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Encyclopedia > Imperial Russian Army
Armies of Russia

 Imperial Russia File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


Army (?-1917) 1917 was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ...


 Soviet Union Download high resolution version (1600x800, 6 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Soviet Union Space Shuttle Challenger Space Shuttle Enterprise Space Shuttle Columbia Space Shuttle Discovery Space Shuttle Atlantis Space Shuttle Endeavour Space exploration Shuttle Buran Modern pentathlon Football World Cup 1958 Football World Cup 1962...


Red Army (1918-1991) 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


 Russian Federation File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


Army (1991-Present) The primary responsibilities of the Russian Ground Forces, traditionally referred to as the Army, are the protection of the state border, combat on dry land, the security of occupied territories, and the crushing defeat of the enemy and his troops. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

A Red Army is a communist army. This article is about the armed forces of the Soviet Union. See People's Liberation Army for the Chinese Red Army, Red Army Faction for the German insurgent group, and Japanese Red Army for the Japanese group.
Red Army flag
Red Army flag

The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the "Workers' and Peasants' Red Army", (Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krest'yanskaya Krasnaya Armiya in Russian), the armed forces organised by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. This organisation became the army of the Soviet Union after its establishment in 1922. "Red" refers to the blood shed by the working class in its struggle against capitalism. Although it was officially known as the Soviet Army from 1946, the term Red Army is commonly used in the West to refer to the Soviet military after that date, i.e., during the Cold War. Communism - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... Army (from French armée) can, in some countries, refer to any armed force. ... The Chinese Peoples Liberation Army (PLA) (Simplified Chinese: 中国人民解放军; Traditional Chinese: 中國人民解放軍; pinyin: ), which includes an army, navy, air force, and strategic nuclear forces, serves as the military of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... RAF Logo with red star and MP5 The Red Army Faction (in German: Rote Armee Fraktion; RAF), also known as the Baader-Meinhof Group, or the Baader-Meinhof Gang, which was one of the core groups within the RAF, was postwar Western Germanys most active left-wing terrorist organization. ... An insurgency is an armed rebellion against a constituted authority, by any irregular armed force that rises up against an enforced or established authority, government, or administration. ... The Japanese Red Army (日本赤軍, Nihon Sekigun) (JRA) is an international organisation founded by Ms. ... Image File history File links Red_Army_flag. ... Image File history File links Red_Army_flag. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... The Russian Civil War was fought between 1918 and 1922. ... 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Red is a color at the lowest frequencies of light discernible by the human eye. ... 1946 was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... For the generic term for a high-tension struggle between countries, see cold war (war). ...

"Have you signed up as a volunteer?" Red Army recruitment poster during the Russian Civil War.
"Have you signed up as a volunteer?" Red Army recruitment poster during the Russian Civil War.

Contents

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (511x760, 157 KB) Summary Source: [1] Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Red Army ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (511x760, 157 KB) Summary Source: [1] Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Red Army ... The Russian Civil War was fought between 1918 and 1922. ...


Early history

1918 Bolshevik propaganda poster depicting Trotsky slaying the reactionary dragon
1918 Bolshevik propaganda poster depicting Trotsky slaying the reactionary dragon

The Council of People's Commissars set up the Red Army by decree on January 15, 1918 (Old Style) (January 28, 1918), basing it on the already-existing Red Guard. The official Red Army Day of February 23, 1918 marked the day of the first mass draft of the Red Army in Petrograd and Moscow, and of the first combat action against the occupying imperial German army. February 23 became an important national holiday in the Soviet Union, later celebrated as "Soviet Army Day", and it continues as a day of celebration in present-day Russia as Defenders of the Motherland Day. Credit as the founder of the Red Army generally goes to Leon Trotsky, the People's Commissar for War from 1918 to 1924. Download high resolution version (619x712, 171 KB)Bolshevik propaganda poster of Trotsky slaying the dragon of counter-revolution, 1918. ... Download high resolution version (619x712, 171 KB)Bolshevik propaganda poster of Trotsky slaying the dragon of counter-revolution, 1918. ... 1915 passport photo of Trotsky Leon Davidovich Trotsky (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Trotskii, Trotski, Trotzky) (October 26 (O.S.) = November 7 (N.S.), 1879 - August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Лев Давидович Бронштейн), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist intellectual. ... Sovnarkom (Russian language СовНарКом, the abbreviation of the phrase Совет Народных Комиссаров, Sovet Narodnykh Komissarov, the Council of Peoples Commissars, sometimes Russian СНК, the SNK), was the name of administrative arm of the Soviet governments until 1946. ... January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... In Britain and countries of the British Empire, Old Style or O.S. after a date means that the date is in the Julian calendar, in use in those countries until 1752; New Style or N.S. means that the date is in the Gregorian calendar, adopted on 14 September... January 28 is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... In the context of the history of Russia and Soviet Union, Red Guards (Russian: Красная Гвардия) was armed groups of workers formed in the time frame of the Russian Revolution. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Saint Petersburg  listen (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of... Moscow (Russian: Москва́, Moskva, IPA: listen â–¶(?)) is the capital of Russia, located on the river Moskva. ... Leon Trotsky Leon Davidovich Trotsky â–¶(?) (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Leo, Lev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij and Trotzky ) (October 26 (O.S.) = November 7 (N.S.), 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Лев Давидович Бронштейн), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1924 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


At the beginning of its existence, the Red Army functioned as a voluntary formation, without ranks and insignia. Democratic elections selected the officers. However, a decree of May 29, 1918 specified obligatory military service was decreed for men of ages 18 to 40. To service the massive draft, the Bolsheviks formed regional military commissariats (военный комиссариат, военкомат (voenkomat)), which still exist in Russia in this function and under this name as of 2005. (Note: do not confuse military commissariats with the institution of military political commissars.) May 29 is the 149th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (150th in leap years). ... 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... A political commissar is an officer appointed by a communist party to oversee a unit of the military. ...


Following Aleksei Brusilov's offering his professional services, Bolsheviks decided to permit conscription of officers of the army of Imperial Russia. A special commission under the chair of Lev Glezarov (Лев Маркович Глезаров) was set, and by August 1920, about 315,000 of them had been drafted. Most often they held a position of military advisor (voyenspets: "военспец" for "военный специалист", i.e., "military specialist"), and a number of prominent Soviet Army commanders were former Imperial generals. In fact, a number of former Imperial military men, notably, a member of the Supreme Military Council Mikhail Bonch-Bruevich, joined Bolsheviks earlier. Aleksei Alekseevich Brusilov (Russian: Алексей Алексеевич Брусилов) (August 19, 1853 - March 17, 1926) was a Russian cavalry general most noted for the development of a military offensive tactic used in the Brusilov offensive of 1916. ... Big Coat of Arms of the Russian Empire, adopted in 1882 Flag of Russian Empire Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean... Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic or Revvoyensoviet (Революционный Военный Совет, Реввоенсовет) was the supreme military authority of the Soviet Russia. ... Mikhail Dmitrievich Bonch-Bruevich (Михаил Дмитриевич Бонч-Бруевич 1870—1956) was an Imperial Russian and Soviet military commander, Lieutenant General (1944). ...


The Bolshevik authorities assigned to every unit of the Red Army a political commissar, or politruk, who had the authority to override unit commanders' decisions if they ran counter to the principles of the Communist Party. Although this sometimes resulted in inefficient command, the Party leadership considered political control over the military necessary, as the Army relied more and more on experienced officers from the pre-revolutionary Tsarist period. A political commissar is an officer appointed by a communist party to oversee a unit of the military. ... In modern usage, a communist party is a political party which promotes communism, a sociopolitical philosophy based on the particular interpretation of Marxism put forth by Vladimir Lenin. ... Tsar (Bulgarian цар, Russian царь, listen ▶(?); often spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the Bulgarian Empire in 913-1396/1422 and 1908-1946, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to...

Lenin, Trotsky, and soldiers of the Red Army in Petrograd
Lenin, Trotsky, and soldiers of the Red Army in Petrograd

Lenin, Trotsky, and soldiers of the Red Army in St. ... Lenin, Trotsky, and soldiers of the Red Army in St. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ... Leon Trotsky Leon Davidovich Trotsky â–¶(?) (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Leo, Lev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij and Trotzky ) (October 26 (O.S.) = November 7 (N.S.), 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Лев Давидович Бронштейн), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... Saint Petersburg  listen (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of...

Officer Corps

Ranks and Titles

The institution of a professional officer corps was abandoned as a "heritage of tsarism" in the Revolution. In particular, the word officer was condemned and the word commander was used instead. Epaulettes and ranks were abolished, and the titles were purely functional, e.g. “Division Commander”, “Corps Commander”, etc. In 1924, the system was supplemented with “service categories”, from K-1 (lowest) to K-14 (highest). The service categories were essentially ranks in disguise, they were indicative of the experience and qualification of a commander; the insignia now denoted the category, not position of a commander. However, the functional titles still had to be used to address commanders, which could be as awkward as “comrade deputy head of staff of corps” and was simply impossible if the position was not known, in which case one of the possible positions was used, e.g., “Regiment Commander” for K-9. Any holder of an office or of a post may bear the title officer. ... Insignia of a United States Navy Commander Commander is a military rank used in many navies but not generally in armies or air forces. ... Epaulette [pronunciation: ĕp-ǝ-lĕt] is a French word meaning verbatim, little shoulders (epaule, referring to shoulder), often describes the shoulder decorations such as insignia or rank, especially in military or other organizations worn on the shoulder. ... Generally, rank is a system of hierarchy used to classify like things. ... A title is a prefix or suffix added to a persons name to signify either veneration, an official position or a professional or academic qualification. ... 1924 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... ...


On September 22, 1935 the service categories were abolished and personal ranks introduced. These ranks, however, were a peculiar mix of functional titles and “normal“ ranks. For example, there was a rank of Lieutenant and there was a rank of “Comdiv” (Комдив, Division Commander). It was further complicated by functional and categorical ranks for political officers (e.g., “Brigade Commissar”, “Army Commissar 2nd Rank”), for technical corps (e.g., “Engineer 3rd Rank”, “Division Engineer”), for administrative, medical and other non-combatant branches. 1935(MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... A Lieutenant is a military, paramilitary or police officer. ...


On May 7, 1940, the system was modified again. The senior functional ranks of Combrig, Comdiv, Comcor, Comandarm were replaced with General or Admiral ranks; the other senior functional ranks (“Division Commissar”, “Division Engineer”, etc.) were not affected. On November 2, 1940, the system was further modified by abolishing functional ranks for NCOs and introducing the Podpolkovnik (sub-colonel) rank. 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... General is a high military rank, used by nearly every country in the world. ... Admiral is a word from the Arabic term Amir-al-bahr (Lord of the bay). ... NCO may mean: a numerically-controlled oscillator in electronics a non-commissioned officer in the military   This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Podpolkovnik, a Sub-Polkovnik, is equivalent to Lieutenant Colonel. ...


In early 1942 all the functional ranks in technical and administrative corps were replaced with regularised ranks (e.g., “Engineer Major”, “Engineer Colonel”, “Captain Intendant Service”, etc.). On October 9, 1942 the system of military commissars was abolished, together with the commissar ranks. The functional ranks were only retained in medical, veterinary and legislative corps. This article is about the year. ...


In early 1943, the system was unified and all the remaining functional ranks were abolished. The word “officer” was officially endorsed, together with epaulettes that superseded the previous rank insignia. The ranks and insignia of 1943 did not change much until the last days of the USSR; the contemporary Russian Army uses largely the same system. The old functional ranks of Combat (Battalion or Battery Commander), Combrig (Brigade Commander) and Comdiv (Division Commander) are still used informally. 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... Epaulette [pronunciation: ĕp-ǝ-lĕt] is a French word meaning verbatim, little shoulders (epaule, referring to shoulder), often describes the shoulder decorations such as insignia or rank, especially in military or other organizations worn on the shoulder. ... ... In russian, word army means armed forces in general. ...


General Staff

On September 22, 1935, the RKKA Staff was renamed as the General Staff, which was essentially a reincarnation of the General Staff of the Russian Empire. Many of the former RKKA Staff officers had been General Staff officers in the Russian Empire and became General Staff officers in the USSR. General Staff officers typically had extensive combat experience and solid academic training. A General Staff is a group of professional military officers who act in a staff or administrative role under the command of a general officer. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start...


Military Education

During the Civil War, the commander cadres were trained at the General Staff Academy of RKKA (Академия Генерального штаба РККА), which was an alias for the Nicholas General Staff Academy (Николаевская академия Генерального штаба) of the Russian Empire. On August 5, 1921 the Academy was renamed as the Military Academy of RKKA (Военная академия РККА), and in 1925 as the Frunze (М.В. Фрунзе) Military Academy of RKKA. The senior and supreme commanders were trained at the Higher Military Academic Courses (Высшие военно-академические курсы), renamed in 1925 as the Advanced Courses for Supreme Command (Курсы усовершенствования высшего начальствующего состава); in 1931, the courses were supplemented by establishing an Operations Faculty at the Frunze Military Academy. On April 2, 1936, the General Staff Academy was re-installed, and it was to become a principal school for the senior and supreme commanders of the Red Army, as well as a centre for advanced military studies. A civil war is a war in which the competing parties are segments of the same country or empire. ... General Staff Academy may refer to one of the following. ... 1921 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... A military academy is a military educational institution. ... 1925 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Purges

Late 30s were marked by so-called Purges of the Red Army cadres, in the historical background of the Great Purge. The objective of the Purges was to cleanse the Red Army of the “politically unreliable element”, mainly among the higher-ranking officers, which inevitably provided a convenient pre-text to settle personal vendettas and eventually resulted in a witch hunt. The Purges are believed by some to have weakened the Army considerably, but this remains a hotly debated subject. A consideration often neglected is that the Army grew significantly while the Purges were in full swing. In 1937, the Army numbered around 1.3 million, and it grew almost three times that number by June 1941. This necessitated quick promotion of junior officers, often despite their lack of experience or training, with the obvious grave implications. Another important consideration is that by the end of the Purges the pendulum swung back, and many of the officers were restored and promoted. The Great Purge is the name given to campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union during the late 1930s which included purges of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... A witch-hunt was traditionally a search for witches or evidence of witchcraft, which could lead to a witchcraft trial involving the accused person. ...


Recently declassified data indicate that in 1937, the culmination of the Purges, the Army had 114,300 officers, of which 11,034 were repressed and not rehabilitated until 1940. Yet, in 1938, the Red Army had 179,000 officers (56% more compared to 1937), of which further repressed and not rehabilitated until 1940 were 6,742.


In the highest echelons of the Army, the Purges removed 3 of 5 marshals, 13 of 15 army generals, 8 of 9 admirals, 50 of 57 army corps generals, 154 out of 186 division generals, 16 of 16 army commissars, and 25 of 28 army corps commissars.


Doctrines and Weapons

Major Conflicts

Civil War

See Russian Civil War The Russian Civil War was fought between 1918 and 1922. ...


Central Asia

Far East

Battle of Halhin Gol

In 1934, Mongolia and the USSR, recognising the threat from the mounting Japanese military presence in Manchuria and Inner Mongolia, agreed to co-operate in the field of defence. On March 12, 1936, the co-operation was enhanced with the ten-year Mongolian-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, which included a mutual defence protocol. The Battle of Halhin Gol, sometimes spelled Khalkhin Gol or Khalkin Gol and alternately known as the Nomonhan Incident (after a nearby village) in Japan, was the decisive engagement of the undeclared Soviet-Japanese Border War (1939), or Japanese-Soviet War. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Extent of Manchuria according to Definition 1 (dark red), Definition 3 (dark red + medium red) and Definition 4 (dark red + medium red + light red) Manchuria (Manchu: Manju, Simplified Chinese: 满洲; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; pinyin: ) is name given to a vast territorial region in northeast Asia. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


In May 1939, a Mongolian cavalry unit clashed with Manchukuoan cavalry in the disputed territory east of the Halha River (also know in Russian as Халхин-Гол, Halhin Gol), which was followed by a clash with a Japanese detachment, who drove the Mongolians over of the river. The Soviet troops quartered there in accordance with the mutual defence protocol intervened and obliterated the detachment. Escalation of the conflict was imminent, and both sides spent June amassing forces. On July 1, the Japanese force numbered 38 thousand troops. The combined Soviet-Mongol force had 12.5 thousand troops. The Japanese crossed the river but after a three-day battle were thrown back over the river. The Japanese kept probing the Soviet defences throughout July, without success. Italian cavalry officers practice their horsemanship in 1904 outside Rome. ... It has been suggested that Manchukuo (administration) be merged into this article or section. ... A detachment is a military unit that is a permanent separate unit smaller than a company, such as a Medical Detachment. ... Conflict is a state of opposition, disagreement or incompatibility between two or more people or groups of people, which is sometimes characterized by physical violence. ...


On August 20, Zhukov opened a major offensive with heavy air attack and three hours of artillery bombardment, after which three infantry divisions and five armoured brigades, supported by a fighter regiment and masses of artillery (57 thousand troops total), stormed the 75,000 Japanese force deeply entrenched in the area. On August 23, the entire Japanese force was encircled, and on August 31 largely destroyed. Those refusing to surrender were wiped out with artillery and air attacks. Japan requested a cease-fire. The conflict was concluded with an agreement between the USSR, Mongolia and Japan signed on September 15 in Moscow. Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgi Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (Russian: Гео́ргий Константи́нович Жу́ков) (December 1, 1896 - June 18, 1974), Soviet military commander and politician, considered by many as one of the most successful field commanders of World War II. Prewar career Born into a peasant family in Strelkovka, Kaluga... Offensive may relate to In sports or combat, the team which is attacking, pitching or moving forwards In language or morals, terms and concepts which are unacceptable to some people, such as swearing and profanity. ... In military science, an attack is the aggressive attempt to conquer enemy territory, installations, personnel, or equipment or to deny the enemy the use of territory, installations, personnel, or equipment, for example by destroying the equipment. ... Historically, artillery refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ... A bombardment is an attack by artillery fire directed against fortifications, troops or towns and buildings. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to fifteen thousand soldiers. ... A hoplite wearing (only) a helmet, breastplate greaves and a shield. ... Brigade is a term from military science which refers to a group of several battalions (typically two to four), and directly attached supporting units (normally including at least an artillery battery and additional logistic support). ... Fighter has a number of meanings: A fighter aircraft is a warplane designed to destroy other warplanes in combat. ... A regiment is a military unit, larger than a company and smaller than a division. ... An armistice is the effective end of a war, when the warring parties agree to stop fighting. ... Moscow (Russian: Москва́, Moskva, IPA: listen â–¶(?)) is the capital of Russia, located on the river Moskva. ...


In the conflict, the Red Army losses were 9,703 KIA and MIA and 15,952 wounded. The Japanese lost 25 thousand KIA; the grand total was 61 thousand killed, missing, wounded and taken prisoner.


Shortly after the cease-fire, the Japanese negotiated access to the battle fields to collect their dead. Finding thousands upon thousands of dead bodies was a further shock to the already shaken morale of the Japanese soldiers. The scale of the defeat was probably a major factor in preventing a Japanese attack on the USSR during World War II, which allowed the Red Army to switch a large number of its Far Eastern troops onto the European Theatre in the desperate fall of 1941. World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrinations, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons such as the atom bomb. ... Far East is a term often used for East Asia and Southeast Asia combined, sometimes including also the easternmost territories of Russia, i. ... German Führer Adolf Hitler Preceding events Main article: Events preceding World War II in Europe Main article: Causes of World War II Germany was in debt after World War I, due to the Great Depression and the forced payments to the victors of World War I. Germans wanted a leader... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


World War II

The Beginning

On September 1, 1939 Germany attacked Poland. On September 17, the government of Poland escaped to Romania. On that same day the Red Army marched its troops into Poland, with the objective of securing the Western Ukraine and the Western Byelorussia, annexed by Poland at the break-up of the Russian and Austro-Hungarian Empires. The advance halted at roughly the Curzon Line, which is believed to have been preconditioned by a secret protocol annex to the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Western Ukraine (Західно-українська Народна Республіка, West-Ukrainian Peoples Republic) was a short-lived republic that existed in late 1918 and early 1919 in eastern Galicia, Bukovina and Transcarpathia and included the cities of Lviv, Kolomyja, and Stanislav. ... Official languages Latin, German, Hungarian Established church Roman Catholic Capital & Largest City Vienna pop. ... The Curzon Line was a demarcation line proposed in 1919 by the British Foreign Secretary, Lord Curzon of Kedleston, as a possible armistice line between Poland, to the west, and Soviet Russia to the east, during the Polish-Soviet War of 1919–20. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


The Red Army troops faced little resistance, having 1,475 killed and missing and 2,383 wounded. The losses of the opposing Polish troops are unknown; the Red Army reported that it had “disarmed” 452,536 men but probably a great deal of them were not regular Polish Army servicemen. The Red Army force in Poland numbered 466,516; the strength of the opposing force is unknown. Polish Army (Polish Wojsko Polskie) is the name applied to the military forces of Poland. ... A Norwegian soldier (a Corporal, armed with an MP-5) A soldier is a person who has enlisted with, or has been conscripted into, the armed forces of a sovereign country and has undergone training and received equipment to defend that country or its interests. ...


The Finnish Campaign

The Great Patriotic War

At the time of the Nazi assault on the USSR in June 1941, the Red Army had 303 divisions and 22 brigades (4.8 million troops), of which 166 divisions and 9 brigades (2.9 million troops) were in the western military districts. Their Axis opponents had at the Eastern Front 181 divisions and 18 brigades (5.5 million troops). The first weeks of the War saw the annihilation of virtually the entire Soviet Air Force on the ground, as well as major equipment, tanks, artillery, and major Soviet defeats as German forces trapped hundreds of thousands of Red Army soldiers in vast pockets. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Eastern Front usually refers to either Eastern Front (World War I) Eastern Front (World War II) Eastern Front (computer game) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Soviet Air Force, also known under the abbreviation VVS, transliterated from Russian: ВВС, Военно-воздушные силы (Voenno-Vozdushnye Sily), formed the official designation of the airforce of the Soviet Union. ...


Soviet forces suffered heavy damage in the field as a result of poor levels of preparedness, which was primarily caused by a reluctant, half-hearted and ultimately belated decision by the Soviet Government and High Command to mobilize the army. Equally important was a general tactical superiority of the German army, which was conducting the kind of warfare that it had been combat-testing and fine-tuning for two years. The hasty pre-war growth and over-promotion of the Red Army cadres as well as the removal of experienced officers caused by the Purges offset the balance even more favourably for the Germans. Finally, the sheer numeric superiority of the Axis cannot be underestimated.


However, a generation of brilliant commanders, most notably Zhukov learned from the defeats and Soviet victories in the Battle of Moscow, at Stalingrad, Kursk and later in Operation Bagration proved decisive in what was known as the Great Patriotic War. Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgi Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (Russian: Гео́ргий Константи́нович Жу́ков) (December 1, 1896 - June 18, 1974), Soviet military commander and politician, considered by many as one of the most successful field commanders of World War II. Prewar career Born into a peasant family in Strelkovka, Kaluga... The Battle of Moscow refers to the defense of the Soviet capital of Moscow and the subsequent counter-offensive against the German army, between October 1941 and January 1942 on the Eastern Front of World War II. // The German invasion On 22 June 1941 Germany and its Axis allies invaded... Stalingrad is the former name of two cities: Volgograd, Russia Karviná-Nové Město, near Ostrava, Czech Republic Other uses: The Battle of Stalingrad (a major turning-point of World War II and arguably the bloodiest battle in human history) Stalingrad (German film set during the above battle) Stalingrad (metro station... The Christian Orthodox monastery on the Red Square Kursk (Russian: Курск; pronunciation: koorsk) is a city in Central Russia, an administrative center of Kursk Oblast. ... During World War II, Operation Bagration was the general attack by Soviet forces to clear the Nazis from Belarus which resulted in the destruction of the German Army Group Centre, possibly the greatest defeat for the Wehrmacht during the war. ... The Eastern Front1 was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ...


The Soviet government adopted a number of measures to improve the state and morale of the retreating Red Army in 1941. Soviet propaganda turned away from political notions of class struggle, and instead invoked the deeper-rooted patriotic feelings of the population, embracing pre-revolutionary Russian history. Propagandists proclaimed the War against the German aggressors as the Great Patriotic War, in allusion to the Patriotic War of 1812 against Napoleon. References to ancient Russian military heroes such as Alexander Nevski and Mikhail Kutuzov appeared. Repressions against the Russian Orthodox Church stopped, and priests revived the tradition of blessing arms before battle. The Party abolished the institution of political commissars -- although it soon restored them. Military ranks were introduced. Many additional individual distinctions such as medals and orders were adopted. The Guard was re-established: units which had shown exceptional heroism in combat gained the names of "Guards Regiment", "Guards Army" etc. Class struggle is class conflict looked at from a Marxist, libertarian socialist, or anarchist perspective. ... The Eastern Front1 was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ... The invasion of the Russian Empire led by Napoleon in 1812 was a critical turning point in the Napoleonic wars. ... For other uses, see Russian) (May 30, 1220?–November 14, 1263) was a Russian statesman and Grand Prince of Novgorod and Vladimir (from 1252). ... Prince Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov (September 16, 1745 – April 28, 1813 (n. ... Christ the Redeemer, a well-known Russian Orthodox icon from Zvenigorod. ... A political commissar is an officer appointed by a communist party to oversee a unit of the military. ... Guards (Russian (language): гвардия) or Guards units (Russian (language): гвардейские части) were and are elite military units in Imperial Russia, Soviet Union and Russian Federation. ...


During the Great Patriotic War, the Red Army drafted a staggering 29,574,900 in addition to the 4,826,907 in service at the beginning of the war, of which lost were 6,329,600 KIA and 4,559,000 MIA (most captured). Of these 11,444,100, however, 939,700 re-joined the ranks in the subsequently liberated Soviet territory, and further 1,836,000 were recovered from German captivity. Thus the grand total of losses is 8,668,400. The majority of the losses were ethnic Russians (5,756,000), followed by ethnic Ukrainians (1,377,400). See Г. Ф. Кривошеев, “Россия и СССР в войнах XX века: потери вооруженных сил. Статистическое исследование” (G.F. Krivosheev, “Russia and the USSR in the XX century wars: losses of the Armed Forces. Statistical Study”, in Russian).


The German losses at the Eastern Front are estimated at 3,604,800 KIA/MIA (most killed) and 3,576,300 captured (total 7,181,100), the losses of the German satellites at the Eastern Front at 668,163 KIA/MIA and 799,982 captured (total 1,468,145). Of these 8,649,300, 3,572,600 were released from captivity after the war, thus the grand total of the Axis losses is estimated at 5,076,700.


A comparison of the losses demonstrates the cruel treatment of the Soviet POWs by the Nazis. Most of the Axis POWs were released from captivity after the war, but the fate of the Soviet POWs was quite different. Nazi troops who captured Red Army soldiers frequently shot them in the field or shipped them to concentration camps and executed them as a part of the Holocaust. Hitler's notorious Commissar Order implicated all the German armed forces in the policy of war crimes. A concentration camp is a large detention center created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ... Children survivors of the Holocaust before their liberation The Holocaust is the name applied to the systematic state-sponsored persecution and genocide of various ethnic, religious and political groups during World War II by Nazi Germany and collaborators. ... The commissar order was an order given by Adolf Hitler prior to Operation Barbarossa that any captured Soviet political officer be immediately shot. ...

US-Government poster showing a friendly Russian soldier.
US-Government poster showing a friendly Russian soldier.

In the first part of the war, the Red Army's weaponry was a mixed success. It had excellent artillery, but it did not have enough trucks to manoeuvre and supply it; as a result, much of it was captured by the Germans (who valued it highly). Its T-34 tanks were the best in the world, yet most of the armour was represented by hopelessly outdated models; likewise, the same supply problem handicapped even the formations equipped with the most modern tanks. Air Force was generally inferior against the Germans. The quick advance of the Germans into the Soviet territory made re-enforcements difficult, if not impossible, since much of the military industry was in the west of the country. Until the industry was re-established in the East, the Red Army had to rely on improvised weapons and partly on the British and American supplies. For example, it employed Sherman tanks (ca. 4100), Valentine Tanks (ca. 3700), M3A1 Stuart (ca. 1700), M17 MGMC (ca. 1000), Bren Carriers (more than 2500), Matilda IIA (ca. 1100) as well as M3A3 Lee and M3A5 Grant tanks, even though they were all inferior to the T-34 or KV-1. On the other hand, the red aviation received several thousand modern planes that were on par or better than the Soviet aircraft; these included various models of P-39 Airacobra fighters (almost 5000), Hawker Hurricane (3000), A-20 Havoc medium bombers (3000), P63 KingCobra (ca. 2400), P40 TomaHawk and P40 KittyHawk (2130), Supermarine Spitfire (ca. 1350). Finally, the Red Army received no less than 9600 pieces of various anti-tank and anti-air guns, as well as millions of tonnes of ammunition, personal weapons and other pieces of war equipment. These latter supplies were probably more important than tanks or aircraft. For example, the trucks received from the USA gave a new degree of mobility to the Red Army, which heavily contributed to its grand successes later in the war. Aluminium and aviation-grade fuel re-vitalized its aviation more readily than aircraft. Food supplies were a welcome addition to the front rations, and so on. Photo of smiling Russian soldier wearing helmet, with rifle. ... Photo of smiling Russian soldier wearing helmet, with rifle. ... The T-34 is a Soviet medium tank first produced in 1940. ... General characteristics Length: 5. ... The most numerous British manufactured tank of World War II, the Infantry Tank III Valentine was known mainly for its inexpensive cost and high reliability. ... General characteristics Length 4. ... General characteristics Length 12. ... General characteristics Length 6. ... The M3 Lee was an American tank used during World War II. The British modified version of this tank, with a larger cast turret to house the radio, was called the Grant. ... The M3 Lee was an American tank used during World War II. The British modified version of this tank, with a larger cast turret to house the radio, was called the Grant. ... The T-34 is a Soviet medium tank first produced in 1940. ... K. 1 is a designation given to two works of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in the original Köchel Verzeichnis. ... The Bell P-39 Airacobra was one of the principal fighter aircraft in service with American forces at the start of World War II. (The P-39 was at first for a short time designated XP-45. ... The Hawker Hurricane is a fighter design from the 1930s which was used extensively by the Royal Air Force during the Battle of Britain. ... The Douglas A-20 series, Douglas model DB-7, was a family of bomber and fighter aircraft of World War II, serving with United States, British, Soviet, French and Australian services. ... The Bell P-63 Kingcobra was developed from the P-39 Airacobra in an attempt to correct that aircrafts deficiencies. ... The Curtiss P-40 was an American fighter aircraft which first flew in 1938 and played a vital role in the crucial middle stages of World War II. Developed from the pre-war radial-engined P-36 Hawk, the P-40 became known as the Tomahawk, the Kittyhawk, and finally... The Curtiss P-40 was an American fighter aircraft which first flew in 1938 and played a vital role in the crucial middle stages of World War II. Developed from the pre-war radial-engined P-36 Hawk, the P-40 became known as the Tomahawk, the Kittyhawk, and finally... The Supermarine Spitfire was a single-seat fighter used by the RAF and many Allied countries in World War II. The Spitfires elliptical wings gave it a very distinctive look; their thin cross-section gave it speed; the brilliant design of Chief Designer R.J. Mitchell and his successors...


The Manchurian Campaign

The Cold War

Soviet army conscript hat insignia.
Soviet army conscript hat insignia.

To mark the final step in the transformation from a revolutionary militia to a regular army of a sovereign state, the Red Army gained the official name of the Soviet Army in 1946. The numbers of the Soviet Army dropped from around 13 million to approximately 5 million. The size of the Army throughout the Cold War remained between 3-5 million, depending on Western estimates. This was due to Soviet law, which required all able-body males of age to serve a minimum of 2 years. As a result, the Soviet Army was the largest active army in the world from 1945 to 1991. Soviet Army units which had liberated the countries of Eastern Europe from German rule remained in some of them to secure the régimes in what became satellite states of the Soviet Union and to deter and to fend off NATO forces. The greatest Soviet military presence based itself in East Germany, in the Western Group of the Armed Forces. Soviet army conscript hat insignia. ... Soviet army conscript hat insignia. ... ... 1946 was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... For the generic term for a high-tension struggle between countries, see cold war (war). ... The term satellite state, by analogy to stellar objects orbiting a larger object, such as planets revolving around the sun, refers to a country that is formally sovereign but that is in fact dominated by a larger hegemonic power. ... The NATO flag NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, D.C., on April 4... The German Democratic Republic (GDR) (German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik), also commonly known as East Germany, was a communist state that existed from 1949 to 1990 in the former Soviet occupation zone of Germany. ... Group of Soviet Forces in Germany (1949--1988), also known as Group of Soviet Occupation Forces in Germany (1945--1949) and Western Group of Forces (1988-1990) were the troops of the Soviet Army in East Germany. ...


The trauma of the devastating German invasion influenced the Soviet cold-war military doctrine of fighting enemies on their own territory, or in a buffer zone under Soviet hegemony, but in any case preventing any war from reaching Soviet soil. In order to secure these Soviet interests in Eastern Europe, the Soviet Army moved in to quell anti-Soviet uprisings in the German Democratic Republic, Hungary and Czechoslovakia in the 1950s and 1960s. East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR), German Deutsche Demokratische Republik (DDR), was a socialist country that existed from 1949 to 1990. ...


The confrontation with the US and NATO during the Cold War mainly took the form of mutual deterrence with nuclear weapons. The Soviet Union invested heavily in the Army's nuclear capacity, especially in the production of ballistic missiles and of nuclear submarines to deliver them. Open hostilities took the form of wars by proxy, with the Soviet Union and the US supporting loyal client régimes or rebel movements in Third World countries. The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ...

"You were born under the red banner in the stormy year of 1918", a poster produced in the 1970s for the annual Red Army Day holiday.
"You were born under the red banner in the stormy year of 1918", a poster produced in the 1970s for the annual Red Army Day holiday.

You were born under the red banner in the threatening year of 1918, translation of Родилась ты под знаменем алым в восемнадцатом грозном году(lit. ... You were born under the red banner in the threatening year of 1918, translation of Родилась ты под знаменем алым в восемнадцатом грозном году(lit. ...

Limited Contingent in Afghanistan

In 1979, however, the Soviet Army intervened in a civil war raging in Afghanistan. The Soviet Army came to back a Soviet-friendly secular government threatened by Muslim fundamentalist guerillas (including Osama bin Laden) equipped and financed by the United States. Technically superior, the Soviets did not have enough troops to establish control over the country and secure the border. This was a result of the hesitancy in the Politburo, who only allowed a “limited contingent”, averaging between 80 and 100 thousand troops. Consequently, local insurgents could effectively employ hit-and-run tactics, had easy escape routes and supply channels. This made the situation hopeless from the military points of view (short of the “scorched earth” tactics, which the Soviets did not practice except in World War II in their own territory). The understanding of this made the war highly unpopular in the Army. Following Glasnost, Soviet media started to report heavy losses, which made the war very unpopular in the USSR in general, even though actual losses were modest, averaging at 1670 per year. The war was also a sensitive issue internationally, which led Gorbachev finally to withdraw the Soviet forces from the country. The “Afghan Syndrome” suffered by the Army parallels the American Vietnam Syndrome trauma over the lost war in Vietnam. This page refers to the year 1979. ... A Soviet soldier on guard in Afghanistan in 1988. ... Osama bin Laden in a photo from the 1990s Usāmah bin Muhammad bin `Awad bin Lādin (born March 10, 1957) (Arabic: ), commonly known as Osama bin Laden, or Usama bin Laden, (Arabic: ), is a controversial Saudi religious leader and the founder of al-Qaeda, a Sunni Islamist network... Politburo is short for Political Bureau. ... A scorched earth defence is a military tactic which involves destroying anything that might be useful to the enemy whilst advancing through or withdrawing from an area. ... Glasnost (Russian: гла́сность, listen â–¶(?)) was one of Mikhail Gorbachevs policies introduced to the Soviet Union in 1985. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ; Pronunciation: mih-kha-ILL ser-GHE-ye-vich gor-bah-CHOFF) (born March 2, 1931), was leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991. ... This article is in need of attention. ...


Eventually, the enormous cost to maintain a 5 million-man peacetime army, as well as wage a 9 year war with Afghanistan would prove to be a major factor that contributed to the decay of the Soviet economy and the Soviet Union as a whole.


The end of the Soviet Union

From around 1985 to 1990, the new leader of the Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev attempted to reduce the strain the Army placed on economic demands. The Army was slowly reduced in size. By 1989, Soviet troops had completely left their Warsaw Pact neighbors to fend for themselves. That same year, the war with Afghanistan ended and all remaining Soviet troops were extracted. By the end of 1990, the entire Eastern Bloc had collapsed under the wake of democratic revolution. As a result, Soviet citizens quickly began to turn against the Communist government as well. In March 1990, nationalism in Lithuania caused the republic to declare its independence. A series of outer-lying republics would also declare their independence that year. Gorbachev's reaction was limited and the Army was not fully turned against its citizens and a crisis was developing. By mid-1991, the nation was in a state of emergency. Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachyov (Gorbachev) listen â–¶(?) (Russian: ; pronunciation: ) (born March 2, 1931), was leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991. ... The Warsaw Pact or Warsaw Treaty, officially named the Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance, was a military organization in support of Soviet military interests for the Central European Eastern Bloc countries. ...


According to the official commission (the Acedemy of Science scientists) appointed by the Supreme Council (the higher chamber of the Russian parliament) immediately after the August 1991 events, the Army did not play a significant role in what some describe as coup d'état of old guard communists. Tanks were sent into the streets of Moscow, but according to all the commanders and the soldiers, the orders were only to ensure the safety of the people. It is unclear why exactly the military forces were summoned into the city, but the goal clearly wasn't to overthrow Gorbachev (who was on the Black Sea at the moment) or the government. The coup failed primarily because the participants haven't taken any decisive action and after several days of their inaction the coup kind of stopped. The only confrontation between the citizens and the tank crews happened because of an act of vandalism by some of the people (who threw a Molotov cocktail at one of the tanks after covering it with the tarpaulin to cut of the vision to the tank crew), who were accidentally killed by a tank. The vandals were proclaimed heroes, while the tank crew was acquitted of all charges. There were no orders given to shoot at anyone. A coup détat (pronounced /ku de ta/), or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group or pillow that just replaces the top power figures. ... Moscow (Russian: Москва́, Moskva, IPA: listen â–¶(?)) is the capital of Russia, located on the river Moskva. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ; Pronunciation: mih-kha-ILL ser-GHE-ye-vich gor-bah-CHOFF) (born March 2, 1931), was leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991. ...


After the following collapse of the Soviet Union, the Soviet Army dissolved and the USSR's successor states divided its assets among themselves. The bulk of the Soviet Army, including most of the nuclear missile forces, became incorporated in the Army of the Russian Federation. Military forces garrisoned in Eastern Europe (including the Baltic states) gradually returned home between 1991 and 1994. The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ... The succession of states theory asserts that all possessions and territory held by a state are automatically transferred to the successor state, the state which succeeds it. ... A nuclear missile is a type of: missile nuclear weapon It could also refer to a missile with some form of nuclear propulsion, such as the Project Pluto cruise missile. ... // History Since the breakup of the Soviet Union, the Russians have discussed rebuilding a viable, cohesive fighting force out of the remaining parts of the former Soviet armed forces. ... Baltic states and the Baltic Sea The Baltic states or the Baltic countries is a term which nowadays refers to three countries in Northern Europe: Estonia Latvia Lithuania Prior to World War II, Finland was sometimes considered, particularly by the Soviet Union, a fourth Baltic state. ...


Further reading

  • Roter Stern über Deutschland, Ilko-Sascha Kowalczuk und Stefan Wolle, Ch. Links Verlag, Berlin, 2001, ISBN 3-86153-246-8. This German book, The Red Star over Germany, without excessive hatred presents 49 years of the Soviet Army stationed in East Germany. The 256 pages of the book cover it all: from 49,000 who perished in prison camps of the Soviet zone, to the 18 Russian soldiers who refused to shoot unarmed Germans.
  • The Warsaw Pact: Arms, Doctrine and Strategy, Lewis, William J.; Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis; 1982. ISBN 0-07-031746-1. This book presents an overview of all the Warsaw Pact armed forces as well as a section of Soviet strategy, a model land campaign the Soviet Union could have conducted against NATO, a section on vehicles, weapons and aircraft, and a full color section of the uniforms, badges and rank insignias of all Warsaw Pact nations.

Red star on the Soviet flag The five-pointed red star (a pentagram without the inner pentagon) is a symbol of both Communism and Socialism and represents the five fingers of the workers hand, as well as the five (inhabited) continents. ... The German Democratic Republic (GDR) (German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik), also commonly known as East Germany, was a communist state that existed from 1949 to 1990 in the former Soviet occupation zone of Germany. ... The NATO flag NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, D.C., on April 4...

See also

Commons
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Red Army

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Modern Russian military ranks trace their roots to Table of Ranks established by Peter the Great. ... The Eastern Front1 was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ... Group of Soviet Forces in Germany (1949--1988), also known as Group of Soviet Occupation Forces in Germany (1945--1949) and Western Group of Forces (1988-1990) were the troops of the Soviet Army in East Germany. ... Leon Trotsky Leon Davidovich Trotsky â–¶(?) (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Leo, Lev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij and Trotzky ) (October 26 (O.S.) = November 7 (N.S.), 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Лев Давидович Бронштейн), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... Sukhoi Su-27 Flanker Attack Ilyushin Ilyushin Il-2 Sturmovik Ilyushin Il-10 Sukhoi Sukhoi Su-2 Sukhoi Su-7 Sukhoi Su-24 Sukhoi Su-25 Yakovlev Yakovlev Yak-38 Bomber Ilyushin Ilyushin DB-3 Ilyushin Il-4 Ilyushin Il-28 Myasishchev Myasishchev M-4 Myasishchev M-50/M-52... The rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union (Russian: Marshal Sovietskogo Soyuza [Маршал Советского Союза]) was in practice the highest military rank of the Soviet Union. ... Joseph Stalin and Kliment Voroshilov salute a military parade in Red Square above the message Long Live the Worker-Peasant Red Army—Loyal Sentinel of the Soviet Borders! The military history of the Soviet Union began in the days following the 1917 October Revolution that brought the Bolsheviks to power. ... // History Since the breakup of the Soviet Union, the Russians have discussed rebuilding a viable, cohesive fighting force out of the remaining parts of the former Soviet armed forces. ... The Russian Civil War was fought between 1918 and 1922. ... The Soviet Naval ensign The Soviet Naval jack The Soviet Navy (Russian: Военно-морской флот СССР, Voyenno-morskoy flot SSSR, literally Naval military forces of the USSR) was the naval arm of the Soviet armed forces. ... The Warsaw Pact or Warsaw Treaty, officially named the Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance, was a military organization in support of Soviet military interests for the Central European Eastern Bloc countries. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Mikhail Tukhachevsky Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky (also spelled Tukhachevski, Tukhachevskii, Russian: Михаил Николаевич Тухачевский) (February 16, 1893 - June 12, 1937), Soviet military commander, was one of the most prominent victims of Stalins Great Purge of the late 1930s. ...

External links

  • Sovietarmy.com

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