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Encyclopedia > Imperial Russia
History of Russia
Early East Slavs
Khazars
Kievan Rus'
Vladimir-Suzdal
Novgorod Republic
Volga Bulgaria
Mongol invasion
Golden Horde
Muscovy
Khanate of Kazan
Russian Empire
Revolution of 1905
Revolution of 1917
Civil War
Soviet Union
Russian Federation

Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start of the Russian Revolution of 1917. The history of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs, the ethnic group that eventually split into the Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians. ... The East Slavs are the ethnic group that evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. ... The site of the Khazar fortress at Sarkel. ... Map of the the extent of Kievan Rus through the 11th century. ... Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, Vladimir-Suzdal Rus (Владимирско-Суздальская Русь), or Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy (Влади́миро-Су́здальское кня́жество) was one of major principalities within the Kievan Rus and after its collapse. ... Medieval walls of Novgorod City The Novgorod Feudal Republic (Новгородская феодальная республика in Russian, or Novgorodskaya feodalnaya respublika) was a powerful medieval state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Ural Mountains between the 12th and 15th century. ... Volga Bulgaria or Volga-Kama Bolghar, is a historic state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers in what is now the Russian Federation. ... The Mongol Invasion of Rus was an invasion of the medieval state of Kievan Rus by a large army of nomadic Mongols, starting in 1223. ... This article refers to the medieval Turkic state. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Map of Kazan Khanate, early 1500s The Kazan Khanate (Tatar: Qazan xanlığı; Russian: Казанское ханство) (1438-1552) was a Tatar state on the territory of former Volga Bulgaria with its capital in Kazan. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... The Russian Revolution of 1905 was an empire-wide spasm of both anti-government and undirected violence. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political events in Russia, which, after the elimination of the Russian autocracy system, and the Provisional Government (Duma), resulted in the establishment of the Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... The Russian Civil War was fought from 1918 to 1922. ... Portrait of Peter by Paul Delaroche Peter I (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич or Pyotr I Alexeyevich)(Peter Alexeyevich Romanov) (10 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672– 28 January 1725 O.S.] ) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53 deg. ... Nicholas II, Emperor of Russia Nicholas II of Russia (18 May 1868 – 17 July 1918)(in Russian Николай II (Nikolai II)) was the last crowned Emperor of Russia, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Finland. ... Look up Tsar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary For the US community of Czar, see Czar, West Virginia. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political events in Russia, which, after the elimination of the Russian autocracy system, and the Provisional Government (Duma), resulted in the establishment of the Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ...

Contents


History

Main article: History of Russia

The Russian state was officially named the Russian Empire (Russian: Российская Империя - transliterated "Rossyiskaya Imperia") from 1721 to 1917.

The Russian Empire in 1913
The Russian Empire in 1913

The capital city of the Russian Empire was Saint-Petersburg (after 1914 renamed Petrograd). At the end of the 19th century the size of the Empire was about 22,400,000 square kilometers (almost 1/6 of the Earth's landmass); its only rival in size was the British Empire at the time. According to the 1897 census its population was about 128,200,000 people, however, a majority of them (93.4 million) lived in European Russia. More than a 100 different ethnic groups lived in the Russian Empire (ethnic Russians were about 45% of the population). In addition to today's Russia prior to 1917 Russian Empire included territories of Finland (Grand Duchy of Finland), Estonia and Latvia (Baltic provinces), most of Lithuania, Belarus, most of Ukraine (Dnieper Ukraine and Crimea), a significant part of Poland (Kingdom of Poland), Moldova (Bessarabia), Caucasus, and most of Central Asia (Russian Turkestan). Image File history File links Russmap_in_1913. ... Image File history File links Russmap_in_1913. ... The Neva river has been called the main street of St Petersburg. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The British Empire was, at one time, the foremost global power, and the most extensive empire in the history of the world. ... Russian Empire Census of 1897 was the first and the only census carried out in the Imperial Russia. ... The Grand Duchy of Finland was a state that existed 1809–1917 as part of the Russian Empire. ... The Baltic Provinces were the provinces of the Russian Empire on the territory which is now Baltic States. ... Dnieper Ukraine (Ukrainian: ), was the territory of Ukraine in the Russian Empire (Little Russia), roughly corresponding to the current territory of Ukraine, with the exceptions of Crimea (made part of Soviet Ukraine in 1954) and Galicia, which was a province of the Austrian Empire. ... Crimea /kraɪˈmia/ is a peninsula and an autonomous republic of Ukraine on the northern coast of the Black Sea. ... Kingdom of Poland 1815-31 The Congress Poland is an unofficial term for the Kingdom of Poland (1815-1831), a political entity that was created out of the Duchy of Warsaw at the Congress of Vienna in 1815, when European powers reorganised Europe following the Napoleonic wars. ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia or Bessarabiya (Basarabia in Romanian, Besarabya in Turkish) was the name by which the Imperial Russia designated the eastern part of the principality of Moldavia annexed by Russia in 1812. ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map The Caucasus, a region bordering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Russian Turkestan (Russian: Ру́сский Туркеста́н), also known as Turkestansky Krai (Туркеста́нский край), was a subdivision (Krai or Governor-Generalship) of Imperial Russia, comprising the oasis region to the South of the Kazakh steppes, but not the Protectorates of Bukhara and Khiva. ...


In 1914 the Russian Empire consisted of 81 provinces (guberniyas) and 20 regions (oblasts). Vassals and protectorates of the Russian Empire included the Emirate of Bukhara, the Khanate of Khiva and, after 1914, Tuva (Uriankhai). Guberniya (Russian: ) (also gubernia, guberniia, gubernya) was a major administrative subdivision of the Imperial Russia, usually translated as governorate or province. ... Oblast (Czech: oblast, Slovak: oblasť, Russian and Ukrainian: , Belarusian: , Bulgarian: о́бласт) refers to a subnational entity in some countries. ... A vassal, in European medieval feudalism terminology, is one who through a commendation ceremony (composed of homage and fealty) enters into mutual obligations with a lord, usually military conscription and mutual protection, in exchange for a fief. ... Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell See The Protectorate. ... The Emirate of Bukhara (1747-1920) was a state in Central Asia, with its capital in Bukhara and was a Russian protectorate from 1868. ... Khiva (alternative names include Khorasam, Khoresm, Khwarezm, Khwarizm, Khwarazm, Chiwa and Chorezm) is the former capital of Khwarezmia, which lies in the present-day Khorezm Province of Uzbekistan. ... The Tuva Republic (Russian: ; Tuvan: Тыва Республика) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ...


The Russian Empire was a hereditary monarchy headed by an autocratic Emperor (Czar) from the Romanov dynasty. Orthodox Christianity was the official faith of the Empire and was controlled by the monarch through the Holy Synod. Subjects of the Russian Empire were segregated into sosloviyes, or social estates (classes) such as "dvoryanstvo" (nobility), clergy, merchants, cossacks and peasants. Native people of Siberia and Central Asia were officially registered as a category called "inorodtsy" (non-Russians, literally: "people of alien kind"). A hereditary monarchy is the most common style of monarchy and is the form that is used by almost all of the worlds existing monarchies. ... Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced Ro-MAH-nof), the second and last royal dynasty of Russia, which ruled Muscovy and the Russian Empire for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ... The Vladimir Icon, one of the most venerated of Orthodox Christian icons of the Virgin Mary. ... In several of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, the patriarch or head bishop is elected by a group of bishops called the Holy Synod. ... Dvoryanstvo ( Russian: дворянство) refers to a category of Russian nobility. ... The Lords and Barons prove their Nobility by hanging their Banners and exposing their Coats-of-arms at the Windows of the Lodge of the Heralds. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... Merchants function as professional traders, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Categories: 1911 Britannica | Historical stubs | Feudalism ...


In addition to Russia proper, the empire consisted of the constitutional monarchies of the Kingdom of Poland (1815-1831) and the Grand Duchy of Finland (1809-1917) A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchical government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state. ... Kingdom of Poland 1815-31 The Congress Poland is an unofficial term for the Kingdom of Poland (1815-1831), a political entity that was created out of the Duchy of Warsaw at the Congress of Vienna in 1815, when European powers reorganised Europe following the Napoleonic wars. ... The Battle of New Orleans 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1831 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Grand Duchy of Finland was a state that existed 1809–1917 as part of the Russian Empire. ... 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...


The coat of arms of the Russian Empire was a two-headed eagle; the national anthem - God Save the Tsar (Bozhe, Tsarya khrani); the official language - Russian. A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... == The origins of the symbol == I. The oriental origine of the Two-headed eagle A/ The apparition of the symbol with the Hittites It seems that two-headed symbols are known for long time. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is formally recognized by a countrys government as their official national song. ... God save the Tsar! was the national anthem of Imperial Russia. ... An official language is a language that is given a privileged legal status in a state, or other legally-defined territory. ...


After the overthrow of monarchy during the February Revolution of 1917 Russia was declared to be a republic by the Provisional Government. The February Revolution of 1917 in Russia was the first stage of the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... State emblem of the Russian Provisional Government The Russian Provisional Government was formed in Petrograd after the deterioration of the Russian Empire and the tsars abdication. ...


This period, together with overlaps with the preceding and subsequent periods, is covered in the following articles.

  • Russian history, 1682-1796
  • Russian history, 1796-1855
  • Russian history, 1855-1892
  • Russian history, 1892-1920
The capital of Imperial Russia was Saint Petersburg.
The capital of Imperial Russia was Saint Petersburg.

// Note on naming The territory ruled by the Romanov dynasty was often called Muscovy in Western Europe until well into the eighteenth century. ... War and peace in Russia, 1796-1825 Catherine II died in 1796, and her son Paul (r. ... Economic development The late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were times of crisis for Russia. ... // Radical revolutionary parties During the 1890s, Russias industrial development led to a significant increase in the size of the urban bourgeoisie and the working class, setting the stage for a more dynamic political atmosphere and the development of radical parties. ... Image File history File links Beggrov3. ... Image File history File links Beggrov3. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland...

Rulers

Peter the Great changed his title from Czar to Emperor in 1721 and his successors kept it, but tsar/tsaritsa were still in regular popular use up to the fall of the Russian Empire. Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ...

Portrait of Peter by Paul Delaroche Peter I (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич or Pyotr I Alexeyevich)(Peter Alexeyevich Romanov) (10 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672– 28 January 1725 O.S.] ) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death. ... H.I.M. Ekaterina I, Empress and Autocrat of all the Russias Catherine I (In Russian: Екатерина I Алексеевна) (April 15, 1683/1684 – May 17, 1727), the second wife of Peter the Great, reigned as Empress of Russia from 1725 until her death. ... Peter II (Пётр II Алексеевич in Russian) (October 23, 1715 – January 29, 1730) was Emperor of Russia from 1727 until his death. ... H.I.M. Anna Ioannovna, Empress and Autocrat of all the Russias, Duchess of Courland Anna Ioannovna (In Russian: Анна Иоанновна) (February 7, 1693 - October 28, 1740) reigned as Duchess of Courland from 1711 to 1730 and as Empress of Russia from 1730 to 1740. ... H.I.M. Ivan, Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias, with his mother Anna Leopoldovna Ivan VI of Russia (Иоанн Антонович), (August 23, 1740 - July 16, 1764), reigned as Emperor of Russia 1740 - 1741, was the son of Prince Antony Ulrich of Brunswick-Lüneburg and of the princess Anna Leopoldovna... H.I.M. Yelizaveta Petrovna, Empress and Autocrat of all the Russias (1709-62) Yelizaveta (Yelisavet) Petrovna (Елизаве́та (Елисаве́т) Петро́вна) (December 29, 1709 - January 5, 1762), also known as Elizabeth, was an Empress of Russia (1741 - 1762) who took the country into the War of Austrian succession (1740 - 1748) and the Seven Years... Portrait of Peter III by an uknown artist Peter III (February 21, 1728 - July 17, 1762) (Russian Пётр III Федорович (Pyotr III Fyodorovitch)) was Emperor of Russia for six months in 1762. ... Catherine II of Russia Catherine II (Catherine the Great) (April 21, 1729—November 6, 1796 (O.S.)), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka of Anhalt-Zerbst, reigned as Empress of Russia from June 28, 1762 until her death. ... Paul I of Russia by Vladimir Borovikovsky Paul I of Russia (Russian: Pavel Petrovich, Павел I Петрович) (October 1, 1754 - March 23, 1801) was an Emperor of Russia (1796 - 1801). ... Aleksander Pavlovich Romanov or Tsar Alexander I (The Blessed), (Russian: Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777–December 1, 1825), was Emperor of Russia from March 23, 1801–December 1, 1825 and King of Poland from 1815–1825. ... Nicholas I of Russia Nikolai I Pavlovich (Russian: Николай I Павлович), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (February 18, Old Style), 1855), also Nicholas, was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855 and king of Poland from 1825 until 1831. ... Alexander II (1818-1881) Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevitch (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (April 17, 1818, Moscow–March 13, 1881) was the Emperor (Czar) of Russia from March 2, 1855 until his assassination. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) III (Russian: Александр III Александрович) (b. ... Nicholas II, Emperor of Russia Nicholas II of Russia (18 May 1868 – 17 July 1918)(in Russian Николай II (Nikolai II)) was the last crowned Emperor of Russia, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Finland. ...

References

  • Library of Congress Country Studies: Russia
  • Hingley, Ronald. The Tsars, 1533-1917. Macmillan, 1968.
  • Warnes, David. Chronicle of the Russian Tsars: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Russia. Thames & Hudson, 1999.

The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress ( USA), freely available for use by researchers. ...

External links

  • The Empire that was Russia: Color photographs of Tsarist Russia
  • Russian Army during the Napoleonic Wars


 
Colonialism
Belgian Empire | British Empire | Danish Empire | Dutch Empire | French colonial empire | German colonial empire | Italian Empire | Japanese colonial empire | Portuguese Empire | Russian Empire | Spanish Empire | Swedish Empire | United States overseas possessions

World map of colonialism at the end of the Second World War in 1945. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Belgium had two colonies: the Belgian Congo (1908-1960) and the Ruanda-Urundi (1916-1962). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The British Empire was, at one time, the foremost global power, and the most extensive empire in the history of the world. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Denmark-Norways possessions c. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... A map showing the territory that the Netherlands held at various points in history. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Map of the first (light blue) and second (dark blue — plain and hachured) French colonial empires France has had colonial possessions, in various forms, since the beginning of the 17th century until the 1960s. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... The German colonial empire was an overseas area formed in the late 19th century as part of the Hohenzollern dynastys German Empire. ... Download high resolution version (2250x1500, 14 KB)Flag of the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 to 1946. ... The Italian empire in 1940 The empire ordinarily associated with geographical Italy is the Roman Empire but modern Italy, by the time of World War II, possessed various overseas territories in the Mediterranean and East Africa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Flag of Imperial Japan The Empire of Japan or Imperial Japan (: 大日本帝國; Shinjitai: 大日本帝国; pronounced Dai Nippon Teikoku) commonly refers to Japan from the Meiji Restoration until the end of World War II. Politically, it covers the period from the enforced establishment of prefectures in place of feudal domains (廃藩置県; Hai-han Chi... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... History of Portugal series Prehistoric Portugal Pre-Roman Portugal Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia Visigoths and Suevi Moorish rule and Reconquista First County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia and Portugal Second County of Portugal Establishment of the Monarchy Consolidation of the Monarchy 1383–1385 Crisis Discoveries Portuguese Empire 1580 Crisis Iberian... Image File history File links Romanov_Flag. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Spain created the earliest of global empires. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... The Swedish colonial empire existed from 1638 to 1655 and from 1785 to 1878. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with American Empire. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Imperial Russia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (499 words)
In addition to Russia proper, the empire consisted of the constitutional monarchies of the Kingdom of Poland (1815-1831) and the Grand Duchy of Finland (1809-1917)
After the overthrow of monarchy during the February Revolution of 1917 Russia was declared to be a republic by the Provisional Government.
The capital of Imperial Russia was Saint Petersburg.
Russia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5743 words)
The northern part of Russia together with Novgorod retained some degree of autonomy during the time of the Mongol yoke and was largely spared the atrocities that affected the rest of the country.
Russia saw her comparatively developed centrally planned economy contract severely for five years, as the executive and legislature dithered over the implementation of reforms and Russia's industrial base faced a serious decline.
Population is densest in the European part of Russia, in the Ural Mountains area, and in the south-western parts of Siberia; the south-eastern part of Siberia that meets the Pacific Ocean, known as the Russian Far East, is sparsely populated, with its southern part being densest.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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