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Encyclopedia > Imperial Japanese Navy
For Combined Fleet, please see that article.
For Carrier Striking Task Force, please see that article.
Imperial Japanese Navy
(IJN)
大日本帝國海軍
(Dai-Nippon Teikoku Kaigun)

The ensign of the Imperial Japanese Navy and Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force.
Active 1869-1947
Country Empire of Japan
Allegiance Empire of Japan
Branch Combined Fleet
Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service
Imperial Japanese Navy Land Forces
Type Navy
Battles/wars First Sino-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
World War I
World War II
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Isoroku Yamamoto
Togo Heihachiro
Hiroyasu Fushimi
and many others
Insignia
Identification
symbol

Imperial Seal of Japan and Seal of the Imperial Japanese Navy

The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) (Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍 Dai-Nippon Teikoku Kaigun  or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun), officially Navy of the Greater Japanese Empire, also known as the Japanese Navy was the navy of the Empire of Japan from 1869 until 1947, when it was dissolved following Japan's constitutional renunciation of the use of force as a means of settling international disputes. It was the third largest navy in the world by 1920 behind the United States Navy and Royal Navy,[1] and perhaps the most modern at the brink of World War II. It was supported by Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service for aircraft and airstrike operation from the fleet. Image File history File links LinkFA-star. ... Combined Fleet was the ocean-going branch of the Imperial Japanese Navy, which was ruled under General Staff of the Imperial Japanese Navy (e. ... Ensign of the Imperial Japanese Navy and Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force Kido Butai (機動部隊), also known as the Pearl Harbor task force and the Carrier Striking Task Force, was a major component of the Combined Fleet and thus of the Imperial Japanese Navy (日本海軍, Nihon Kaigun) and was its primary carrier... Image File history File links Naval_Ensign_of_Japan. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force ), or JMSDF, is the maritime branch of the Japanese Self-Defense Forces, tasked with the naval defense of Japan and formed following the dissolution of the Imperial Japanese Navy after World War II.[1] The force is based strictly on defensive armament, largely lacking... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister (many other Prime Ministers preceded the below list)  - 1916–1918 Count Masatake Terauchi  - 1937-1939, 1940-1941 Prince Fumimaro Konoe  - 1941–1944 Hideki... Combined Fleet was the ocean-going branch of the Imperial Japanese Navy, which was ruled under General Staff of the Imperial Japanese Navy (e. ... The Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service or Dai Nippon Teikoku Kaigun Koku Hombu was a major force in the Pacific War during World War II. The Japanese military acquired their first aircraft in 1910 and followed the development of air combat during World War I with great interest. ... Imperial Japanese Navy Land Forces are decended from the original Special Naval Landing Forces and consisted of the following: Special Naval Landing Force or Rikusentai or kaigun rikusentai - the Japanese Marines The Base Force or Tokabetsu Konkyochitai - provided services to naval facilities The Defense Units or Bobitai or Boei-han... The multinational Combined Task Force One Five Zero (CTF-150) The British Grand Fleet, the supreme naval force of World War I A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... Combatants Qing Empire (China) Empire of Japan Commanders Li Hongzhang Yamagata Aritomo Strength 630,000 men Beiyang Army Beiyang Fleet 240,000 men Imperial Japanese Army Imperial Japanese Navy Casualties 35,000 dead or wounded 13,823 dead, 3,973 wounded The First Sino-Japanese War (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese... Combatants Russian Empire Montenegro[1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: , Chinese: , February 10, 1904 – September 5, 1905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Isoroku Yamamoto ) (4 April 1884 – 18 April 1943) was a Fleet Admiral (Gensui) and Commander-in-Chief of the Combined Fleet during World War II, graduate of Imperial Japanese Naval Academy and an alumnus of U.S. Naval War College and Harvard University (1919–1921). ... Admiral Togo at the age of 55, shortly before the Russo-Japanese War Fleet Admiral Count Tōgō Heihachirō (東郷 平八郎 Tōgō Heihachirō OM, January 27, 1848 - 30 May 1934) was a Japanese Admiral and one of Japans greatest naval heroes. ... Prince Fushimi Hiroyasu ) (16 October 1875 - 16 August 1946) was a scion of the Japanese imperial family and was a career naval officer who served as chief of staff of the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1932 to 1940. ... This is a list of Japanese naval commanders. ... Image File history File links Imperial_Seal_of_Japan. ... The National and Imperial Seal of Japan was originally the Imperial Seal, and is called 菊の御紋 Kiku No Gomon in Japanese, which, literally, means Noble Symbol of Chrysanthemum or Imperial Seal of Chrysanthemum . The Imperial Seal is used by members of the Japanese Imperial family. ... Look up KyÅ«jitai in Wiktionary, the free dictionary KyÅ«jitai (旧字体, きゅうじたい) is the traditional form of the Japanese kanji used before 1947. ... Shinjitai (in Shinjitai: ; in KyÅ«jitai: æ–°å­—é«”; meaning new character form), are the forms of Kanji used in Japan since the promulgation of the Tōyō Kanji List in 1946. ... Image File history File links Ja-Dai-Nippon_teikoku_kaigun. ... The multinational Combined Task Force One Five Zero (CTF-150) The British Grand Fleet, the supreme naval force of World War I A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister (many other Prime Ministers preceded the below list)  - 1916–1918 Count Masatake Terauchi  - 1937-1939, 1940-1941 Prince Fumimaro Konoe  - 1941–1944 Hideki... The Constitution of Japan has the Article 9 No War clause. ... USN redirects here. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service or Dai Nippon Teikoku Kaigun Koku Hombu was a major force in the Pacific War during World War II. The Japanese military acquired their first aircraft in 1910 and followed the development of air combat during World War I with great interest. ...


The origins of the Imperial Japanese Navy trace back to early interactions with nations on the Asian continent, beginning in the early medieval period and reaching a peak of activity during the 16th and 17th centuries at a time of cultural exchange with European powers during the Age of Discovery. After two centuries of stagnation during the country's ensuing seclusion policy under the shoguns of the Edo period, Japan's Navy was comparatively backward when the country was forced open to trade by American intervention in 1854. This eventually led to the Meiji Restoration. Accompanying the re-ascendance of the Emperor came a period of frantic modernization and industrialization. The navy's history of successes, sometimes against much more powerful foes as in the 1895 Sino-Japanese war and the 1905 Russo-Japanese War, ended in almost complete annihilation during the concluding days of World War II. The IJN was officially dissolved in 1945. Look up origin in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A nation is an imagined community of people created by a national ideology, to which certain norms and behavior are usually attributed. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... The written history of Japan began with brief appearances in Chinese history texts from the first century AD. However, archaeological research indicates that people were living on the islands of Japan as early as the upper paleolithic period. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Diffusionism. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... For the computer wargame, Age of Discovery, see Global Diplomacy. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Seclusion. ... Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate Shōgun )   is supreme general of the samurai,a military rank and historical title in Japan. ... The Edo period ), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868. ... On March 31, 1854, the Convention of Kanagawa (Japanese: 神奈川条約, Kanagawa Jōyaku, or 日米和親条約, Nichibei Washin Jōyaku) was used by Commodore Matthew Perry of the U.S. Navy to force the opening of the Japanese ports of... The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ... For the CPR ocean liner, see Empress of Japan. ... Modernization (also Modernisation) is a concept in the sphere of social sciences that refers to process in which society goes through industrialization, urbanization and other social changes that completely transforms the lives of individuals. ... Combatants Qing Empire (China) Empire of Japan Commanders Li Hongzhang Yamagata Aritomo Strength 630,000 men Beiyang Army Beiyang Fleet 240,000 men Imperial Japanese Army Imperial Japanese Navy Casualties 35,000 dead or wounded 13,823 dead, 3,973 wounded The First Sino-Japanese War (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese... Combatants Russian Empire Montenegro[1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: , Chinese: , February 10, 1904 – September 5, 1905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Contents

Origins

Naval battle of Dan-no-Ura in 1185
Naval battle of Dan-no-Ura in 1185

Japan has a long history of naval interaction with the Asian continent, involving transportation of troops between Korea and Japan, starting at least with the beginning of the Kofun period in the 3rd century. The naval history of Japan traces back to early interactions with states on the Asian continent at the beginning of the medieval period, and reached a peak of activity during the 16th and 17th century at a time of cultural exchange with European powers during the Nanban trade period. ... Image File history File links DanNoUra. ... Image File history File links DanNoUra. ... The Battle of Dan-no-ura, more commonly known as Dan-no-ura no Tatakai (壇ノ浦の戦い), was a major sea battle of the Genpei War, occurring at Dan_no_ura, in the Shimonoseki Strait off the southern tip of Honshu. ... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ... Kofun period (Japanese: 古墳時代, Kofun-jidai) is an era in the history of Japan from around AD 250 to 538. ...


Following the attempts at Mongol invasions of Japan by Kubilai Khan in 1274 and 1281, Japanese wakō became very active in plundering the coast of the Chinese Empire. Combatants Mongol Empire Japan Commanders Kublai Khan Hōjō Tokimune Strength 35,000 Mongol & Chinese soldiers and 18,000 Korean warriors 10,000 Casualties 16,000 killed before landed minimal Defensive wall at Hakata. ... For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ... Sixteenth century Japanese pirate raids. ... Looting (which derives via the Hindi lut from Sanskrit lunt, to rob) is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophy or riot, such as during war [1], natural disaster [2], rioting [3], or terrorist attack [4]. The term... The history of China is told in traditional historical records that refer as far back as the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ...

A 1634 Japanese Red seal ship, combining eastern and western naval technologies
A 1634 Japanese Red seal ship, combining eastern and western naval technologies

Japan undertook major naval building efforts in the 16th century, during the Warring States period, when feudal rulers vying for supremacy built vast coastal navies of several hundred ships. Around that time, Japan may have developed one of the first ironclad warships, when Oda Nobunaga, a Japanese daimyo, had six iron-covered Oatakebune made in 1576.[2] In 1588, Toyotomi Hideyoshi issued a ban on Wakō piracy; the pirates then became vassals of Hideyoshi, and comprised the naval force used in the Japanese invasion of Korea. So it has been stated that Admiral Yi built the first combat ironclad that was seabound to wreak havoc on the Japanese supply ships during the Imjin Waeran War of 1592-97. 1634 painting of a Red seal ship. ... 1634 painting of a Red seal ship. ... A 1634 Japanese Red seal ship, incorporating Western-style square and lateen sails, rudder and aft designs. ... “Sengoku” redirects here. ... Ironclad (and broadside ironclad) redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Daimyo Matsudaira Katamori visits the residence of a retainer. ... A 16th century Japanese Atakebune coastal naval war vessel. ... This is a Japanese name; the family name is Toyotomi Toyotomi Hideyoshi ) February 2, 1536 or March 26, 1537 – September 18, 1598) was a sengoku daimyo who unified Japan. ... Combatants Korea under the Joseon Dynasty, China under the Ming Dynasty, Jianzhou Jurchens Japan under Toyotomi Hideyoshi Commanders Korea: King Seonjo Crown Prince Gwanghae Yi Sun-sin†, Gwon Yul, Yu Seong-ryong, Yi Eok-gi†, Won Gyun†, Kim Myeong-won, Yi Il, Sin Rip†, Gwak Jae-u, Kim Si-min...


Japan built her first large ocean-going warships in the beginning of the 17th century, following contacts with the Western nations during the Nanban trade period. In 1613, the Daimyo of Sendai, in agreement with the Tokugawa Bakufu, built Date Maru, a 500 ton galleon-type ship that transported the Japanese embassy of Hasekura Tsunenaga to the Americas, which then continued to Europe. From 1604, about 350 Red seal ships, usually armed and incorporating some Western technologies, were also commissioned by the Bakufu, mainly for Southeast Asian trade. The Nanban Trade Period (Jp:南蛮貿易時代, Lit. ... Sendai ) is the capital city of Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, and the largest city in the Tōhoku (northeast) region. ... The Tokugawa shogunate or Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) (also known as the Edo bakufu) was a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. ... Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate Shōgun )   is supreme general of the samurai,a military rank and historical title in Japan. ... San Juan Bautista (“St John Baptist”) (originally called Date Maru, 伊達丸 in Japanese) was one of Japans first Japanese-built Western-style sail warships. ... A Spanish galleon. ... This is a Japanese name; the family name is Hasekura Itinerary and dates of the travels of Hasekura Tsunenaga Hasekura Rokuemon Tsunenaga (1571 – 1622) (Japanese: , also spelled Faxecura Rocuyemon in period European sources, reflecting the contemporary pronunciation of Japanese[1]) was a Japanese samurai and retainer of Date Masamune, the... A 1634 Japanese Red seal ship, incorporating Western-style square and lateen sails, rudder and aft designs. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


Seclusion and Western studies

The 1854 Shōhei Maru was built from Dutch technical drawings.
The 1854 Shōhei Maru was built from Dutch technical drawings.

From 1640 and for more than 200 years, Japan chose the policy of "Sakoku" (seclusion), which forbade contacts with the West, eradicated Christianity, and prohibited the construction of ocean-going ships on pain of death. Contacts were maintained through the Dutch enclave of Dejima however, allowing for the transfer of a vast amount of knowledge related to the Western technological and scientific revolution. This study of Western sciences, called "Rangaku", also allowed Japan to remain updated in areas relevant to naval sciences, such as cartography, optics or mechanical sciences. The full study of Western shipbuilding techniques resumed in the 1840s during the Late Tokugawa shogunate ("Bakumatsu"). The Shouhei-Maru, Japans first Western-style warship, launched in 1854. ... The Shouhei-Maru, Japans first Western-style warship, launched in 1854. ... Shōhei Maru (Japanese: 昇平丸) was Japans first Western-style warship following the countrys period of Seclusion. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Seclusion. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Dejima, also Deshima (出島, literally protruding island) in modern Japanese, Desjima in Dutch, often latinised as Decima, was a fan-shaped artificial island in the bay of Nagasaki that was a Dutch trading post during Japans self-imposed isolation (sakoku) of the Edo period, from 1641 until 1853. ... The event which many historians of science call the scientific revolution can be dated roughly as having begun in 1543, the year in which Nicolaus Copernicus published his De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) and Andreas Vesalius published his De humani corporis fabrica (On the... Rangaku (蘭学) or Dutch Learning was the method by which Japan kept abreast of Western technology and medicine in the period when the country was closed to foreigners, 1641-1853, because of the Tokugawa shogunates policy of national isolation (sakoku). ... Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) is the study and practice of making maps or globes. ... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... Men from Francisco de Orellanas expedition building a small brigantine, the San Pedro, to be used in the search for food Shipbuilding is the construction of ships. ... The Late Tokugawa Shogunate (Japanese: Bakumatsu) is the period between 1853 and 1867 during which Japan ended its isolationist foreign policy called sakoku and modernized from a feudal shogunate to the Meiji government. ...


Early modernization of the Shogunal Navy

In 1853 and 1854, U.S. Navy Commodore Matthew Perry made a demonstration of force with the newest steam warships of the U.S. Navy. Perry finally obtained the opening of the country to international trade through the 1854 Convention of Kanagawa. This was soon followed by the 1858 "unequal" U.S.-Japan Treaty of Amity and Commerce, which allowed the establishment of foreign concessions, extra-territoriality for foreigners, and minimal import taxes for foreign goods. USN redirects here. ... Matthew Calbraith Perry (1794-1858). ... On March 31, 1854, the Convention of Kanagawa (Japanese: 神奈川条約, Kanagawa Jōyaku, or 日米和親条約, Nichibei Washin Jōyaku) was used by Commodore Matthew Perry of the U.S. Navy to force the opening of the Japanese ports of... Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Unequal Treaties, is a term used in reference to the type of treaties signed by several East Asian states, including Qing Dynasty China, late Tokugawa Japan, and late Joseon Korea, with Western powers and Imperial Japan, during the nineteenth and early twentieth... Following the U.S.-Japan Treaty of Peace and Amity with Matthew Perry, which allowed for a U.S. Consul in Shimoda, negotiations between Townsend Harris and the Tokugawa Shogunate resulted in this treaty 1858. ...

Kanrin Maru, Japan's first screw-driven steam warship, 1857

As soon as Japan agreed to open up to foreign influence, the Tokugawa shogun government initiated an active policy of assimilation of Western naval technologies. In 1855, with Dutch assistance, the Shogunate acquired its first steam warship, Kankō Maru, which was used for training, and established the Nagasaki Naval Training Center. In 1857, it acquired its first screw-driven steam warship, the Kanrin Maru. In 1859, the Naval Training Center was transferred to Tsukiji in Tokyo. Naval students were sent to study in Western naval schools for several years, such as the future Admiral Takeaki Enomoto (who studied in the Netherlands from 1862–1867), starting a tradition of foreign-educated future leaders such as Admirals Heihachiro Togo and, later, Isoroku Yamamoto. The Kanrinmaru (1855). ... The Kanrinmaru (1855). ... Kanrin Maru (Japanese: 咸臨丸) was Japans first sail and screw-driven steam warship. ... The Kankō Maru (Jp:観光丸) was Japans first steam warship. ... The Nagasaki Training Center, in Nagasaki, near Dejima. ... Kanrin Maru (Japanese: 咸臨丸) was Japans first sail and screw-driven steam warship. ... Tsukiji as seen from Shiodome Frozen tuna at Tsukiji Tuna auction at Tsukiji The Tokyo Metropolitan Central Wholesale Market, commonly known as the Tsukiji fish market (Japanese: 築地魚市場, Tsukiji uoichiba) is the biggest wholesale fish and seafood market, and one of the biggest markets of any... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... Enomoto Takeaki at the time of Republic of Ezo in 1869. ... Admiral Togo at the age of 55, shortly before the Russo-Japanese War Fleet Admiral Count Tōgō Heihachirō (東郷 平八郎 Tōgō Heihachirō OM, January 27, 1848 - 30 May 1934) was a Japanese Admiral and one of Japans greatest naval heroes. ... Isoroku Yamamoto ) (4 April 1884 – 18 April 1943) was a Fleet Admiral (Gensui) and Commander-in-Chief of the Combined Fleet during World War II, graduate of Imperial Japanese Naval Academy and an alumnus of U.S. Naval War College and Harvard University (1919–1921). ...

Japan's first domestically-built steam warship, the 1863 Chiyodagata.
Japan's first domestically-built steam warship, the 1863 Chiyodagata.

As early as 1863, less than 10 years after opening the country to foreign interaction, Japan completed its first domestically-built steam warship, the 1863 Chiyodagata. In 1865, the French naval engineer Léonce Verny was hired to build Japan's first modern naval arsenals, at Yokosuka and Nagasaki. In 1867-1868, a British Naval mission headed by Captain Tracey[3] was sent to Japan to assist the development of the Navy and organize the naval school of Tsukiji.[4] Image File history File links Chiyodagata. ... Image File history File links Chiyodagata. ... The Chiyodagata (Jp:千代田形) was a gunboat of the Tokugawa Navy, and Japans first domestically-built steamboat. ... The Chiyodagata (Jp:千代田形) was a gunboat of the Tokugawa Navy, and Japans first domestically-built steamboat. ... François Léonce Verny François Léonce Verny, (December 2, 1837-May 2, 1908) was a French engineer who directed the construction of the Japanese arsenal of Yokosuka, as well as many related modern infrastructure projects from 1865 to 1876, thus helping jump-start Japans modernization. ... Yokosuka (Japanese: 横須賀市; -shi) is a city located in Kanagawa, Japan. ... Nagasaki ) ( ) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ... The Tracey Mission was a Naval mission of the Royal Navy sent to Japan in 1867-1868. ...

Kotetsu (ex-CSS Stonewall), Japan's first modern ironclad, 1869
Kotetsu (ex-CSS Stonewall), Japan's first modern ironclad, 1869

By the end of the Tokugawa shogunate in 1867, the Tokugawa navy was already the largest of Eastern Asia, organized around eight Western-style steam warships and the flagship Kaiyō Maru, which were used against pro-imperial forces during the Boshin War, under the command of Admiral Enomoto. The conflict culminated with the Naval Battle of Hakodate in 1869, Japan's first large-scale modern naval battle, and ended with the defeat of the last Tokugawa forces and the restoration of Imperial rule. The revolutionary French-built ironclad Kotetsu, originally ordered by the Tokugawa shogunate, was received by the Imperial side and was used decisively towards the end of the conflict.
Download high resolution version (690x652, 94 KB)CSS Stonewall (later Japanese battleship Kotetsu) in the Washington Navy Yard c. ... Download high resolution version (690x652, 94 KB)CSS Stonewall (later Japanese battleship Kotetsu) in the Washington Navy Yard c. ... Kotetsu (Japanese: 甲鉄, literally Ironclad) was the first ironclad warship of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Ironclad (and broadside ironclad) redirects here. ... Kaiyō Maru (Japanese: 開陽丸) was one of Japans first modern warships, powered by both sails and steam. ... Combatants Imperial faction: Satsuma, ChōshÅ«, Tosa Tokugawa Shogunate Commanders Ruler: Meiji Emperor, CIC: Saigō Takamori, Army: Kuroda Kiyotaka Shogunate: Ruler: Tokugawa Yoshinobu, Army: Katsu Kaishu, Navy: Enomoto Takeaki, Ezo Republic: President:Enomoto Takeaki, CIC: Otori Keisuke, Navy: Arai Ikunosuke Casualties ~1,000 killed ~2,000 killed Campaign map of... The Battle of Hakodate was fought from 4-10 May 1869, at the beginning of the Meiji Restoration, in the northern Japanese island of Hokkaido, between the remnants of the Shoguns navy, consolidated into the armed forces of the rebel Ezo Republic, and the newly formed Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Ironclad warships, frequently shortened to just ironclads, were ships sheathed with thick iron plates for protection. ... Kotetsu (Japanese: 甲鉄, literally Ironclad) was the first ironclad warship of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ...


Creation of the Imperial Japanese Navy (1869)

Kanji for "Imperial Japanese Navy"
Kanji for "Imperial Japanese Navy"

From 1868, the restored Meiji Emperor continued with reforms to industrialize and militarize Japan to prevent the United States and European powers from overwhelming her. On 17 January 1868, the Ministry of Military Affairs (兵部省, also known as the Army-Navy Ministry) was established, with Iwakura Tomomi, Shimazu Tadayoshi and Prince Komatsu-no-miya Akihito as the First Secretaries. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (304x1227, 30 KB) Summary Ideograms for the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (304x1227, 30 KB) Summary Ideograms for the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Emperor Meiji ) (November 3, 1852 — July 30, 1912) was the 122nd emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from February 3, 1867 until his death. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Iwakura Tomomi (岩倉 具視 October 26, 1825-July 20, 1883) was a statesman who played an important role in the Meiji restoration, influencing opinions of the Imperial Court. ... Shimazu Tadayoshi (島津忠良; October 14, 1493-December 31, 1568) is a daimyo who ruled Satsuma Province. ... ...

The British-built Ryūjō was the flagship of the Imperial Japanese Navy until 1881.
The British-built Ryūjō was the flagship of the Imperial Japanese Navy until 1881.

On 26 March 1868, the first Naval Review was held in Japan (in Osaka Bay), with 6 ships from the private domainal navies of Saga, Chōshū, Satsuma, Kurume, Kumamoto and Hiroshima participating. The total tonnage of these ships was 2252 tons, which was far smaller than the tonnage of the single foreign vessel (from the French Navy) that also participated. The following year, in July 1869, the Imperial Japanese Navy was formally established, two months after the last combat of the Boshin War. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 397 pixelsFull resolution (947 × 470 pixel, file size: 412 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Japanese ironclad warship Ryujo File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 397 pixelsFull resolution (947 × 470 pixel, file size: 412 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Japanese ironclad warship Ryujo File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The RyÅ«jō (Jp: 龍驤) was a steam ironclad warship of the Imperial Japanese Navy, designed by Thomas Glover and built in Scotland for the private navy of the fief of Kumamoto, where it was called the Jo Sho Maru. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Satellite photo of northern Osaka Bay Osaka Bay (大阪湾 Osaka-wan) is a bay in western Japan. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... ChōshÅ« may refer to any of the following: Nagato Province ) in Japan ChōshÅ« Domain ) in Japan The wrestler Riki Choshu ) Category: ... The Satsuma domain (Satsuma Han è–©æ‘©è—©) of Kagoshima, led by the daimyo of the Shimazu family was a major factor in the Meiji Restoration and in the Meiji period government. ... Kurume (久留米市; -shi) is a city located in Fukuoka, Japan. ... Categories: Cities in Kumamoto Prefecture | Japan geography stubs ... For other uses, see Hiroshima (disambiguation). ... Combatants Imperial faction: Satsuma, ChōshÅ«, Tosa Tokugawa Shogunate Commanders Ruler: Meiji Emperor, CIC: Saigō Takamori, Army: Kuroda Kiyotaka Shogunate: Ruler: Tokugawa Yoshinobu, Army: Katsu Kaishu, Navy: Enomoto Takeaki, Ezo Republic: President:Enomoto Takeaki, CIC: Otori Keisuke, Navy: Arai Ikunosuke Casualties ~1,000 killed ~2,000 killed Campaign map of...


In July 1869, the private domanial navies were abolished, and their 11 ships were added to the 7 surviving vessels of the defunct Tokugawa bakufu navy to form the core of the new Imperial Japanese Navy. In February 1872, the Ministry of Military Affairs was replaced by a separate Army Ministry (陸軍省) and Navy Ministry (海軍省). In October 1873, Katsu Kaishu became Navy Minister. The new government drafted an ambitious plan to create a Navy with 200 ships organized into 10 fleets. It was abandoned within a year due to lack of resources. Katsu Kaishu (勝 海舟 Katsu Kaishū, 1823-99) was a stateman in Japan in the late shogunate period who held an important part in the Tokugawa shogunate in rare occasions. ...


British support

Naval gunnery trainees on the Ryūjō, around their English instructor, Lieutenant Horse (ホース中尉), in early 1871.
Naval gunnery trainees on the Ryūjō, around their English instructor, Lieutenant Horse (ホース中尉), in early 1871.

During the 1870s and 1880s, the Imperial Japanese Navy remained an essentially coastal defense force, although the Meiji government continued to modernize it. Jho Sho Maru (soon renamed Ryūjō Maru) commissioned by Thomas Glover was launched at Aberdeen, Scotland on March 27, 1869. In 1870, an Imperial decree determined that Britain's Royal Navy should be the model for development, instead of the Netherlands.[5] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Jho Sho Maru (later renamed Ryujo Maru) was a warship commissioned by Thomas Glover for Japan, and one of the first ships of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... The Jho Sho Maru (later renamed Ryujo Maru) was a warship commissioned by Thomas Glover for Japan, and one of the first ships of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Thomas Blake Glover (June 6, 1838 - December 13, 1911) was a Scottish merchant in Bakumatsu and Meiji Japan, and he is justly revered in that country for his many contributions to its modernization. ... For other uses, see Aberdeen (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ...


From September 1870, the English Lieutenant Horse, a former gunnery instructor for the Saga fief during the Bakumatsu period, was put in charge of gunnery practice onboard the Ryūjō.[6] In 1871, the Ministry resolved to send 16 trainees abroad for training in naval sciences (14 to Great Britain, 2 to the United States), among which was Togo Heihachiro.[7] A 34-member British naval mission visited Japan in 1873 for two years, headed by Comdr. Archibald Douglas.[8] Later, Comdr. L.P. Willan was hired in 1879 to train naval cadets. Saga Prefecture ) is located in the northwest part of the island of KyÅ«shÅ«, Japan. ... The late Tokugawa shogunate or last shogun (幕末; Bakumatsu) is the period between 1853 and 1867 during which Japan ended its isolationist foreign policy called sakoku and modernized from a feudal shogunate to the Meiji government. ... Admiral Togo at the age of 55, shortly before the Russo-Japanese War Fleet Admiral Count Tōgō Heihachirō (東郷 平八郎 Tōgō Heihachirō OM, January 27, 1848 - 30 May 1934) was a Japanese Admiral and one of Japans greatest naval heroes. ... Admiral Archibald Douglas, in 1902. ...


First interventions abroad (Taiwan 1874, Korea 1875-76)

The landing of the Japanese marines from the Unyo at Ganghwa Island, Korea, in the 1875 Ganghwa Island incident.
The landing of the Japanese marines from the Unyo at Ganghwa Island, Korea, in the 1875 Ganghwa Island incident.
The Imperial Japanese Navy, in Pusan, on its way to Ganghwa Island (江華島), Korea, January 16th, 1876. There were 2 warships (Nisshin, Moshun), 3 troop transports, and one liner for the embassy led by Kuroda Kiyotaka.
The Imperial Japanese Navy, in Pusan, on its way to Ganghwa Island (江華島), Korea, January 16th, 1876. There were 2 warships (Nisshin, Moshun), 3 troop transports, and one liner for the embassy led by Kuroda Kiyotaka.

During 1873, a plan to invade the Korean peninsula (the Seikanron proposal made by Saigo Takamori) was narrowly abandoned by decision of the central government in Tokyo. In 1874, the Taiwan expedition was the first foray abroad of the new Imperial Japanese Navy and the Imperial Japanese Army. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 792 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (938 × 710 pixel, file size: 992 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Japanese troops landing at Ganhwa island. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 792 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (938 × 710 pixel, file size: 992 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Japanese troops landing at Ganhwa island. ... France Marines is the name of a commune in the département of Val dOise, France. ... The Japanese gunboat Unyo. ... Ganghwa Island is an island in the estuary of the Han River, on the west coast of South Korea. ... The landing of the forces of the Unyo at Ganghwa Island. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Pūsan is also a Vedic Hindu god. ... Ganghwa Island is an island in the estuary of the Han River, on the west coast of South Korea. ... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ... Moshun (孟春). The Japanese warship Moshun (孟春) was a warship of the Imperial forces during the Boshin war in Japan in 1868. ... Kuroda Kiyotaka (黒田 清隆; October 16, 1840–August 25, 1900), also known as Ryōsuke, was a Japanese politician of the Meiji era, and the second Prime Minister of Japan from April 30, 1888 to October 25, 1889. ... The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula in East Asia. ... The Seikanron debate. ... Saigō Takamoris statue in Ueno park Saigō Takamori (西郷 隆盛 Saigō Takamori, 23 January 1827/28 - 24 September 1877), one of the most influential samurai in Japanese history, lived during the late Edo Period and early Meiji Era. ... Combatants Paiwan tribes Empire of Japan Commanders Paiwan tribal leaders Saigō Tsugumichi Strength Paiwan Tribesmen: ? Japanese: 3,600 Casualties Killed: 30 Wounded: ? Killed: 12 Wounded: ? Diseased: 531 The Taiwan Expedition of 1874 (Japanese: Taiwan Shuppei: 台湾出兵. In Taiwan, the expedition is referred to as the Mudan incident. ... The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (KyÅ«jitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun) was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ...


Various interventions in the Korean peninsula continued in 1875-1876, starting with the Ganghwa Island incident (江華島事件) provoked by the Japanese gunboat Unyo, leading to the dispatch of a large force of the Imperial Japanese Navy. As a result, the Treaty of Ganghwa was signed, marking the official opening of Korea to foreign trade, and Japan's first example of Western-style interventionism and adoption of Unequal treaties tactics. The landing of the forces of the Unyo at Ganghwa Island. ... The Japanese gunboat Unyo. ... The Treaty of Ganghwa, also called Korea-Japanese Treaty of Amity, signed in 1876, was written by Kuroda Kiyotaka, Governor of Hokkaidō, and designed to open up Korea to Japanese trade. ... Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Unequal Treaties, is a term used in reference to the type of treaties signed by several East Asian states, including Qing Dynasty China, late Tokugawa Japan, and late Joseon Korea, with Western powers and Imperial Japan, during the nineteenth and early twentieth...


Soon however domestic rebellions, the Saga Rebellion (1874) and especially the Satsuma Rebellion (1877), forced the government to focus on land warfare. Naval policy, expressed by the slogan Shusei Kokubō (Jp:守勢国防, lit. "Static Defense"), focused on coastal defenses and a standing army (established with the assistance of the second French Military Mission to Japan), and a coastal Navy, leading to a military organization under the Rikushu Kaijū (Jp:陸主海従, Army first, Navy second) principle. Woodblock print from Tokyo Nichinichi Shimbun, 1871, depicting Eto Shimpei during the Saga Rebellion The Saga Rebellion ) was a samurai insurrection in Japan in 1874, led by Eto Shimpei and Shima Yoshitake in their native domain of Hizen against the Meiji government. ... Combatants Imperial Japanese Army Satsuma fief Commanders Ruler: Meiji Emperor CIC: Sumiyoshi Kawamura Saigō Takamori Strength 300,000 40,000 Casualties estimate ~60,000 dead soldiers about 30,000 dead The Satsuma Rebellion (Seinan Sensō 西南戦争, Southwestern War) was a revolt of the Satsuma clan samurai against the Imperial Japanese Army... Colonel Munier, commander of the Second French Military Mission to Japan. ...


In 1878, the Japanese cruiser Seiki sailed to Europe with an entirely Japanese crew.[9]


Further modernization (1870s)

Ships such as the Fusō, Kongō (1877) and the Hiei (1877) were built in British shipyards specifically for the Imperial Japanese Navy. Private construction companies such as Ishikawajima and Kawasaki also emerged around this time. The IJN Fusō (扶桑) was an ironclad warship of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... The Kongō (金剛) was a 1878 armored corvette of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... The Hiei The Hiei was an 1878 armored corvette of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. ... Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. ...

Armoured corvette Kongō (1877).
Armoured corvette Kongō (1877).

In 1883 two large warships were ordered from British shipyards. Naniwa and the Takachiho were 3,650-ton ships. They were capable of speeds up to 18 knots (33 km/h) and were armed with 2 to 3-inch deck armor and two 10.2-in (260 mm) Krupp guns. The naval architect Sasō Sachū designed these on the line of the Elswick class of protected cruisers but with superior specifications. An arms race was taking place with China however, who equipped herself with two German-built battleships of 7,335 tons (Ting Yüan and Chen-Yüan). Unable to confront the Chinese fleet with only two modern cruisers, Japan resorted to French assistance to build a large, modern fleet which could prevail in the upcoming conflict. Image File history File links Kongo(1878). ... Image File history File links Kongo(1878). ... French steam corvette Dupleix (1856-1887) Canadian corvettes on antisubmarine convoy escort duty during World War II. A corvette is a small, maneuverable, lightly armed warship, smaller than a frigate but larger than a coastal patrol craft. ... The Kongō (金剛) was a 1878 armored corvette of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... The Naniwa (Japanese:浪速) was an 1885 cruiser of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Category: ... For the U.S. town, see Krupp, Washington. ... Elswick could be Elswick, Lancashire Elswick, Tyne and Wear This article consisting of geographical locations is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Protected cruiser armour scheme — a cross-section (armour in red) Protected cruisers were a type of naval cruiser of the late 19th century. ... The term arms race in its original usage describes a competition between two or more parties for military supremacy. ... For other uses, see Battleship (disambiguation). ... The Dingyuan (Traditional Chinese: 定遠; Simplified Chinese: 定远; Hanyu Pinyin: ) was a Chinese battleship and the flagship of the Imperial Beiyang Navy. ... -1...


Influence of the French "Jeune Ecole" (1880s)

The French-built Matsushima, flagship of the Imperial Japanese Navy at the Battle of Yalu River (1894).
The French-built Matsushima, flagship of the Imperial Japanese Navy at the Battle of Yalu River (1894).

During the 1880s, France took the lead in influence, due to its "Jeune Ecole" ("young school") doctrine favoring small, fast warships, especially cruisers and torpedo boats, against bigger units. The choice of France may also have been influenced by the Minister of the Japanese Navy (海軍卿), who happened to be Enomoto Takeaki at that time (Navy Minister 1880-1885), a former ally of the French during the Boshin War. ImageMetadata File history File links Matsushima(Bertin). ... ImageMetadata File history File links Matsushima(Bertin). ... The Battle of the Yalu River, also called simply The Battle of Yalu took place on September 17, 1894. ... The Jeune Ecole (Young School) was a French naval school of thought developed during the 19th century. ... USS Port Royal, a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser, launched in 1994. ... A torpedo boat is a relatively small and fast naval ship designed to launch torpedoes at larger surface ships. ... Enomoto Takeaki at the time of Republic of Ezo in 1869. ... Combatants Imperial faction: Satsuma, ChōshÅ«, Tosa Tokugawa Shogunate Commanders Ruler: Meiji Emperor, CIC: Saigō Takamori, Army: Kuroda Kiyotaka Shogunate: Ruler: Tokugawa Yoshinobu, Army: Katsu Kaishu, Navy: Enomoto Takeaki, Ezo Republic: President:Enomoto Takeaki, CIC: Otori Keisuke, Navy: Arai Ikunosuke Casualties ~1,000 killed ~2,000 killed Campaign map of...


The Meiji government issued its First Naval Expansion bill in 1882, requiring the construction of 48 warships, of which 22 were to be torpedo boats. The naval successes of the French Navy against China in the Sino-French War of 1883-85 seemed to validate the potential of torpedo boats, an approach which was also attractive to the limited resources of Japan. In 1885, the new Navy slogan became Kaikoku Nippon (Jp:海国日本, lit. "Maritime Japan"). The French Navy, officially called the National Navy (French: Marine Nationale) is the maritime arm of the French military. ... Combatants France Qing Dynasty Black Flag Army Annam Strength 15,000 to 20,000 soldiers (including Spanish and Filipino volunteers) 25,000 to 35,000 soldiers (from the provinces of Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian, Zhejiang and Yunnan) Casualties 2,100 killed or wounded 10,000 killed or wounded The 1884 Battle...


In 1885, the leading French Navy engineer Emile Bertin was hired for four years to reinforce the Japanese Navy and to direct the construction of the arsenals of Kure and Sasebo. He developed the Sanseikan class of cruisers; 3 units featuring a single powerful main gun, the 12.6in (320 mm) Canet gun. Altogether, Bertin supervised the building of more than twenty units. They helped establish the first true modern naval force of Japan. It allowed Japan to achieve mastery in the building of large units, since some of the ships were imported, and some others were built domestically at the arsenal of Yokosuka: Louis-Emile Bertin in his later years. ... Kure (呉市; -shi) is a city located in Hiroshima, Japan. ... Illuminated by the Albuquerque Bridge, Japanese volunteers place candle lit lanterns into the Sasebo River during the Obon festival. ... The Canet gun on the Matsushima. ... Yokosuka (Japanese: 横須賀市; -shi) is a city located in Kanagawa, Japan. ...

The 12.6in Canet gun on the Matsushima.
The 12.6in Canet gun on the Matsushima.
  • 3 cruisers: the 4,700 ton Matsushima and Itsukushima, built in France, and the Hashidate, built at Yokosuka.
  • 3 coastal warships of 4,278 tons.
  • 2 small cruisers: the Chiyoda, a small cruiser of 2,439 tons built in Britain, and the Yaeyama, 1800 tons, built at Yokosuka.
  • 1 frigate, the 1600 ton Takao, built at Yokosuka.
  • 1 destroyer: the 726 ton Chishima, built in France.
  • 16 torpedo boats of 54 tons each, built in France by the Companie du Creusot in 1888, and assembled in Japan.

This period also allowed Japan "to embrace the revolutionary new technologies embodied in torpedoes, torpedo-boats and mines, of which the French at the time were probably the world's best exponents"[10]. Japan acquired its first torpedoes in 1884, and established a "Torpedo Training Center" at Yokosuka in 1886. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Canet gun on the Matsushima. ... The French-built Matsushima, flagship of the Japanese Navy up to the Sino-Japanese conflict. ... The IJN Itsukushima (厳島) was a protected cruiser of the Imperial Japanese Navy, designed by Emile Bertin, and built by the Compagnie des Forges et Chantiers de la Méditerranée à la Seyne naval shipyards in France. ... The Hashidate The Hashidate was a cruiser of the Imperial Japanese Navy, built in Yokosuka, Japan, in 1889 under the supervision of Emile Bertin. ... Chiyoda (千代田) was one of the Imperial Japanese Navys first armored cruisers. ... The Yaeyama (八重山) was an protected cruiser of the Imperial Japanese Navy, designed under the supervision of Emile Bertin and built in Japan by the Yokosuka Naval Yards. ... For the bird, see Frigatebird. ... The Takao The Takao was a 1,600 tons Japanese frigate (Aviso) of the Imperial Japanese Navy, designed by Emile Bertin and built in Yokosuka, Japan, in 1889. ... USS McFaul underway in the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Chishima The Chishima was a 1890 torpedo destroyer of the Imperial Japanese Navy, designed by Emile Bertin, and built in the French Chantiers de la Loire. ... The torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled explosive projectile weapon, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater toward a target, and designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ... Polish wz. ...


These ships, ordered during the fiscal years 1885 and 1886, were the last major orders placed with France. The unexplained sinking of the Unebi in route from France to Japan in December 1886, created diplomatic frictions and doubts about the French designs. The IJN Unebi ) was an protected cruiser of the Imperial Japanese Navy, designed and built in France by Forges Et Chantiers De La Gironde. ...


British shipbuilding

The torpedo-boat Kotaka (1887)
The torpedo-boat Kotaka (1887)

Japan turned again to Britain, with the order of a revolutionary torpedo boat, the 1887 Kotaka, which is considered the first ever effective design of a destroyer[11], and with the purchase of the Yoshino, built at the Armstrong works in Elswick, Newcastle upon Tyne, the fastest cruiser in the world at the time of her launch in 1892.[12] In 1889, she ordered the Clyde-built Chiyoda, which defined the type for armored cruisers.[13]. Image File history File links Kotaka. ... Image File history File links Kotaka. ... The Kotaka (Jp:小鷹, Falcon) was a torpedo boat in the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... The Kotaka (Jp:小鷹, Falcon) was a torpedo boat in the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... The Yoshino, 1892. ... Sir W G Armstrong Whitworth & Co Ltd was a major British manufacturing company of the early years of the 20th century. ... Elswick could be Elswick, Lancashire Elswick, Tyne and Wear This article consisting of geographical locations is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... This article is about a city in the United Kingdom. ... The River Clyde opening out at Newark Castle, Port Glasgow past Clydeport Ocean Terminal, Greenock, to the Firth of Clyde on the left, and to the right past Ardmore Point to the Gare Loch. ... Chiyoda (千代田) was one of the Imperial Japanese Navys first armored cruisers. ... Schematic section of a typical armoured cruiser with an armoured upper and middle deck and side belt (red), lateral protective coal bunkers (grey) and a double-bottom of watertight compartments. ...


After 1882 (until 1918, with the visit of the French Military Mission to Japan), the Imperial Japanese Navy stopped relying on foreign instructors altogether. In 1886, she manufactured her own prismatic powder, and in 1892 one of her officers invented a powerful explosive, the Shimose powder.[14] French Military Mission to Japan 1918-1919. ... Brown powder is an explosive agent similar to black powder, but with a slower (and therefore gentler) burning rate. ... Shimose powder was a type of gunpowder developed by the Japanese chemist Shimose Masachika (1860-1911). ...


Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895)

Main article: First Sino-Japanese War
Chinese forces, with their foreign advisors, surrendering to Admiral Itoh Sukeyuki at the Battle of Weihaiwei.
Chinese forces, with their foreign advisors, surrendering to Admiral Itoh Sukeyuki at the Battle of Weihaiwei.

Japan continued the modernization of its navy, especially as China was also building a powerful modern fleet with foreign, especially German, assistance, and the pressure was building between the two countries to take control of Korea. The Sino-Japanese war was officially declared on August 1, 1894, though some naval fighting had already taken place. Combatants Qing Empire (China) Empire of Japan Commanders Li Hongzhang Yamagata Aritomo Strength 630,000 men Beiyang Army Beiyang Fleet 240,000 men Imperial Japanese Army Imperial Japanese Navy Casualties 35,000 dead or wounded 13,823 dead, 3,973 wounded The First Sino-Japanese War (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 397 pixelsFull resolution (1310 × 650 pixel, file size: 348 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) ukiyoe nishiki-e by Mizuno TOshikata depicting the surrender of Chinese forces after the Battle of Weihaiwei, dated November 1895 Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 397 pixelsFull resolution (1310 × 650 pixel, file size: 348 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) ukiyoe nishiki-e by Mizuno TOshikata depicting the surrender of Chinese forces after the Battle of Weihaiwei, dated November 1895 Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original... Sukeyuki Itoh ) (20 May 1843 – 16 January 1914) was a career officer in the Imperial Japanese Navy in the Meiji-period . ... Combatants Japan China Commanders Marshal Oyama Iwao, Admiral Ito Sukeyuki General Li Hongzhang, Admiral Ding Ruchang† Casualties 29 (killed), 233 (wounded) 4,000 (killed) ukiyoe by Mizuno Toskikata depicting Admiral Ding Ruchang surrendering to Admiral Ito at the Battle of Weihaiwei The Battle of Weihaiwei was a 23 day siege... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ... Combatants Qing Empire (China) Empire of Japan Commanders Li Hongzhang Yamagata Aritomo Strength 630,000 men Beiyang Army Beiyang Fleet 240,000 men Imperial Japanese Army Imperial Japanese Navy Casualties 35,000 dead or wounded 13,823 dead, 3,973 wounded The First Sino-Japanese War (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...

Video footage of a naval battle during the first Sino-Japanese war
Video footage of a naval battle during the first Sino-Japanese war[15]

The Japanese navy devastated Qing's Beiyang Fleet off the mouth of the Yalu River at the Battle of Yalu River on September 17, 1894, in which the Chinese fleet lost 8 out of 12 warships. Although Japan turned out victorious, the two large German-made battleships of the Chinese Navy remained almost impervious to Japanese guns, highlighting the need for bigger capital ships in the Japanese Navy (Ting Yuan was finally sunk by torpedoes, and Chen-Yuan was captured with little damage). The next step of the Imperial Japanese Navy's expansion would thus involve a combination of heavily armed large warships, with smaller and innovative offensive units permitting aggressive tactics. ImageMetadata File history File links NisshinBattle. ... ImageMetadata File history File links NisshinBattle. ... Ding Yuan, the flagship of Beiyang Fleet The Beiyang Fleet (Traditional Chinese: 北洋艦隊; Simplified Chinese: 北洋舰队; Pinyin: Bêiyáng Jiàndùi) was one of the four modernised Chinese navies in the late Qing Dynasty. ... The Amnok River, or the Yalu River, is a river on the border between China and North Korea. ... The Battle of the Yalu River, also called simply The Battle of Yalu took place on September 17, 1894. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Dingyuan (Traditional Chinese: 定遠; Simplified Chinese: 定远; Hanyu Pinyin: ) was a Chinese battleship and the flagship of the Imperial Beiyang Navy. ... -1...



As a result of the conflict, under the Treaty of Shimonoseki (April 17th, 1895), Taiwan and the Pescadores Islands were transferred to Japan. The Imperial Japanese Navy took possession of the island and quelled opposition movements between March to October 1895, and the islands continued to be a Japanese colony until 1945. Japan also obtained the Liaodong Peninsula, although she was forced by Russia to return it to China, only to see Russia take possession of it soon after. The Shunpanrō hall where the Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed The Treaty of Shimonoseki (Japanese: 下関条約, Shimonoseki Jōyaku), known as the Treaty of Maguan (T. Chinese: 馬關條約, S. Chinese: 马关条约;) in China, was signed at the Shunpanrō hall on April 17, 1895 between the Empire of Japan and the Qing Empire. ... The Pescadores Islands (Traditional Chinese: 澎湖群島; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Peng-hu; Taiwanese POJ: Phêⁿ-ô·-kōan, from Portuguese, fishermen, pron. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Suppression of the Boxer rebellion (1900)

Japanese marines serving under British commander Seymour during the Boxer rebellion.
Japanese marines serving under British commander Seymour during the Boxer rebellion.
Main article: Boxer rebellion

The Imperial Japanese Navy further intervened in China in 1900, by participating together with Western Powers to the suppression of the Chinese Boxer Rebellion. The Navy supplied the largest number of warships (18, out of a total of 50 warships), and delivered the largest contingent of Imperial Japanese Army and Navy troops among the intervening nations (20,840 soldiers, out of total of 54,000). Image File history File linksMetadata BoxerJapaneseMarines. ... Image File history File linksMetadata BoxerJapaneseMarines. ... Sir Edward Hobart Seymour (April 30, 1840 - March 2, 1929) was a British Admiral of the Fleet. ... Combatants Eight-Nation Alliance (ordered by contribution): Empire of Japan Russian Empire British Empire France United States German Empire Kingdom of Italy Austro-Hungarian Empire Righteous Harmony Society Qing Dynasty (China) Commanders Edward Seymour Alfred Graf von Waldersee Ci Xi Strength 20,000 initially 49,000 total 50,000-100... Combatants Eight-Nation Alliance (ordered by contribution): Empire of Japan Russian Empire British Empire France United States German Empire Kingdom of Italy Austro-Hungarian Empire Righteous Harmony Society Qing Dynasty (China) Commanders Edward Seymour Alfred Graf von Waldersee Ci Xi Strength 20,000 initially 49,000 total 50,000-100... Combatants Eight-Nation Alliance (ordered by contribution): Empire of Japan Russian Empire British Empire France United States German Empire Kingdom of Italy Austro-Hungarian Empire Righteous Harmony Society Qing Dynasty (China) Commanders Edward Seymour Alfred Graf von Waldersee Ci Xi Strength 20,000 initially 49,000 total 50,000-100...


The conflict allowed Japan to combat together with Western nations, and to acquire first hand understanding of their fighting methods.


Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)

Admiral Togo at the age of 58, at the time of the Russo-Japanese War.

Following the Sino-Japanese War, and the humiliation of the forced return of the Liaotung peninsula to China under Russian pressure (the "Triple Intervention"), Japan began to build up its military strength in preparation for further confrontations. Japan promulgated a ten-year naval build-up program, under the slogan "Perseverance and determination" (Jp:臥薪嘗胆, Gashinshōtan), in which it commissioned 109 warships, for a total of 200,000 tons, and increased its Navy personnel from 15,100 to 40,800. The new fleet consisted of: 1903 photograph of Heihachiro Togo. ... 1903 photograph of Heihachiro Togo. ... Combatants Russian Empire Montenegro[1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: , Chinese: , February 10, 1904 – September 5, 1905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Tripartite Intervention or Triple Intervention ) was a diplomatic intervention by Russia, Germany and France on 23 April 1895 over the terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki signed between Japan and Qing dynasty China, which ended the First Sino-Japanese War. ...

Mikasa, the most powerful battleship of her time, in 1905.
Mikasa, the most powerful battleship of her time, in 1905.

One of these battleships, Mikasa, the most advanced ship of her time,[16] was ordered from the Vickers shipyard in the United Kingdom at the end of 1898, for delivery to Japan in 1902. Commercial shipbuilding in Japan was exhibited by construction of the twin screw steamer Aki-Maru, built for Nippon Yusen Kaisha by the Mitsubishi Dockyard & Engine Works, Nagasaki. The Imperial Japanese cruiser Chitose was built at the Union Iron Works in San Francisco, California. For other uses, see Battleship (disambiguation). ... Schematic section of a typical armoured cruiser with an armoured upper and middle deck and side belt (red), lateral protective coal bunkers (grey) and a double-bottom of watertight compartments. ... The IJN Yakumo (八雲) was an armored cruiser of the Imperial Japanese Navy, designed and built by the Stettiner Vulcan AG shipyards in Stettin, Germany. ... The IJN Azuma (東) was an armored cruiser of the Imperial Japanese Navy, designed and built in France. ... USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser (really an uprated guided missile destroyer), launched in 1992. ... USS McFaul underway in the Atlantic Ocean. ... A torpedo boat is a relatively small and fast naval ship designed to launch torpedoes at larger surface ships. ... Image File history File links Japanese battleship Mikasa. ... Image File history File links Japanese battleship Mikasa. ... Mikasa (三笠) is a pre-Dreadnought battleship, formerly of the Imperial Japanese Navy, launched in Britain in 1900. ... Vickers was a famous name in British engineering that existed through many companies from 1828 until 2004. ... The Japan-based Nippon Yusen Kaisha (日本郵船), or NYK Line, is one of the largest shipping companies in the world. ... Mitsubishi Logo The Mitsubishi Group ), Mitsubishi Group of Companies, or Mitsubishi Companies, all refer to a large grouping of independently operated Japanese companies which share the Mitsubishi brand name. ... Nagasaki ) ( ) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ... The Chitose (千歳) was an protected cruiser of the Imperial Japanese Navy, designed and built in San Francisco, in the United States by the Union Iron Works. ... Union Iron Works, located in San Francisco, California, built a number of ships for the United States Navy. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


These dispositions culminated with the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905). At the Battle of Tsushima, Admiral Togo onboard Mikasa led the combined Japanese fleet into the decisive engagement of the war.[17] The Russian fleet was almost completely annihilated: out of 38 Russian ships, 21 were sunk, 7 captured, 6 disarmed, 4,545 Russian servicemen died and 6,106 were taken prisoner. On the other hand, the Japanese only lost 116 men and 3 torpedo boats. These victories broke Russian strength in East Asia, and triggered waves of mutinies in the Russian Navy at Sevastopol, Vladivostok and Kronstadt, peaking in June with the Battleship Potemkin uprising, thereby contributing to the Russian Revolution of 1905. Combatants Russian Empire Montenegro[1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: , Chinese: , February 10, 1904 – September 5, 1905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of... Combatants Empire of Japan Russian Empire Commanders Heihachiro Togo Zinovi Rozhdestvenski # Nikolai Nebogatov Strength 4 battleships 27 cruisers destroyers and auxiliary vessels 8 battleships 3 coastal battleships 8 cruisers Casualties 117 dead 583 injured 3 torpedo boats sunk 4,380 dead 5,917 captured 21 ships sunk 7 captured 6... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Sevastopol highlighted. ... Vladivostok (Russian: ) is the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated close to the Russo-Sino border and North Korea. ... 1888 map of the Kronstadt bay Kronstadt (Russian: ), also spelled Kronshtadt, Cronstadt (German: for Crown and Stadt for City) is a Russian seaport town, located on Kotlin Island, thirty kilometers west of Saint Petersburg near the head of the Gulf of Finland. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Russian battleship Potemkin. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ...

Holland 1 Class Submarine, the first type of Imperial Japanese Navy submarines, purchased during the Russo Japanese War.
Holland 1 Class Submarine, the first type of Imperial Japanese Navy submarines, purchased during the Russo Japanese War.

During the Russo-Japanese war, Japan also made frantic efforts to develop and construct a fleet of submarines. Submarines had only recently become operational military engines, and were considered to be special weapons of considerable potential. The Imperial Japanese Navy acquired its first submarines in 1905 from the United States Electric Boat Company, barely four years after the U.S. Navy had commissioned its own first submarine, USS Holland. The ships were Holland designs. They were shipped in kit to Japan and then assembled at the Yokosuka Naval Yard, to become hulls No1 through 5, and became operational at the end of 1905.
Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 468 pixelsFull resolution (2121 × 1241 pixel, file size: 409 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Holland 1 Class Submarine, the First Submarine in the IJN purchaced from US. Length:67ft. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 468 pixelsFull resolution (2121 × 1241 pixel, file size: 409 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Holland 1 Class Submarine, the First Submarine in the IJN purchaced from US. Length:67ft. ... John Philip Holland (Irish: Seán Ó Maolchalann) (24 February 1841–12 August 1914) was an engineer who developed the first submarine accepted by the U.S. Navy (though not the first American submarine, see American Civil War submarines, and the earlier Nautilus and Turtle) and the first ever Royal Navy... Imperial Japanese Navy submarines originate with the purchase of five Holland type submarines to the United States in 1905. ... Electric Boat, a division of General Dynamics Corporation, is a major contractor for submarine work for the United States Navy. ... USN redirects here. ... Holland VI redirects here. ... John Philip Holland (Irish: Seán Ó Maolchalann) (24 February 1841–12 August 1914) was an engineer who developed the first submarine accepted by the U.S. Navy (though not the first American submarine, see American Civil War submarines, and the earlier Nautilus and Turtle) and the first ever Royal Navy... Yokosuka (Japanese: 横須賀市; -shi) is a city located in Kanagawa, Japan. ...


Towards an autonomous national Navy

Satsuma, the first ship in the world to be designed and laid down as an "all-big-gun" battleship
Satsuma, the first ship in the world to be designed and laid down as an "all-big-gun" battleship

Japan continued in its efforts to build up a strong national naval industry. Following a strategy of "Copy, improve, innovate",[18] foreign ships of various designs were usually analysed in depth, their specifications often improved on, and then were purchased in pairs so as to organize comparative testing and improvements. Over the years, the importation of whole classes of ships was progressively substituted by local assembly, and then complete local production, starting with the smallest ships, such as torpedo boats and cruisers in the 1880s, to finish with whole battleships in the early 1900s. The last major purchase was in 1913 when the battlecruiser Kongō was purchased from the Vickers shipyard. By 1918, there was no aspect of shipbuilding technology where Japanese capabilities fell significantly below world standards.[19] By 1920, the Imperial Japanese Navy was the world's third largest navy, and was a leader in many aspects of naval development: Image File history File links IJN_Satsuma. ... Image File history File links IJN_Satsuma. ... The sixth HMS Dreadnought of the Royal Navy was a revolutionary battleship which entered service in 1906. ... [[Image:HMS Hood and HMS Barham. ... Kongō (金剛, vajra or indestructible) was the Imperial Japanese Navys first super-dreadnought type battlecruiser, and the name-ship of her class, which also included the Hiei, Kirishima, and Haruna. ... Vickers was a famous name in British engineering that existed through many companies from 1828 until 2004. ...

  • The Japanese Navy was the first navy in the world to use wireless telegraphy in combat (following its 1897 invention by Marconi), at the 1905 Battle of Tsushima.[20]
  • In 1906, it launched the battleship Satsuma, at the time the largest warship in the world by displacement, and the first ship in the world to be designed, ordered and laid down as an "all-big-gun" battleship, about one year before the British HMS Dreadnought.[21]
  • Between 1905 and 1910, Japan started to build battleships domestically. The 1906 battleship Satsuma was built in Japan with about 80% parts from Britain, but the next battleship class, the 1910 Kawachi was built with only 20% imported parts.

Wireless telegraphy is the practice of remote writing (see telegraphy) without the wires normally involved in an electrical telegraph. ... Guglielmo Marconi [gue:lmo marko:ni] (25 April 1874 - 20 July 1937) was an Italian inventor, best known for his development of a radiotelegraph system, which served as the foundation for the establishment of numerous affiliated companies worldwide. ... Satsuma ) was a dreadnought type battleship of the Imperial Japanese Navy , designed and built in Japan by the Yokosuka Naval Yards. ... The sixth HMS Dreadnought of the Royal Navy was a revolutionary battleship which entered service in 1906. ... The Kawachi was a battleship of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ...

World War I

Japan entered World War I on the side of the Allies, against Imperial Germany and Austria-Hungary, as a natural prolongation of the 1902 Anglo-Japanese Alliance. Combatants Empire of Japan British Empire United Kingdom Australia New Zealand German Empire The Asian and Pacific Theater of World War I was a largely bloodless conquest of a number of German controlled islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... Japan participated in World War I ) from 1914-1917, as one of the major Entente Powers, played an important role in securing the sea lanes in South Pacific and Indian Oceans against the Kaiserliche Marine. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This article or section should include material from German Monarchy The term German Empire (the translation from German of Deutsches Reich) commonly refers to Germany, from its consolidation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of Kaiser (Emperor) Wilhelm II on November 9, 1918. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... The first Anglo-Japanese Alliance was signed in London on January 30, 1902 by Lord Lansdowne (British foreign secretary) and Hayashi Tadasu (Japanese minister in London). ...

The Japanese seaplane carrier Wakamiya conducted the world's first sea-launched air raids in September 1914.
The Japanese seaplane carrier Wakamiya conducted the world's first sea-launched air raids in September 1914.

In the Battle of Tsingtao, the Japanese Navy seized the German naval base of Tsingtao. During the battle, beginning on September 5, 1914, Wakamiya conducted the world's first sea-launched air strikes.[22] from Kiaochow Bay.[23] Four Maurice Farman seaplanes bombarded German land targets (communication centers and command centers) and damaged a German minelayer in the Tsingtao peninsula from September to November 6th, 1914 when the Germans surrendered.[24] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A seaplane tender (or seaplane carrier) is a ship which provides the facililites necessary for operating seaplanes. ... Wakamiya (Japanese:若宮丸, later 若宮艦) was a seaplane carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy and the first Japanese aircraft carrier. ... The Battle of Tsingtao was the attack on the German-controlled port of Tsingtao (now Qingdao) in China during World War I. It too took place between 27 August-7 November 1914 and was fought by Japan and the United Kingdom against Germany. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-tao), well-known to the West by its Postal map spelling Tsingtao, is a sub-provincial city in eastern Shandong province, Peoples Republic of China. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Jiaozhou Bay was a 552km² German colony which existed from 1898 to 1914. ... Maurice Alain Farman (March 21, 1877 - February 25, 1964) was a French Grand Prix motor racing champion, an aviator, and an aircraft manufacturer and designer. ...


Concurrently, a battle group was sent to the central Pacific in August and September to pursue the German East Asiatic squadron, which then moved into the Southern Atlantic, where it encountered British naval forces and was destroyed at the Battle of the Falkland Islands. Japan seized former German possessions in Micronesia (the Mariana Islands, excluding Guam); the Caroline Islands; and the Marshall Islands), which remained Japanese colonies until the end of World War II, under the League of Nations' South Pacific Mandate. Combatants British Empire German Empire Commanders Doveton Sturdee Maximilian von Spee Strength 2 battlecruisers, 3 armoured cruisers, 2 light cruisers and 1 grounded pre-dreadnought 2 armoured cruisers, 3 light cruisers, 3 transports Casualties 10 killed, 19 wounded No ships lost 1,871 killed, 215 captured 2 armoured cruisers, 2... The Mariana Islands (also the Marianas; up to the early 20th century sometimes called Ladrones Islands, from Spanish Islas de los Ladrones meaning Islands of Thieves) are an archipelago made up by the summits of 15 volcanic mountains in the north-western Pacific Ocean between the 12th and 21st parallels... Sunset at Colonia on Yap The Caroline Islands form a large archipelago of widely scattered islands in the western Pacific Ocean, northeast of New Guinea. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919–1920. ... The South Pacific Mandate (Nan-Yo) refers to a group of islands in Micronesia. ...


Hard pressed in Europe, where she had only a narrow margin of superiority against Germany, Britain had requested, but was denied, the loan of Japan's four newest Kongō-class battleships (Kongō, Hiei, Haruna, and Kirishima), the first ships in the world to be equipped with 14-inch (356 mm) guns, and the most formidable capital ships in the world at the time.[25] Kongō (金剛, vajra or indestructible) was the Imperial Japanese Navys first super-dreadnought type battlecruiser, and the name-ship of her class, which also included the Hiei, Kirishima, and Haruna. ... Hiei (比叡), named for Mount Hiei north-east of Kyoto, was a Kongo-class battleship of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Haruna (榛名) was a Kongo class battleship laid down by the Kawasaki Shipbuilding Company at Kobe on 16 March 1912, launched on 14 December 1913 and completed on 19 April 1915. ... Kirishima (霧島) was the Imperial Japanese Navys fourth Kongo class battlecruiser, and was laid down by Mitsubishi in Nagasaki on March 17, 1912, launched on December 1, 1913 and commissioned on April 19, 1915. ...

Japanese armoured cruiser Nisshin in the Mediterranean (Malta, 1919).

Following a further request to contribute to the conflict, and the advent of unrestricted submarine warfare by Germany, the Imperial Navy in March 1917 sent a special force of destroyers to the Mediterranean. This force, consisting of one armoured cruiser, Akashi, as flotilla leader, and eight of the Navy's newest destroyers (Ume, Kusunoki, Kaede, Katsura, Kashiwa, Matsu, Matsu, Sugi, and Sakaki), under Admiral Satō Kōzō, was based in Malta and efficiently protected allied shipping between Marseilles, Taranto, and ports in Egypt until the end of the War. In June, Akashi was replaced by Izumo, and four more destroyers were added (Kashi, Hinoki, Momo, and Yanagi). They were later joined by the cruiser Nisshin. By the end of the war, the Japanese had escorted 788 allied transports. One destroyer, Sakaki, was torpedoed by an Austrian submarine with the loss of 59 officers and men. Image File history File linksMetadata NisshinMalta. ... Image File history File linksMetadata NisshinMalta. ... Nisshin (Jp:日進), also transliterated as Nissin, was a Kasuga-class armored cruiser of the Imperial Japanese Navy designed and built by Ansaldo in Italy, where the type was known as the Garibaldi class. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Unrestricted submarine warfare is a kind of naval warfare in which submarines sink merchant ships without warning. ... The IJN Akashi ) was a Suma class protected cruiser of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... A flotilla (from Spanish, meaning a flota of small ships, and this from French flotte), or naval flotilla, is a formation of small warships that may be part of a larger fleet. ... City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, the city of Massilia shines Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban Community of Marseille Provence M... Taranto is a coastal city in Apulia, southern Italy. ... The Izumo (出雲) was an armored cruiser of the Imperial Japanese Navy built in Elswick, Great Britain by Armstrong Whitworth. ... Nisshin (Jp:日進), also transliterated as Nissin, was a Kasuga-class armored cruiser of the Imperial Japanese Navy designed and built by Ansaldo in Italy, where the type was known as the Garibaldi class. ...


In 1918, ships such as Azuma were assigned to convoy escort in the Indian Ocean between Singapore and the Suez Canal as part of Japan’s contribution to the war effort under the Anglo-Japanese alliance. The IJN Azuma (東) was an armored cruiser of the Imperial Japanese Navy, designed and built in France. ... A convoy is a group of vehicles traveling together for mutual support. ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... The first Anglo-Japanese Alliance was signed in London on January 30, 1902 by Lord Lansdowne (British foreign secretary) and Hayashi Tadasu (Japanese minister in London). ...


After the conflict, the Japanese Navy received seven German submarines as spoils of war, which were brought to Japan and analysed, contributing greatly to the development of the Japanese submarine industry.[26]


Interwar years

In the years before World War II the IJN began to structure itself specifically to fight the United States. A long stretch of militaristic expansion and the start of the Second Sino-Japanese war in 1937 had alienated the United States, which was seen as a rival of Japan. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... Combatants China Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Mao Zedong, Peng Dehuai Hirohito, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata, Toshizo Nishio, Yasuji Okamura, Umezu Yoshijiro, Fumimaro Konoe Strength 58,600,000 4,100,000...

Hosho, the first purpose-designed aircraft carrier in the world, completed (1922)
Hosho, the first purpose-designed aircraft carrier in the world, completed (1922)

The Imperial Japanese Navy was faced, before and during World War II, with considerable challenges, probably more so than any other navy in the world.[27] Japan, like Britain, was almost entirely dependent on foreign resources to supply its economy. To achieve Japan’s expansionist policies, IJN had to secure and protect distant sources of raw material (especially Southeast Asian oil and raw materials), controlled by foreign countries (Britain, France, and the Netherlands). To achieve this goal, she had to build large warships capable of long range. Download high resolution version (740x620, 77 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (740x620, 77 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This page refers to the Japanese aircraft carrier. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and in most cases recover aircraft, acting as a sea...


This was in conflict with Japan's doctrine of "decisive battle" (艦隊決戦, Kantai Kessen, which did not require long range),[28] in which IJN would allow the U.S. to sail across the Pacific, using submarines to weaken it, then engage the U.S. Navy in a "decisive battle area", near Japan, after inflicting such attrition.[29] This is in keeping with the theory of Alfred T. Mahan, to which every major navy subscribed before World War II, in which wars would be decided by engagements between opposing surface fleets[30] (as they had been for over 300 years). It was the basis for Japan's demand for a 70% ratio (10:10:7) at the Washington Naval Conference, which would give Japan superiority in the "decisive battle area", and the U.S.'s insistence on a 60% ratio, which meant parity.[31] Japan, unlike other navies, clung to it even after it had been demonstrated to be obsolete. Attrition means wearing down by friction or grinding and may refer to the following. ... Rear Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan (27 September 1840 - 1 December 1914) was a United States Navy officer, naval strategist, and educator, widely considered the foremost theorist of sea power. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Washington Naval Conference was a diplomatic conference, called by the administration of President Warren G. Harding and held in Washington, D.C. from 12 November 1921 to 6 February 1922. ...


It was also in conflict with her past experience. Japan's numerical and industrial inferiority led her to seek technical superiority (fewer, but faster, more powerful ships), qualitative superiority (better training), and aggressive tactics (daring and speedy attacks overwhelming the enemy, a recipe for success in her previous conflicts). She failed to take account of the fact her opponents in the Pacific War did not face the political and geographical constraints of her previous wars, nor did she allow for losses in ships and crews.[32] For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ...


During the interwar, Japan took the lead in many areas of warship development:

  • In 1921 it launched the Hōshō, the first purpose-designed aircraft carrier in the world to be completed,[33] and subsequently developed a fleet of aircraft carriers second to none.
  • In keeping with its doctrine, the Imperial Navy was the first navy in the World to mount 14-in (356 mm) guns (in Kongō), 16-in (406 mm) guns (in Nagato), and the only Navy ever to mount 18.1-in (460 mm) guns (in the Yamato-class ships).
  • In 1928, she launched the innovative Fubuki-class destroyer, introducing enclosed dual 5-inch turrets capable of anti-aircraft fire. The new destroyer design was soon emulated by other navies. The Fubukis also featured the first torpedo tubes enclosed in splinterproof turrets.[34]
  • Japan developed the 24-inch (610 mm) oxygen fuelled Type 93 torpedo, generally recognized as the best torpedo in the world, to the end of World War II.[35]
Captain Sempill showing a Sparrowhawk to Admiral Togo Heihachiro, 1921.
Captain Sempill showing a Sparrowhawk to Admiral Togo Heihachiro, 1921.

By 1921, Japan's naval expenditure reached nearly 32% of the national budget. By 1941, the Imperial Japanese Navy possessed 10 battleships, 10 aircraft carriers, 38 cruisers (heavy and light), 112 destroyers, 65 submarines, and various auxiliary ships.[36] This page refers to the Japanese aircraft carrier. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and in most cases recover aircraft, acting as a sea... Kongō (金剛, vajra or indestructible) was the Imperial Japanese Navys first super-dreadnought type battlecruiser, and the name-ship of her class, which also included the Hiei, Kirishima, and Haruna. ... Nagato (Japanese: é•·é–€, named after Nagato province) was a battleship of the Imperial Japanese Navy, the lead ship of her class. ... The 18. ... The Yamato class battleships ) of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) were the largest naval vessels of World War II and were the largest, heaviest battleships ever constructed to this day, displacing 72,800 metric tons (at full load) and armed with nine 46 cm (18. ... The Fubuki The Fubuki Class destroyers, originally only known as numbered destroyers 35 to 54 of the Imperial Japanese Navy Special Type, were completed between 1928 and 1931. ... USS McFaul underway in the Atlantic Ocean. ... Torpedo tubes of the French SNLE Redoutable A torpedo tube is a device for launching torpedoes in a horizontal direction. ... Splinter can mean: A sharp, piece of material, usually wood, metal, (fibre) glass that is broken off of a main body. ... Corbelled corner turrets at Newark Castle, Port Glasgow. ... The Type 93 was a 610 mm (24 inch) diameter torpedo of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Admiral Togo at the age of 55, shortly before the Russo-Japanese War Fleet Admiral Count Tōgō Heihachirō (東郷 平八郎 Tōgō Heihachirō OM, January 27, 1848 - 30 May 1934) was a Japanese Admiral and one of Japans greatest naval heroes. ...


Japan at times continued to solicit foreign expertise in areas in which the IJN was inexperienced in, such as naval aviation. In 1918 Japan invited the French Military Mission to Japan (1918-1919), composed of 50 members and equipped with several of the newest types of airplanes to establish the fundamentals of Japanese naval aviation (the planes were several Salmson 2A2, Nieuport, Spad XIII, two Breguet XIV, as well as Caquot dirigibles). In 1921, Japan hosted for a year and a half the Sempill Mission, a group of British instructors who were able to train and advise the Imperial Japanese Navy on several new aircraft such as the Gloster Sparrowhawk, and on various techniques such as torpedo bombing and flight control. French Military Mission to Japan 1918-1919. ... The Salmson 2 was a French biplane reconnaissance aircraft which was developed to a 1916 requirement. ... Nieuport 17 C.1 fighter of World War I Nieuport is a French aeroplane company famous for racers before World War I (WWI) and fighter aircraft during WWI and between the wars. ... A SPAD S.XIII of the Lafayette Escadrille. ... The Breguet 14 was a French biplane bomber and reconnaissance aircraft of World War I. It was built in very large numbers and production continued for many years after the end of the war. ... “Caquot” redirects here. ... Dirigible can refer to : an airship -- a lighter-than-air aircraft that can be steered and propelled through the air. ... Captain Sempill showing a Sparrowhawk to Admiral Togo Heihachiro, 1921. ... The Gloster Aircraft Company was formed at Hucclecote ( Gloucester ) in 1915 as the Gloucestershire Aircraft Company. ... The Gloster Sparrowhawk was a British single seat fighter aircraft of the early 1920s. ...

Togo Heihachiro with members of the French Military Mission to Japan (1918-1919) in Gifu.
Togo Heihachiro with members of the French Military Mission to Japan (1918-1919) in Gifu.

During the pre-war years, two schools of thought battled over whether the Navy should be organized around powerful battleships, ultimately able to defeat American ones in Japanese waters, or around aircraft carriers. Neither really prevailed, and both lines of ships were developed, with the result neither solution displayed overwhelming strength over the American adversary. A consistent weakness of Japanese warship development was the tendency to incorporate too much armament, and too much engine power, in comparison to ship size (a side-effect of the Washington treaty), leading to shortcomings in stability, protection and structural strength.[37] This was a failing of Japanese naval architects, reflecting her industrial and engineering weakness. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 468 pixelsFull resolution (2176 × 1272 pixel, file size: 810 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 468 pixelsFull resolution (2176 × 1272 pixel, file size: 810 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... French Military Mission to Japan 1918-1919. ... Gifu is the name of several places: Gifu Prefecture, (Japan) Gifu City, (Japan) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


World War II

See also: Imperial Japanese Navy of World War II
Imperial Japanese Navy cruiser Izumo in Shanghai in 1937.
Imperial Japanese Navy cruiser Izumo in Shanghai in 1937.

The Imperial Japanese Navy of World War II was administered by the Ministry of the Navy of Japan and controlled by the Chief of the Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff at Imperial General Headquarters. In order to combat the numerically superior American navy, the IJN devoted large amounts of resources to creating a force superior in quality to any navy at the time. Consequently, at the beginning of World War II, Japan probably had the most sophisticated Navy in the world.[38] Betting on the speedy success of aggressive tactics (stemming from Mahanian doctrine and the lure of "decisive battle"), Japan did not invest significantly on defensive organization: she needed to protect her long shipping lines against enemy submarines, which she never managed to do, particularly under-investing in the vital role of antisubmarine warfare (both escort ships and escort aircraft carriers), and in the specialized training and organization to support it.[39] The Imperial Japanese Navy of World War II was one of the most powerful navies in the Pacific War in World War II. It was the third largest navy in the world. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 586 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1981 × 2026 pixel, file size: 360 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 586 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1981 × 2026 pixel, file size: 360 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Izumo (出雲) was an armored cruiser of the Imperial Japanese Navy built in Elswick, Great Britain by Armstrong Whitworth. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... The Japanese Naval Ministry was established at the end of the 19th century, along with the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN). ... The Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff or Gunreibo Socho, was in charge of Imperial Japanese Navy planning and operations. ... The Imperial General Headquarters or Daihonei, as part of the Supreme War Council was the supreme command for Japanese military forces during the World War II era. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Anti-submarine warfare is a term referring to warfare directed against submarines. ... The escort aircraft carrier or escort carrier, was a small aircraft carrier developed by the Royal Navy in the early part of World War II to deal with the U-boat crisis of the Battle of the Atlantic. ...


IJN enjoyed spectacular success during the first part of the hostilities, but American forces ultimately managed to gain the upper hand through technological upgrades to its air and naval forces and a vastly stronger industrial output. Japan's reluctance to use their submarine fleet for commerce raiding and failure to secure their communications also added to their defeat. During the last phase of the war the Imperial Japanese Navy resorted to a series of desperate measures, including a variety of Special Attack Units (popularly called kamikaze). USS Virginia, a Virginia-class nuclear attack (SSN) submarine Alvin in 1978, a year after first exploring hydrothermal vents. ... During the Second World War, Japanese Special Attack Units were specialized units normally used for suicide missions. ... USS Bunker Hill was hit by Ogawa (see picture left) and another kamikaze near Kyūshū on May 11, 1945. ...


Battleships

Yamato, the largest battleship in history, in 1941.
Yamato, the largest battleship in history, in 1941.

Japan continued to attribute considerable prestige to battleships and endeavoured to build the largest and most powerful ships of the period. Yamato, the largest and most heavily-armed battleship in history, was launched in 1941. Photo #80-G-704702 Yamato running trials in 1941. ... Photo #80-G-704702 Yamato running trials in 1941. ... Yamato (大和), named after the ancient Japanese Yamato Province, was a battleship of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... For other uses, see Battleship (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Battleship (disambiguation). ... Yamato (大和), named after the ancient Japanese Yamato Province, was a battleship of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ...


The second half of World War II saw the last battleship duels. In the Battle of Guadalcanal on November 15, 1942, the United States battleships South Dakota and Washington fought and destroyed the Japanese battleship Kirishima. In the Battle of Leyte Gulf on 25 October 1944 six battleships, led by Admiral Jesse Oldendorf of the U.S. 7th Fleet fired upon and claimed credit for sinking Admiral Shoji Nishimura's battleships Yamashiro and Fusō during the Battle of Surigao Strait; in fact, both battleships were fatally crippled by destroyer attacks before being brought under fire by Oldendorf's old battleships. Combatants United States, Australia, New Zealand Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr Isoroku Yamamoto Strength 1 carrier, 2 battleships, 5 cruisers, 12 destroyers 2 battleships, 8 cruisers, 16 destroyers Casualties 2 light cruisers, 7 destroyers sunk, 26 aircraft destroyed, 1,732 killed[1] 2 battleships, 1 heavy cruiser, 3 destroyers, 11... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... USS South Dakota (BB-57), the lead ship of her class, was the second ship of the United States Navy to be named in honor of the 40th state. ... USS Washington (BB-56), the second of two North Carolina-class battleships, was the third ship of the United States Navy named in honor of the 42nd state. ... Kirishima (霧島) was the Imperial Japanese Navys fourth Kongo class battlecruiser, and was laid down by Mitsubishi in Nagasaki on March 17, 1912, launched on December 1, 1913 and commissioned on April 19, 1915. ... Combatants  United States  Australia  Philippines Empire of Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr (3rd Fleet) Thomas C. Kinkaid (7th Fleet) Takeo Kurita (Centre Force) Shoji Nishimura â€  (Southern Force) Kiyohide Shima (Southern Force) Jisaburo Ozawa (Northern Force) Strength 17 aircraft carriers 18 escort carriers 12 battleships 24 cruisers 141 destroyers and destroyer... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Jesse Bartlett Oley Oldendorf (16 February 1887 - 27 April 1974) was an admiral in the United States Navy, famous for defeating a Japanese force in the Battle of Leyte Gulf during World War II. Graduating from the United States Naval Academy in 1909, he served on cruisers and destroyers before... The United States 7th Fleet is a naval military unit based in Yokosuka, Japan, with units positioned near South Korea and Japan. ... Shoji Nishimura ( - 1944) was a Japanese Vice Admiral who died in the Battle of Leyte Gulf. ... The Yamashiro (山城) was the Imperial Japanese Navys second Fusō-class battleship, and was laid down at the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal on November 20, 1913, launched on November 3, 1915, and commissioned on March 31, 1917. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Battle of Leyte Gulf Conflict World War II, Pacific Campaign Date 23 October 1944 – 26 October 1944 Place The Philippines Result Decisive Allied victory The Battle of Leyte Gulf was a naval battle of the Pacific Campaign of World War II, fought in the seas around the island of...


Nevertheless, the Battle off Samar on 25 October 1944 during the Battle of Leyte Gulf showed that battleships could still be useful, albeit inefficient weapons. Only the indecision of Admiral Takeo Kurita and the fight by American destroyers and destroyer escorts saved the American aircraft carriers of "Taffy 3" from being pounded to the bottom by the gunfire of Yamato, Kongō, Haruna, and Nagato and their cruiser escort. Miraculously for the Americans, only USS Gambier Bay, along with two destroyers and one destroyer escort, were lost in this action. Combatants United States Australia Empire of Japan Commanders Thomas Sprague Takeo Kurita Strength 16 escort aircraft carriers, 9 destroyers, 12 destroyer escorts, 400 aircraft 4 battleships, 6 heavy cruisers, 2 light cruisers, 11 destroyers Casualties 2 escort carriers, 2 destroyers, 1 destroyer escort sunk over 1,000 casualties 3 heavy... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Combatants  United States  Australia  Philippines Empire of Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr (3rd Fleet) Thomas C. Kinkaid (7th Fleet) Takeo Kurita (Centre Force) Shoji Nishimura â€  (Southern Force) Kiyohide Shima (Southern Force) Jisaburo Ozawa (Northern Force) Strength 17 aircraft carriers 18 escort carriers 12 battleships 24 cruisers 141 destroyers and destroyer... Categories: People stubs | 1889 births | 1977 deaths | Imperial Japanese Navy admirals | Japanese World War II people ... A Destroyer Escort (DE) is classification for a small, comparatively slower warship designed to be used to escort convoys of merchant marine ships, primarily of the United States Navy in World War II. It is usually employed primarily for anti-submarine warfare, but also some protection against aircraft and smaller... In support of the United States Navy’s Seventh Fleet during the Battle of Leyte Gulf, a prelude to the US’ invasion of the Phillippines in World War Two, Taffy (short for “Task Force”) 3 consisted of escort carriers CVE-70 USS Fanshaw Bay, CVE-73 USS Gambier Bay, CVE... Kongō (金剛, vajra or indestructible) was the Imperial Japanese Navys first super-dreadnought type battlecruiser, and the name-ship of her class, which also included the Hiei, Kirishima, and Haruna. ... Nagato (Japanese: é•·é–€, named after Nagato province) was a battleship of the Imperial Japanese Navy, the lead ship of her class. ... The USS Gambier Bay (CVE-73) was a U.S. aircraft carrier. ...


Ultimately, the maturity of air power spelled doom for the battleship. Battleships in the Pacific ended up primarily performing shore bombardment and anti-aircraft defense for the carriers. Yamato and Musashi were sunk by air attacks long before coming in gun range of the American fleet. As a result of the changing technology, plans for even larger battleships, such as the Japanese Super Yamato class, were cancelled. Musashi (武蔵), named after the ancient Japanese Musashi Province, was a battleship belonging to the Imperial Japanese Navy, and was the second and final ship of the Yamato class to be completed as a battleship. ... The Super Yamato class (超大和型戦艦) of battleships was designed to be even larger and more powerful than the Yamato class, already the largest battleships in history. ...


Aircraft carriers

Japan put particular emphasis on aircraft carriers. The Imperial Japanese Navy started the Pacific War with 10 aircraft carriers, the largest and most modern carrier fleet in the world at that time. There were seven American aircraft carriers at the beginning of the hostilities, only three of them operating in the Pacific; and three British aircraft carriers, of which a single one operated in the Indian Ocean[citation needed]. The IJN's two Shōkaku-class carriers were superior to any carrier in the world, until the wartime appearance of the American Essex-class.[40] However, a large number of the Japanese carriers were of small size, in accordance to limitations placed upon the Navy by the London and Washington Naval Conferences. Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and in most cases recover aircraft, acting as a sea... For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ... Shōkaku (Japanese: 翔鶴 shōkaku meaning flying crane) was an aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy, the lead ship of her class. ... The United States Navys Essex-class aircraft carriers constituted the Twentieth Centurys largest class of heavy warships, with 24 ships built. ...


However, following the Battle of Midway, in which four Japanese carriers were sunk, the Japanese Navy suddenly found itself short of fleet carriers (as well as trained aircrews), resulting in an ambitious set of projects to convert commercial and military vessels into escort carriers, such as the Hiyō. Another conversion project, Shinano, was based on an incomplete Yamato-class super battleship and became the largest-displacement carrier of World War II. The IJN also attempted to build a number of fleet carriers, though most of these projects were not completed by the end of the war. One exception being the Taihō, which was the first and only Japanese carrier with an armored flight deck and first to incorporate a closed hurricane bow. Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Chester W. Nimitz Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi â€  Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties 1 carrier... Hiyō (Japanese: 飛鷹 Flying Falcon) was a Hiyō-class aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Shinano (Japanese:信濃) was an aircraft carrier operated by the Imperial Japanese Navy in World War II. It was laid down as the third of five projected Yamato-class battleships. ... Taihō (大鳳) was an aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. Taihō means Great Phoenix. Built by Kawasaki, she was laid down on 10 July 1941 and launched almost two years later, on 7 April 1943, and was finally completed eleven months afterwards on 7 March 1944. ...


Naval aviation

Planes from the Japanese aircraft carrier Shokaku preparing the attack on Pearl Harbor.
Planes from the Japanese aircraft carrier Shokaku preparing the attack on Pearl Harbor.

Japan began the war with a highly competent naval air force designed around some of the best airplanes in the world: the Zero was considered the best carrier aircraft of the beginning of the war, the Mitsubishi G3M bomber was remarkable for its range and speed, and the Kawanishi H8K was world's best flying boat.[41] The Japanese pilot corps at the beginning of the war were of high caliber as compared to their contemporaries around the world due to intense training and frontline experience in the Sino-Japanese War.[42] The Navy also had a competent tactical bombing force based around the Mitsubishi G3M and G4M bombers, which astonished the world by being the first planes to sink enemy capital ships underway, claiming battleship Prince of Wales and the battlecruiser Repulse. The Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service or Dai Nippon Teikoku Kaigun Koku Hombu was a major force in the Pacific War during World War II. The Japanese military acquired their first aircraft in 1910 and followed the development of air combat during World War I with great interest. ... From U.S. Naval Historical Center Public Domain Photographs [1] Japanese naval aircraft prepare to take off from an aircraft carrier (reportedly Shokaku) to attack Pearl Harbor during the morning of 7 December 1941. ... From U.S. Naval Historical Center Public Domain Photographs [1] Japanese naval aircraft prepare to take off from an aircraft carrier (reportedly Shokaku) to attack Pearl Harbor during the morning of 7 December 1941. ... Shokaku (Japanese: 翔鶴 shōkaku meaning flying crane) was an aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy, the lead ship of her class. ... This article is about the actual attack. ... Mitsubishi A6M3 Zero wreck abandoned at Munda Airfield, Central Solomons, 1943. ... Imperial Japanese Navy bomber Mitsubishi G3M. The Mitsubishi G3M (九六式陸上攻撃機:Type 96 land-based attack aircraft; Allied reporting name Nell) was a Japanese bomber aircraft used during World War Two, mostly against the Chinese. ... The Kawanishi H8K (二式大型飛行艇, Type 2 Large Flying Boat. ... Combatants China Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Mao Zedong, Peng Dehuai Hirohito, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata, Toshizo Nishio, Yasuji Okamura, Umezu Yoshijiro, Fumimaro Konoe Strength 58,600,000 4,100,000... Mitsubishi G4M The Mitsubishi G4M (一式陸上攻撃機:Type 1 land-based attack aircraft; Allied reporting name Betty) was a twin-engined, land-based bomber aircraft used by the Imperial Japanese Navy in World War II. The bomber is nicknamed the Betty by the American military. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia Japan Commanders Sir Tom Phillips † J. C. Leach † W. G. Tennant T. A. Vigors N. Nakanishi Shichizo Miyauchi Strength 1 battleship 1 battlecruiser 4 destroyers 10 aircraft 88 aircraft (34 torpedo aircraft, 51 level bombers, 3 scouting aircraft) Casualties 1 battleship, 1 battlecruiser sunk, 840 killed... Combatants United Kingdom Australia Japan Commanders Sir Tom Phillips † J. C. Leach † W. G. Tennant T. A. Vigors N. Nakanishi Shichizo Miyauchi Strength 1 battleship 1 battlecruiser 4 destroyers 10 aircraft 88 aircraft (34 torpedo aircraft, 51 level bombers, 3 scouting aircraft) Casualties 1 battleship, 1 battlecruiser sunk, 840 killed...


As the war dragged on, the Allies found weaknesses in Japanese Naval Aviation. Though most Japanese aircraft were characterized by great operating ranges, they had very little in the way of defensive armament and armor. As a result, the more numerous, heavily armed and armored American aircraft were able to develop techniques that nullified the advantages of the Japanese aircraft. Although there were delays in engine development, several new competitive designs were developed during the war, but industrial weaknesses, lack of raw materials and disorganization due to Allied bombing raids hampered their mass-production. Furthermore, the IJN didn't have an efficient process for rapid training of aviators, as two years of training were usually considered necessary for a carrier flyer. Therefore, they weren't able to effectively replace seasoned pilots lost through attrition following their initial successes in the Pacific campaign. The IJN pilots' later inexperience was especially evident during the Battle of the Philippine Sea, when their aircraft were shot down in droves by the American naval pilots in what the Americans later called the "Great Marianas Turkey Shoot." Following the Battle of Leyte Gulf, the Japanese Navy increasingly opted towards deploying aircraft in the kamikaze role. Combatants United States Navy Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Ray Spruance Jisaburo Ozawa Kakuji Kakuta Strength 7 fleet carriers, 8 light carriers, 7 battleships, 79 other ships, 28 submarines, 956 planes 5 fleet carriers, 4 light carriers, 5 battleships, 43 other ships, 450 carrier-based planes, 300 land-based planes Casualties... The Battle of the Philippine Sea was an air-sea battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II fought between the US Navy and the Imperial Japanese Navy on June 19 and June 20, 1944, off the Mariana Islands. ... Combatants  United States  Australia  Philippines Empire of Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr (3rd Fleet) Thomas C. Kinkaid (7th Fleet) Takeo Kurita (Centre Force) Shoji Nishimura â€  (Southern Force) Kiyohide Shima (Southern Force) Jisaburo Ozawa (Northern Force) Strength 17 aircraft carriers 18 escort carriers 12 battleships 24 cruisers 141 destroyers and destroyer...

Japan's first jet-powered aircraft, the Imperial Japanese Navy's Nakajima J9Y Kikka (1945).
Japan's first jet-powered aircraft, the Imperial Japanese Navy's Nakajima J9Y Kikka (1945).

Towards the end of the conflict, several competitive plane designs were developed, such as the 1943 Shiden, but such planes were produced too late and in insufficient numbers (415 units for the Shiden) to affect the outcome of the war. Radical new plane designs were also developed, such as the canard design Shinden, and especially jet-powered aircraft such as the Nakajima Kikka and the rocket-propelled Mitsubishi J8M. These jet designs were partially based on technology received from Nazi Germany, usually in the form of a few drawings only, Kikka being based on the Messerschmitt Me 262 and the J8M on the Messerschmitt Me 163), so Japanese manufacturers had to play a key role in the final engineering. These developments also happened too late in the conflict to have any influence on the outcome. The Kikka only flew once before the end of the war.
Image File history File links Kikka. ... Image File history File links Kikka. ... The Nakajima Kikka (Japanese: 中島 橘花, Orange Blossom) was Japans first jet-powered aircraft. ... The Kawanishi N1K1-J Shiden (紫電 Violet Lightning) was a land-based version of the companys N1K Kyofu seaplane fighter aircraft. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Kyūshū J7W1 Shinden (震電, Magnificent Lightning) fighter was a World War II Japanese propeller driven aircraft that was built in a canard design. ... The Nakajima Kikka (Japanese: 中島 橘花, Orange Blossom) was Japans first jet-powered aircraft. ... This article contains information that has not been verified. ... The Messerschmitt Me 262 Schwalbe (German: Swallow) was the worlds first operational turbojet fighter aircraft. ... The Me 163 Komet, designed by Alexander Martin Lippisch, was the only operational rocket-powered fighter aircraft during the Second World War. ...


Submarines

An Imperial Japanese Navy's I-400 class submarine, the largest submarine type of World War II.

Japan had by far the most varied fleet of submarines of World War II, including manned torpedoes (Kaiten), midget submarines (Ko-hyoteki, Kairyu), medium-range submarines, purpose-built supply submarines (many for use by the Army), long-range fleet submarines (many of which carried an aircraft), submarines with the highest submerged speeds of the conflict (Senkou I-200), and submarines that could carry multiple bombers (World War II's largest submarine, the Sentoku I-400). These submarines were also equipped with the most advanced torpedo of the conflict, the Type 95 torpedo, a 21" (533 mm) version of the famous 24" (61cm) Type 91. Download high resolution version (839x451, 78 KB)I-400 in 1945. ... Download high resolution version (839x451, 78 KB)I-400 in 1945. ... The Sen Toku I-400 class (伊四〇〇型潜水艦) submarines of the Imperial Japanese Navy were the largest submarines of WW2, the largest non-nuclear submarines ever constructed, and the largest in the world until the development of nuclear ballistic submarines in the 1960s. ... Imperial Japanese Navy submarines originate with the purchase of five Holland type submarines to the United States in 1905. ... USS Los Angeles A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate underwater. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Kaiten (Japanese:回天, translated Change the World or Reverse the Destiny) was a torpedo modified as a suicide weapon, and used by the Imperial Japanese Navy in the final stages of the Second World War. ... The Ko-hyoteki (甲標的, Type A Target) class of Japanese midget submarines had hull numbers but no names. ... The Kairyu (海龍 Sea Dragon) was a class of Kamikaze midget submarines designed in 1943-1944, and produced from the beginning of 1945. ... The Sensuikan I-200 class submarines were submarines of the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. These submarines were modern design, and known as Senkou (From Sen, abbreviation of Sensuikan, Submarine, and kou, Fast). Three of them were made, with the numbers I-201, I-202 and I-203... The Sen Toku I-400 class (伊四〇〇型潜水艦) submarines of the Imperial Japanese Navy were the largest submarines of WW2, the largest non-nuclear submarines ever constructed, and the largest in the world until the development of nuclear ballistic submarines in the 1960s. ...


A plane from one such long-range fleet submarine, I-25, conducted what is still the only aerial bombing attack on the continental United States when Warrant Flying Officer Nobuo Fujita attempted to start massive forest fires in the Pacific Northwest outside the town of Brookings, Oregon on September 9th, 1942. Other submarines undertook trans-oceanic missions to German-occupied Europe, such as I-30, I-8, I-34, I-29 and I-52, in one case flying a Japanese seaplane over France in a propaganda coup.[43] In May 1942, Type A midget submarines were used in the Attack on Sydney Harbour, and the Battle of Madagascar. I-25 (Jp:イ-25) was a B1-Type (I-15 Class) submarine of the Imperial Japanese Navy that served in World War II and took part in the Attack on Pearl Harbor. ... Nobuo Fujita Nobuo Fujita (1911 - September 30, 1997) (Jp:藤田信雄) was a Warrant Flying Officer of the Imperial Japanese Navy who flew a floatplane from a long-range submarine aircraft carrier, the I-25, and conducted the only wartime airplane-dropped bombing on the continental United States. ... Brookings is a city located in Curry County, Oregon. ... I-30 was an Imperial Japanese Navy submarine of the B2 class, during World War II. She participated to the Yanagi mission, aimed at connecting Japan and Nazy Germany by submarine during the conflict. ... The Japanese submarine I-8 was a World War II Junsen Type J-3 Imperial Japanese Navy submarine, famous for completing a technology exchange mission to German-occupied France and back to Japan in 1943. ... I-34 was a Kaidai Junsen Type B1 class submarine of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... I-29, code-named Matsu (松, Japanese for pine tree), was a B1 type submarine of the Imperial Japanese Navy used during World War II on two secret missions with Germany, during one of which she was sunk. ... I-52, code-named Momi (樅, Japanese for evergreen or fir tree) was a Type C-3 cargo submarine of the Imperial Japanese Navy used during World War II for a secret mission to Lorient, France then occupied by Germany, during which she was sunk. ... A DeHavilland Single Otter floatplane in Harbour Air livery. ... The Ko-hyoteki (甲標的, Type A Target) class of Japanese midget submarines had hull numbers but no names. ... Combatants Australia, United States, United Kingdom, Netherlands. ... Combatants United Kingdom South Africa Vichy France Empire of Japan Commanders Robert Sturges Armand Léon Annet Strength 10,000-15,000 (land forces) 8,000 (land forces)[1] Casualties 107 killed in action; 280 wounded;[2] 620 casualties in total (including deaths from disease) 150 killed in action; 500...

Submarine I-8 in Brest, France in 1943.
Submarine I-8 in Brest, France in 1943.

Overall, despite their technical prowesses, Japanese submarines were relatively unsuccessful. They were often used in offensive roles against warships (per Mahanian doctrine), which were fast, maneuverable and well-defended compared to merchant ships. In 1942, Japanese submarines managed to sink two fleet carriers, one cruiser, and a few destroyers and other warships, and damage several others. They were not able to sustain these results afterwards, as Allied fleets were reinforced and started using better anti-submarine tactics. By the end of the war, submarines were instead often used to transport supplies to island garrisons. During the war, Japan managed to sink about 1 million tons of merchant shipping (184 ships), compared to 1.5 million tons for Britain (493 ships), 4.65 million tons for the US (1079 ships)[44] and 14.3 million tons for Germany (2840 ships). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1174x831, 634 KB) Summary Japanese submarine I-8 in Brest. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1174x831, 634 KB) Summary Japanese submarine I-8 in Brest. ... The Japanese submarine I-8 was a World War II Junsen Type J-3 Imperial Japanese Navy submarine, famous for completing a technology exchange mission to German-occupied France and back to Japan in 1943. ... Brest is a city in Brittany, or the Bretagne région, north-west France, sous-préfecture of the Finistère département. ...


Early models were not very maneuverable under water, could not dive very deep, and lacked radar. Later in the war, units fitted with radar were in some instances sunk due to the ability of US radar sets to detect their emissions. For example, Batfish (SS-310) sank three such in the span of four days. After the end of the conflict, several of Japan's most original submarines were sent to Hawaii for inspection in "Operation Road's End" (I-400, I-401, I-201 and I-203) before being scuttled by the U.S. Navy in 1946 when the Soviets demanded access to the submarines as well. For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... USS Batfish (SS/AGSS-310), a Balao-class submarine, was the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for the batfish, any of several fishes; a pediculate fish of the West Indies, the flying gurnard of the Atlantic, or a California sting ray. ... The Sen Toku I-400 class (伊四〇〇型潜水艦) submarines of the Imperial Japanese Navy were the largest submarines of WW2, the largest non-nuclear submarines ever constructed, and the largest in the world until the development of nuclear ballistic submarines in the 1960s. ... The Sensuikan I-200 class submarines were submarines of the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. These submarines were modern design, and known as Senkou (From Sen, abbreviation of Sensuikan, Submarine, and kou, Fast). Three of them were made, with the numbers I-201, I-202 and I-203...


Special Attack Units

A kamikaze Mitsubishi Zero, about to hit the USS Missouri.
A kamikaze Mitsubishi Zero, about to hit the USS Missouri.

At the end of the Second World War, numerous Special Attack Units (Japanese: 特別攻撃隊, tokubetsu kōgeki tai, also abbreviated to 特攻隊, tokkōtai) were developed for suicide missions, in a desperate move to compensate for the annihilation of the main fleet. These units included Kamikaze ("Divine Wind") bombers, Shinyo ("Sea Quake") suicide boats, Kairyu ("Sea Dragon") suicide midget submarines, Kaiten ("Turn of Heaven") suicide torpedoes, and Fukuryu ("Crouching Dragon") suicide scuba divers who would swim under boats and use explosives mounted on bamboo poles to destroy both the boat and themselves. Kamikaze planes were particularly effective during the defense of Okinawa, in which 1465 planes were expended to damage around 250 American warships. Download high resolution version (800x649, 88 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Download high resolution version (800x649, 88 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... USS Bunker Hill was hit by Ogawa (see picture left) and another kamikaze near KyÅ«shÅ« on May 11, 1945. ... Mitsubishi A6M3 Zero wreck abandoned at Munda Airfield, Central Solomons, 1943. ... Radars: AN/SPS-49 Air Search Radar AN/SPS-67 Surface Search Radar Fire control: 4 × Mk 37 Gun Fire Control 2 × Mk 38 Gun Director 1 × Mk 40 Gun Director EW: AN/SLQ-32 Other: AN/SLQ-25 NIXIE Decoy System 8 × Super Rapid Bloom Rocket Launchers (SRBOC) Armor... During the Second World War, Japanese Special Attack Units were specialized units normally used for suicide missions. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... During the Second World War, Japanese Special Attack Units were specialized units normally used for suicide missions. ... USS Bunker Hill was hit by Ogawa (see picture left) and another kamikaze near KyÅ«shÅ« on May 11, 1945. ... Japanese Shinyo suicide boat, 1945 A Shinyo under way, being tested by an American soldier. ... The Kairyu (海龍 Sea Dragon) was a class of Kamikaze midget submarines designed in 1943-1944, and produced from the beginning of 1945. ... A midget submarine is a small submarine, typically with one or two crew and no on-board living accommodation. ... The Kaiten (Japanese:回天, translated Change the World or Reverse the Destiny) was a torpedo modified as a suicide weapon, and used by the Imperial Japanese Navy in the final stages of the Second World War. ... A modern torpedo, historically called a self propelled torpedo, is a self-propelled guided projectile that (after being launched above or below the water surface) operates underwater and is designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ... During the Second World War, Japanese Special Attack Units were specialized units normally used for suicide missions. ... This article is about the prefecture. ...


A considerable number of Special Attack Units were built and stored in coastal hideouts for the desperate defense of the Home islands, with the potential to destroy or damage thousands of enemy warships.


Self-Defense Forces

Japanese Sailors beside the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) training vessel JDS Kashima, in Pearl Harbor, May 4, 2004.
Japanese Sailors beside the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) training vessel JDS Kashima, in Pearl Harbor, May 4, 2004.

Following Japan's surrender to the Allies at the conclusion of World War II, and Japan's subsequent occupation, Japan's entire imperial military was dissolved in the new 1947 constitution which states, "The Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the nation and the threat or use of force as a means of settling international disputes." Japan's current navy falls under the umbrella of the Japan Self-Defense Forces (JSDF) as the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF).
Download high resolution version (1200x787, 291 KB)Pearl Harbor, Hawaii (May 4, 2004) - Japanese Sailors aboard the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) training vessel JDS Kashima (TV 3508) stand in ranks after docking in Pearl Harbor. ... Download high resolution version (1200x787, 291 KB)Pearl Harbor, Hawaii (May 4, 2004) - Japanese Sailors aboard the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) training vessel JDS Kashima (TV 3508) stand in ranks after docking in Pearl Harbor. ... The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force ), or JMSDF, is the maritime branch of the Japanese Self-Defense Forces, tasked with the naval defense of Japan and formed following the dissolution of the Imperial Japanese Navy after World War II.[1] The force is based strictly on defensive armament, largely lacking... This article is about the harbor in Hawaii. ... The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force ), or JMSDF, is the maritime branch of the Japanese Self-Defense Forces, tasked with the naval defense of Japan and formed following the dissolution of the Imperial Japanese Navy after World War II.[1] The force is based strictly on defensive armament, largely lacking... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Japan Self-Defense Forces ), or JSDF, are the military forces in Japan that were established after the end of World War II. The force has not been engaged in real combat but has been engaged in some international peacekeeping operations. ... The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force ), or JMSDF, is the maritime branch of the Japanese Self-Defense Forces, tasked with the naval defense of Japan and formed following the dissolution of the Imperial Japanese Navy after World War II.[1] The force is based strictly on defensive armament, largely lacking...

Image File history File links Naval_Ensign_of_Japan. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Boshin War (1868-1869): Naval Battle of Hakodate (Imperial Navy victory over the remnants of the Shoguns Navy of the Republic of Ezo. ... The following is the list of ships of the Imperial Japanese Navy and the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force. ... This is the list of aircrafts of the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service and the Japan Self-Defense Forces, including ones in the past and ones in the present time. ... This is a list of the weapons of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ...

References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Imperial Japanese Navy
  • Boxer, C.R. (1993) "The Christian Century in Japan 1549–1650", ISBN 1-85754-035-2
  • D'Albas, Andrieu (1965). Death of a Navy: Japanese Naval Action in World War II. Devin-Adair Pub. ISBN 0-8159-5302-X. 
  • Delorme, Pierre, Les Grandes Batailles de l'Histoire, Port-Arthur 1904, Socomer Editions (French)
  • Dull, Paul S. (1978) A Battle History of The Imperial Japanese Navy ISBN 0-85059-295-X
  • Evans, David C & Peattie, Mark R. (1997) Kaigun: strategy, tactics, and technology in the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1887–1941 Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Maryland ISBN 0-87021-192-7
  • Gardiner, Robert (editor) (2001) Steam, Steel and Shellfire, The Steam Warship 1815–1905, ISBN 0-7858-1413-2
  • Hara, Tameichi (1961). Japanese Destroyer Captain. New York & Toronto: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-27894-1. 
  • Howe, Christopher (1996) The origins of Japanese Trade Supremacy, Development and technology in Asia from 1540 to the Pacific War, The University of Chicago Press ISBN 0-226-35485-7
  • Ireland, Bernard (1996) Jane's Battleships of the 20th Century ISBN 0-00-470997-7
  • Lacroix, Eric; Linton Wells (1997). Japanese Cruisers of the Pacific War. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-311-3. 
  • Lyon, D.J. (1976) World War II warships, Excalibur Books ISBN 0-85613-220-9
  • Nagazumi, Yōko (永積洋子) Red Seal Ships (朱印船), ISBN 4-642-06659-4 (Japanese)
  • Seki, Eiji (2007). Sinking of the SS Automedon And the Role of the Japanese Navy: A New Interpretation. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 1905246285. 
  • Tōgō Shrine and Tōgō Association (東郷神社・東郷会), Togo Heihachiro in images, illustrated Meiji Navy (図説東郷平八郎、目で見る明治の海軍), (Japanese)
  • Japanese submarines 潜水艦大作戦, Jinbutsu publishing (新人物従来社) (Japanese)

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Tameichi Hara Tameichi Hara (原 為一 Hara Tameichi 1900—?) was an Imperial Japanese naval commander during the Pacific War and the author of the IJN manual on torpedo attack techniques, famous for his high skill (particularly in torpedo warfare and night fighting). ... Ballantine Books, founded in 1952 by Ian Ballantine, is a major book publisher and is currently owned by Random House. ...

See also

Imperial Japanese Military
Administration
Imperial General Headquarters
Components
Navy Imperial Japanese Navy
(Dai Nippon Teikoku Kaigun)
        Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service
    Major battles
    List of ships
    List of aircraft
    Main admirals
Imperial Japanese Army
(Dai Nippon Teikoku Rikugun)
        Imperial Japanese Army Air Service
        Railways and Shipping Section
    Uniforms
Rank insignia
Naval rank insignia
Army rank insignia
History of the Japanese Military
Military History of Japan during World War II
ORIGINAL COMPOSITION OF THE IMPERIAL JAPANESE NAVY
(July 1869-February 1871)
ORIGIN: WARSHIPS: ORIGIN: WARSHIPS:
Former
Shogunal
Navy
Kōtetsu 甲鉄 Chōshū Daiichi Teibō 第一丁卯
Chiyodagata 千代田形 Daini Teibō 第二丁卯
Fujisan 富士山 Unyō 雲揚
Transports:
Hijun
Hiryū
Kaifū
Chōgei

飛隼
飛竜
快風
長鯨
Hōshō 鳳翔
Satsuma Kasuga 春日 Higo Ryūjō りゅうじょう
Kenkō 乾行 Others Transports:
2 units
Saga Nisshin 日進 Later
acquisitions
(before 1871)
Tsukuba 筑波
Mōshun 孟春 Transports:
3 units
Source: "Togo Heihachiro and the Meiji Navy"

Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... The Imperial General Headquarters or Daihonei, as part of the Supreme War Council was the supreme command for Japanese military forces during the World War II era. ... Image File history File links Naval_Ensign_of_Japan. ... The Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service or Dai Nippon Teikoku Kaigun Koku Hombu was a major force in the Pacific War during World War II. The Japanese military acquired their first aircraft in 1910 and followed the development of air combat during World War I with great interest. ... Boshin War (1868-1869): Naval Battle of Hakodate (Imperial Navy victory over the remnants of the Shoguns Navy of the Republic of Ezo. ... The following is the list of ships of the Imperial Japanese Navy and the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force. ... This is the list of aircrafts of the Imperial Japanese Navy and the Japan Self-Defence Forces, including ones in the past and ones in the present time. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun) was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... The Imperial Japanese Army Air Service, or more traditionally called the Japanese Army Air Force (陸軍航空本部 Rikugun Kōkū Hombu), was Imperial Japans land-based aviation force. ... The Imperial Japanese Army Railway and Shipping Section was the logistics unit of the Imperial Japanese Army charged with shipping personnel, materiel and equipment from metropolitan Japan to the combat front overseas. ... Imperial Japanese Army Uniforms tended to reflect the uniforms of those countries who were the principal advisors to the Imperial Japanese Army at the that time. ... The following graphs present the rank insignia of the Japanese navy during World War II. These designs had been used between the years 1931 to 1945, but were discontinued after World War II, when the Imperial navy had been dissolved. ... The following graphs present the rank insignia of the Japanese military during World War II. These designs had been used between the years 1938 to 1945, but were discontinued after World War II, when the Imperial military had been dissolved. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The naval history of Japan traces back to early interactions with states on the Asian continent at the beginning of the medieval period, and reached a peak of activity during the 16th and 17th century at a time of cultural exchange with European powers during the Nanban trade period. ... The Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation Bureau of the Ministry of the Navy of Japan was responsible for the development and training of the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service. ... The Imperial Japanese Army Giretsu special forces unit was active in 1944 and 1945. ... The Japanese Special Naval Landing Forces (SNLF), (海軍陸戦隊 Kaigun Rikusentai) were the marine troops of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) and were only part of the IJN Land Forces. ... Imperial Japanese Navy Land Forces are decended from the original Special Naval Landing Forces and consisted of the following: Special Naval Landing Force or Rikusentai or kaigun rikusentai - the Japanese Marines The Base Force or Tokabetsu Konkyochitai - provided services to naval facilities The Defense Units or Bobitai or Boei-han... If a List of Imperial Japanese Navy Armor Units,such units was equipped with Type 95 Ha-Go Light Tank,Type 97 Chi-Ha Medium Tank and Type 2 Ka-Mi Amphibious Tank. ... The Tokeitai (Naval Secret Police) was the Imperial Japanese Navys police equivalent to the Imperial Japanese Armys Kempeitai military police service. ... While other navies used highly refined burner oil, in the last stages of World War II the Imperial Japanese Navy was directly using high quality crude oil obtained from the captured East Indian colonial possessions of the Netherlands and France. ... This is a list of ships and Warvessels Engines of Imperial Japanese Navy of World War Two. ... In the years after the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-5, strategic thinking in the Japanese military was largely divided between the priority of mainland Asia (see North Strike group), and the southern, Pacific Ocean direction. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Fleet Faction was a group within the Imperial Japanese Navy of the 1920s times, who wanted unlimited naval growth to build the mightiest navy on the face of the earth; thus to challenge the supremacy of powers such as the United States and Russia. ... The Treaty Faction in the Imperial Japanese Navy of the 1920s realized the Japanese economy could not support a large naval expansion. ... The May 15 incident (五・一五事件 Go-ichigo jiken) of 15 May 1932, was the assassination of then-Prime Minister of Japan Inukai Tsuyoshi. ... Kyokujitsu-ki, the Flag of Imperial Japan, symbol of the Imperial Way Faction, before and during their government administrative period. ... Japanese nationalism, also known as Japanese imperialism or Japanese nationalist ideology is a generic title, referring to a complex series of patriotic and nationalist ideas held in Japan. ... The Japanese Navy Taiwan and South Pacific Mandate political project Japanese Navy theorists created in Taiwan and South Pacific Mandateduring the 1930s and 1940s,your proper own political project. ... The Imperial Rescript to Soldiers and Sailors ) was issued by Emperor Meiji of Japan on 4 January 1882. ... The Imperial Japanese Naval Academy ) was a school established to train officers for the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Fleet Admiral ) was the highest rank in the prewar Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Marshal ) (also frequently translated as (Field marshal) was the highest rank in the prewar Imperial Japanese Military, especially the Imperial Japanese Army. ... Kōtetsu literally Ironclad), later renamed Azuma East)) was the first ironclad warship of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Download high resolution version (690x652, 94 KB)CSS Stonewall (later Japanese battleship Kotetsu) in the Washington Navy Yard c. ... Chōshū Han ) was a feudal Domain of Japan during the Edo period from 1603 to 1867 occupying the whole of modern day Yamaguchi Prefecture. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Chiyodagata (Jp:千代田形) was a gunboat of the Tokugawa Navy, and Japans first domestically-built steamboat. ... Image File history File links Chiyodagata. ... Teibo (第二丁卯) The Japanese warship Teibo (第二丁卯) was a ship of governmental forces during the Boshin war. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Fujisan (Japanese:富士山). The Fujisan (Japanese:富士山), was a steam frigate of the Bakufu Navy. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Japanese gunboat Unyo. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Chogei Chogei (長鯨) was a transportation ship belonging to the troops faithfull to the Shogun during Japans Boshin War. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The Hōshō. The Hōshō (Japanese:鳳翔, meaning flying phoenix) was a steam warship of the Choshu Province during the Bakumatsu and early Meiji period in Japan. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Satsuma (薩摩国; -no Kuni) was an old province of Japan that is now the western half of Kagoshima prefecture on the island of Kyushu. ... The Japanese warship Kasuga (JPN: 春日) was built in 1862 (or possibly 1863) in Great Britain under the name Kiangsu (after the area of Jiangsu in China). ... Japanese warship Kasuga (1862). ... The article incorporates text from OpenHistory. ... The Ryūjō (Jp: 龍驤) was a steam ironclad warship of the Imperial Japanese Navy, designed by Thomas Glover and built in Scotland for the private navy of the fief of Kumamoto, where it was called the Jo Sho Maru. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 397 pixelsFull resolution (947 × 470 pixel, file size: 412 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Japanese ironclad warship Ryujo File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Saga Prefecture ) is located in the northwest part of the island of Kyūshū, Japan. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Moshun (孟春). The Japanese warship Moshun (孟春) was a warship of the Imperial forces during the Boshin war in Japan in 1868. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Evans, Kaigun
  2. ^ THE FIRST IRONCLADS In Japanese: [1], [2]. Also in English: [3]: "Iron clad ships, however, were not new to Japan and Hideyoshi; Oda Nobunaga, in fact, had many iron clad ships in his fleet." (referring to the anteriority of Japanese ironclads (1578) to the Korean Turtle ships (1592)). In Western sources, Japanese ironclads are described in CR Boxer "The Christian Century in Japan 1549–1650", p122, quoting the account of the Italian Jesuit Organtino visiting Japan in 1578. Nobunaga's ironclad fleet is also described in "A History of Japan, 1334–1615", Georges Samson, p309 ISBN 0-8047-0525-9. Korea's "ironclad Turtle ships" were invented by Admiral Yi Sun-sin (1545–1598), and are first documented in 1592. Incidentally, Korea's iron plates only covered the roof (to prevent intrusion), and not the sides of their ships. The first Western ironclads date to 1859 with the French Gloire ("Steam, Steel and Shellfire").
  3. ^ Source
  4. ^ Described in "Soie et Lumiere", in a parallel to the French Military Mission to Japan (1867-1868) for the Army.
  5. ^ "Togo Heihachiro", II
  6. ^ "Togo Heiachiro", I7
  7. ^ "Togo Heihachiro", II
  8. ^ "Togo Heihachiro", II
  9. ^ Source
  10. ^ Howe, p281
  11. ^ Peattie & Evans, Kaigun, p17
  12. ^ "Her armament of twelve quick-firing guns was formidable for her size, and her 23 knot (43 km/h) speed made her the fastest cruiser in the world"ibid.
  13. ^ Chiyoda (II): First Armoured Cruiser of the Imperial Japanese Navy, Kathrin Milanovich, Warship 2006, Conway Maritime Press, 2006, ISBN 1-01844-86030-2
  14. ^ Source
  15. ^ Video footage of the Sino-Japanese war: Video (external link).
    • IJN Naval battle

      Video footage of a naval battle during the First Sino-Japanese war (1894)


      This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The turtle ship (also known as Geobukseon or Kobukson by its Korean name) was a large warship belonging to the Panokseon class in Korea that was used under the Joseon Dynasty between the 15th century and 18th century. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The French Navys La Gloire (Glory) was the first ocean-going ironclad warship in history. ... The French military mission before its departure to Japan, in 1866. ... Image File history File links Naval_battle. ... Image File history File links Naval_battle. ... Combatants Qing Empire (China) Empire of Japan Commanders Li Hongzhang Yamagata Aritomo Strength 630,000 men Beiyang Army Beiyang Fleet 240,000 men Imperial Japanese Army Imperial Japanese Navy Casualties 35,000 dead or wounded 13,823 dead, 3,973 wounded The First Sino-Japanese War (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese...

    • Problems seeing the videos? See media help.
  16. ^ Evans Kaigun, p60-61
  17. ^ Corbett Maritime Operations in the Russo-Japanese War, 2:333
  18. ^ Howe, p284
  19. ^ Howe, p268
  20. ^ Evans, Kaigun, p84
  21. ^ "Laid down before Dreadnought and intended to carry 12 inch (305 mm) guns, she should have been completed as the world's first all-big-gun battleship. However, there were not enough Armstrong 1904 pattern 12 inch guns available, and 10 inch (254 mm) guns|had to be substituted for all but four of the weapons. Thus it was that future all-big gun battleships were to be called "dreadnoughts", and not "satsumas"." Jane's "Battleships of the 20th Century", p68
  22. ^ Wakamiya is "credited with conducting the first successful carrier air raid in history"Source:GlobalSecurity.org
  23. ^ "Sabre et pinceau", Christian Polak, p92
  24. ^ [4]
  25. ^ Peattie and Evans, Kaigun, p.161
  26. ^ Evans, Kaigun, p212
  27. ^ Lyon World War II warships p34
  28. ^ Peattie & Evans, Kaigun.
  29. ^ Miller, Edward S. War Plan Orange. Annapolis, MD: United States Naval Institute Press, 1991.
  30. ^ Mahan, Alfred T. Influence of Seapower on History, 1660-1783. Boston: Little, Brown.
  31. ^ Miller, op. cit.
  32. ^ Peattie & Evans, op. cit., and Willmott, H. P.,The Barrier and the Javelin. Annapolis, MD: United States Naval Institute Press, 1983.
  33. ^ "The Imperial Japanese Navy was a pioneer in naval aviation, having commissioned the world's first built-from-the-keel-up carrier, the Hosho." Source.
  34. ^ Fitzsimons, Bernard, ed. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of 20th Century Weapons and Warfare (London: Phoebus, 1978), Volum3 10, p.1041, "Fubuki".
  35. ^ Westwood, Fighting Ships
  36. ^ Source
  37. ^ Lyon World War II warships p35
  38. ^ Howe, p286
  39. ^ Parillo, Mark. Japanese Merchant Marine in World War II. Annapolis, MD: United States Naval Institute Press, 1993.
  40. ^ "In many ways the Japanese were in the forefront of carrier design, and in 1941, the two Shōkakus — the culmination of prewar Japanese design — were superior to any carrier in the world then in commission" Evans, Kaigun p323
  41. ^ "For speed and maneuverability, for example the Zero was matchless; for range and speed few bombers surpassed the Mitsubishi G3M, and in the Kawanishi H8K, the Japanese navy had the world's best flying boat" Evans, Kaigun, p312
  42. ^ "by 1941, by training and experience, Japan's naval aviators were undoubtedly the best among the world's three carrier forces" Evans, Kaigun, p325
  43. ^ Japanese submarines, p70
  44. ^ Tonnage Sunk, Pacific 1941 - 1945

External links



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