigetaro Shimada Shigetaro Shimada (嶋田繁太郎 Shimada Shigetaro) (September 24, 1883 – June 7, 1976) was one of the leading members of the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. Was graduated from Naval Academy. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The multinational Combined Task Force One Five Zero (CTF-150) The British Grand Fleet, the supreme naval force of World War I A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ...


The room at the Imperial Household Department was really inconvenient for handling operational matters, but it had been especially assigned for conferences ostensibly because the Army intended to demonstrate the literal command of the Emperor. In reality, however, the object was to attenuate, even a little, the rivalry between the armed services. An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ...


Although the Army represent by Hideki Tojo, had many suitable conference rooms to spare, they felt that if they asked the Navy to meet at their place,the latter might disagree for subjective reasons. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


With the institution of regular conferences, working relationships between the High Commands of both services were greatly facilitated. The meetings also proved so useful in obtaining mutual understanding that joint matters of operations and tactics were generally resolved faster than ever before. Thereafter the conferences were held regularly until the end of the War, regardless of changes in the Government.


Downfall of Tojo Cabinet(1944)

On July 18, 1944, after grave failures in the Coral Sea, Midway, Guadalcanal and last, and more notorious, The Saipan disaster the Tojo Cabinet fell. The ostensible cause was Cabinet disunity, but the inside reason (prevalent within Army circles) was to the effect that, after the failure of the Marianas campaign, "anti-Tojo fever" had intensified among the elder statesmen, the senior Navy officers, and the Emperor's intimates. Guadalcanal, position (inset) and main towns Guadalcanal is a 2,510 square mile (6 500 km²) island in the Pacific Ocean and a province of the Solomon Islands. ... Saipan seen from the air A map of Saipan, Tinian & Aquijan Saipan (IPA: in English) is the largest island and capital of the United States Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), a chain of 15 tropical islands belonging to the Marianas archipelago in the western Pacific Ocean (15°10... In the Pacific theater of World War II, the American Marianas Campaign, known as Operation Forager, pushed westward from the Marshall Islands in the summer of 1944 to capture the islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Guam. ... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ...


In accord with Toshikazu Kaze, a high ranking Foreign Affairs officer: "Tojo did not relinquish power without a struggle. He clung to office tenaciously and tried every means to retain it....He refused to resign from the premiership until the last moment and even disputed his removal with the Emperor." An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ...


Two days after the resignation of the Tojo Government, General Koiso Kuniaki and Admiral Mitsumasa Yonai received an Imperial mandate to form a new Cabinet. The Imperial ceremony of investiture was held on the 22d. Marshal Gen Sugiyama took office as War Minister. Kuniaki Koiso Kuniaki Koiso (小磯 国昭 Koiso Kuniaki, March 22, 1880–November 3, 1950) was the 41st Prime Minister of Japan from July 22, 1944 to April 7, 1945. ... Mitsumasa Yonai (米内 光政 Yonai Mitsumasa; March 2, 1880–April 20, 1948) was a Japanese politician and the 37th Prime Minister of Japan from January 16, 1940 to July 22, 1940. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


In same period General Kuniaki,receiving the leadership in Kodoha party,for command all political and ideological works in such party, alongside of Kantaro Suzuki,why later assumed the last command in movement. The Imperial Way Faction (Kodoha) was a right-wing nationalist Japanese political grouping, active in the 1930s. ... Admiral Kantaro Suzuki (鈴木 貫太郎 Suzuki Kantarō, December 24, 1867 - April 17, 1948) was a Japanese military leader in World War I and World War II. As 42nd Prime Minister of Japan from April 7, 1945 to August 17, 1945, he was a key voice in favor of Japans acceptance of...


It was widely known that Sugiyama had been graduated from the Army War College together with Premier Koiso and that there had been a clamor for him to assume the portfolio of War Minister. On July 22, Koiso made a representation to the War Ministry authorities concerning a possible return to active duty, but the proposal was rejected. The United States Army War College is a U. S. Army school located in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, specifically in the historic Carlisle Barracks. ...


With the resignation of the Tojo Cabinet, the Chief of the Army General Staff was reshuffled. General Yoshijiro Umezu (as Tojo s partner), till then the Commander-in-Chief of the Kwantung Army, became Chief of Staff on July 18. It was expected that General Umezu would exercise sound command, although there was some feeling that the present stage of the war required rather more resolute authority. In general, however, there was a strong atmosphere of confidence in the ability of the new Chief of Staff. Umezu signing the instrument of surrender to the United States General Yoshijiro Umezu ) (January 4, 1882 - January 8, 1949) was the chief commander of the Japanese army in World War II. In the 1920s Umezu was a member of the Tosei-Ha (Control Group) led by General Kazushige Ugaki along... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... The Kwantung Army or Guandong Army (関東軍 Japanese: Kantōgun) was a unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that originated from a Guandong garrison established in 1906 to defend the Kwantung Leased Territory and the areas adjacent to the South Manchurian Railway. ...


The system of two Deputy Chiefs of the General Staff was abolished on August 4. General Ushiroku was transferred to command the Third Area Army in Manchuria. Lieutenant General Hikosaburo Hata, the second Deputy Chief of Staff, remained in office. At the end of the Pacific War, the Deputy Chief was Lieutenant General Torashiro Kawabe. Manchuria (Manchu: Manju; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; Simplified Chinese: 满洲; pinyin: Mǎnzhōu, Russian: ) is a vast territorial region in northeast Asia. ... Torashiro Kawabe (1890-1960) was a Japanese general and served as Deputy Chief of Army General Staff within the Imperial Japanese Army during the Second World War. ...


At almost the same time that the Tojo Cabinet resigned, the assassination of Hitler (July 20 Plot) was being attempted in Germany (July 20). From about that time the Army High Command gave up on the future of Germany. Claus von Stauffenberg The July 20 Plot was an attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler, the dictator of Germany, on July 20, 1944. ...


The July 20 Plot gave the Japanese Army the impression that Party problems were a cancer in the German conduct of the war. In Japan, on the other hand, Army circles had the growing feeling that the structural problem involving antagonism between the Japanese Army and the Japanese Navy constituted the greatest obstacle to the prosecution of hostilities. There were growing indications of a desire on the part of War Minister Sugiyama and Chief of Staff Umezu to devote serious effort toward solving the problem of Army-Navy rivalry. Japans honor guard often marches to greet the arrival of foreign dignitaries. ...


Political structure in the movement

The Kodoha party, like any political movement, had a structure. The highest placed were the secretary general and supreme party leader (first Sadao Araki, later Hideki Tojo and Koiso Kuniaki) and their leading group or "directorate" (political cabinet). The most important founders and party associates included also Jinsaburo Mazaki, Heisuke Yanagawa, Hideyoshi Obata, Kazushige Ugaki, Gen Sugiyama, Yoshijiro Umezu, and Tetsuzan Nagata. Doctrines came also from the middle and lower party members (see Japanese doctrines in the Showa Period). Influence and contact with real power and central government institutions (and overseas also) was a constant concern. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Kuniaki Koiso Kuniaki Koiso (小磯 国昭 Koiso Kuniaki, March 22, 1880–November 3, 1950) was the 41st Prime Minister of Japan from July 22, 1944 to April 7, 1945. ... Jinsaburo Mazaki (November 27, 1876-August 31, 1956 was a Japanese soldier and politician. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Hideyoshi Obata was a Japanese soldier and politician. ... Kazushige Ugaki (宇垣 一成 Ugaki Kazushige; August 21, 1868, Okayama prefecture, Japan - 30 April 1956, Tokyo) was a Japanese general. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Umezu signing the instrument of surrender to the United States General Yoshijiro Umezu ) (January 4, 1882 - January 8, 1949) was the chief commander of the Japanese army in World War II. In the 1920s Umezu was a member of the Tosei-Ha (Control Group) led by General Kazushige Ugaki along... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Japanese military-political doctrines in the Showa period refers to Japanese political ideas and doctrines held by Japanese Army and Japanese Navy thinkers, and their civilian supporters in politics, during the Showa times. ...


Important institutional links were with the Imperial Young Federation, under Kingoro Hashimoto and the "Political Department" of the Kempeitai. Amongst the himitsu kessha (secret societies), the Kokuryu-kai (Black Dragon Society), and Kokka Shakai Shugi Gakumei (the National Socialist League) were close, and a source of less scrupulous supporters. The Tonarigumi (residents committee) groups, the Nation Service Society (national government trade union) and Imperial Farmers Association were all allied. The state religious and educational systems were also targets. Direct links with Army and Navy political sections supported the formation of similar right-wing movements in all the occupied lands of the early Pacific War. Imperial Youth Federation The Imperial Youth Federation or Imperial Young Association was the local political organization charged to guiding all nationalist and militarists indoctrination at young people in Japan. ... Kingoro Hashimoto (1890-1957) was a Japanese soldier and politician. ... The Kempeitai (憲兵隊, Law Soldier Regiment) were the military police of the Imperial Japanese Army. ... Kokuryu-kai (Amur River Society), also known as the Black Dragon Society, was a prominent paramilitary, ultra-nationalist right-wing group in Japan. ... The Tonarigumi (Residents Commitees) were localised political and surveillance bodies in Japan. ... The Nation Service Society was a state-run trade union organized in 1940 by the Japanese government. ... A Trade Union (Labour union) ... is a continuous association of wage-earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment. ... The Japanese Imperial Farmers Association was an official was an official government group, that was compulsory to join for all farmers, and an important tool to force the implementation of government farming policies. ... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... Combatants China (from 1937) United States (from 1941) United Kingdom (from 1941) British India (1941) Australia (1941) Free France (1941) Philippines (1941) Netherlands (1941) New Zealand (1941) Canada (1941) Soviet Union (from 1945) Mongolia (from 1945) Empire of Japan Wang Jingwei Government (1940) Thailand (1942) Manchukuo Mengjiang Free India (1943...


The last party chiefs and Prime Ministers

The final party chiefs and Prime Ministers were Koiso Kuniaki and Kantaro Suzuki, in 1944-45. The former was from the fall of Saipan in summer 1944, and the latter from the Japanese defeat in the Battle of Okinawa. Kuniaki Koiso Kuniaki Koiso (小磯 国昭 Koiso Kuniaki, March 22, 1880–November 3, 1950) was the 41st Prime Minister of Japan from July 22, 1944 to April 7, 1945. ... Admiral Kantaro Suzuki (鈴木 貫太郎 Suzuki Kantarō, December 24, 1867 - April 17, 1948) was a Japanese military leader in World War I and World War II. As 42nd Prime Minister of Japan from April 7, 1945 to August 17, 1945, he was a key voice in favor of Japans acceptance of... The battle of Saipan was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II, fought on the island of Saipan in the Mariana Islands from 15 June 1944 to 9 July 1944. ... Combatants United States, United Kingdom, Canada, New Zealand, Australia Empire of Japan Commanders Simon B. Buckner†, Joseph W. Stilwell, Ray Spruance Mitsuru Ushijima† Strength 548,000 regulars, 1300 ships,  ? aircraft 100,000 regulars & militia,  ? ships,  ? aircraft Casualties 12,513 dead or missing, 38,916 wounded, 33,096 non-combat wounded...


Summary

The "Imperial Way Faction" represented the principal right-wing political movement in the Empire of Japan from some point in the 1930s, emerging from a welter of similar groups and secret societies. In 1941, as a political party, it achieved the goal of real power. Its members led all political and military national efforts during the Pacific War. In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... Anthem: Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Slogan: Fukoku Kyohei Enrich the Country, Strengthen the Military (a. ... Combatants China (from 1937) United States (from 1941) United Kingdom (from 1941) British India (1941) Australia (1941) Free France (1941) Philippines (1941) Netherlands (1941) New Zealand (1941) Canada (1941) Soviet Union (from 1945) Mongolia (from 1945) Empire of Japan Wang Jingwei Government (1940) Thailand (1942) Manchukuo Mengjiang Free India (1943...


It was abolished, with the other nationalist organizations, by the Allied occupation authorities in 1945. In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ...


See also


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The Imperial Army remained in fighting trim, with Imperial ground forces assisting in the liberation and occupation of Coruscant at the end of the war against the Yuuzhan Vong.
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The Imperial Way Faction (kodoha) was a nationalist political formation that served as the political wing of the Japanese military.
The "Imperial Way Faction" represented the principal right-wing political movement in the Empire of Japan from some point in the 1930s, emerging from a welter of similar groups and secret societies.
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