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Encyclopedia > Imperial Japanese Army
Imperial Japanese Army (IJA)
大日本帝國陸軍
Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun

Flag of Japan and flag of Imperial Japanese Army
Active 1867–1945
Country Empire of Japan
Allegiance Empire of Japan
Type Army
Battles/wars Sino-Japanese War, Russo-Japanese War, World War I, World War II
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Kotohito Kan'in, Hajime Sugiyama, Hideki Tojo, Yasuji Okamura, Shunroku Hata, Tadamichi Kuribayashi, Tomoyuki Yamashita, Masaharu Homma

The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: 大日本帝国陸軍, Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun), or more officially Army of the Greater Japanese Empire was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. It was controlled by the Imperial Army General Staff Office and the Ministry of War, both of which were nominally subordinate to the emperor as supreme commander of the army and the navy. Later an Inspectorate General of Military (Army) Aviation, became the third agency with oversight over the army. During wartime or national emergencies, the nominal command functions of the emperor would be centralized in an Imperial General Headquarters (IGHQ), an ad-hoc body consisting of the chief and vice chief of the Army General Staff, the minister of war, the chief and vice chief of the Naval General Staff, the inspector general of military aviation, and the inspector general of military training. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... The national flag of Japan, known as Nisshōki (日章旗 sun flag) or Hinomaru (日の丸 sun disc) in Japanese, is a base white flag with a large red disc (representing the rising sun) in the center. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister (many other Prime Ministers preceded the below list)  - 1916–1918 Count Masatake Terauchi  - 1937-1939, 1940-1941 Prince Fumimaro Konoe  - 1941–1944 Hideki... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Combatants Qing Empire (China) Empire of Japan Commanders Li Hongzhang Yamagata Aritomo Strength 630,000 men Beiyang Army Beiyang Fleet 240,000 men Imperial Japanese Army Imperial Japanese Navy Casualties 35,000 dead or wounded 13,823 dead, 3,973 wounded The First Sino-Japanese War (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese... Combatants Russian Empire Montenegro[1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: , Chinese: , February 10, 1904 – September 5, 1905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... His Imperial Highness Prince Kanin (Kotohito) of Japan (Kanin-no-miya Kotohito Shinnō) (10 November 1865 - 21 May 1945), was a member of the Japanese imperial family and a career army officer who served as chief of staff of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1931 to 1940. ... Hajime Sugiyama (Sujiyama; 1880—September 12, 1945) was a chief of the Japanese General Staff, Inspector-General of military training, minister of war and a Commander-in-Chief of the 1st General Army during World War II. In 1941 Sugiyama confidently told Emperor Hirohito that Japanese operations in the South... Hideki Tojo (KyÅ«jitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;  ) (December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 18, 1941 to July 22, 1944. ... General Yasuji Okamura (1884-1966) Yasuji Okamura was a Japanese General, commanding 2nd Division at the begining of the Second Sino-Japanese War. ... Hata Shuroku (born July 26, 1879 - died May 10, 1962), was a Japanese general during World War II. Military career 2nd Lt (Artillery), June 1901 Graduated from War College with top scholarly rank, November 1910 Army General Staff, December 1910 Military student, Germany, March 1912 Major, July 1914; official duty... Tadamichi Kuribayashi (Japanese: 栗林忠道 Kuribayashi Tadamichi) (July 7, 1891 in Nagano prefecture, Japan - March 23, 1945 on Iwo Jima, Japan) was a Lieutenant General in the Imperial Japanese Army, best known as overall commander of the Japanese garrison during most of the Battle of Iwo Jima in World War II. Assigned... Tomoyuki Yamashita, 1945 General Tomoyuki Yamashita (山下 奉文 Yamashita Tomoyuki) (November 8, 1885 – February 23, 1946) was a general of the Japanese Army during the World War II era. ... Masaharu Homma (本間雅晴 Honma Masaharu, 1888 in Sado, Niigata Prefecture, Japan - April 3, 1946 in Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines, also known as the Poet General, was the Japanese General in charge of the troops and actions that created the Bataan death march in Philippines during 1942 and the bombing of... Look up KyÅ«jitai in Wiktionary, the free dictionary KyÅ«jitai (旧字体, きゅうじたい) is the traditional form of the Japanese kanji used before 1947. ... Shinjitai (in Shinjitai: ; in KyÅ«jitai: æ–°å­—é«”; meaning new character form), are the forms of Kanji used in Japan since the promulgation of the Tōyō Kanji List in 1946. ... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Romaji ローマ字 The title given to this article lacks diacritics because of certain technical limitations. ... The ensign of Imperial Japanese Navy was a prominent symbol of Imperial Japan. ... The Imperial Army General Staff Office of Japan ), also called the Army General Staff Office, was one of the four principal agencies charged with overseeing the Imperial Japanese Army. ... The Ministry of War of Japan (陸軍省 Rikugun shó) was established in the late 19th century, alongside many other Ministries, as part of the creation of the first modern Japanese government. ... For the CPR ocean liner, see Empress of Japan. ... The Imperial General Headquarters or Daihonei, as part of the Supreme War Council was the supreme command for Japanese military forces during the World War II era. ...

Contents

History

Foundation

Training of the Shogunate troops by the first French Military Mission to Japan in 1867, just before the Boshin war (1868-1869) which led to the Meiji restoration.
Training of the Shogunate troops by the first French Military Mission to Japan in 1867, just before the Boshin war (1868-1869) which led to the Meiji restoration.

During the Meiji Restoration, the military forces loyal to the Emperor were samurai drawn primarily from the loyalist feudal domains of Satsuma and Chōshū. After the successful overthrow of the Tokugawa Shogunate (bakufu) and establishment of the new Meiji government modeled on European lines, a more formal military, loyal to the central government rather than individual domains, was recognized as a necessity to preserve Japan’s independence from western imperialism. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1162x409, 375 KB) Summary Training of Japanese Bakufu troops by the French Military Mission to Japan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1162x409, 375 KB) Summary Training of Japanese Bakufu troops by the French Military Mission to Japan. ... The French military mission before its departure to Japan, in 1866. ... Combatants Imperial faction: Satsuma, ChōshÅ«, Tosa Tokugawa Shogunate Commanders Ruler: Meiji Emperor, CIC: Saigō Takamori, Army: Kuroda Kiyotaka Shogunate: Ruler: Tokugawa Yoshinobu, Army: Katsu Kaishu, Navy: Enomoto Takeaki, Ezo Republic: President:Enomoto Takeaki, CIC: Otori Keisuke, Navy: Arai Ikunosuke Casualties ~1,000 killed ~2,000 killed Campaign map of... The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ... The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ... Emperor Meiji ) (November 3, 1852 — July 30, 1912) was the 122nd emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from February 3, 1867 until his death. ... For other uses, see Samurai (disambiguation). ... Daimyo Matsudaira Katamori visits the residence of a retainer. ... Satsuma is the name of a town in Japan, Satsuma, Kagoshima, the surrounding district, Satsuma District, Kagoshima, the former province, Satsuma Province, which is now the western half of Kagoshima Prefecture on the island of Kyushu, a revolt, the Satsuma Rebellion. ... ChōshÅ« may refer to any of the following: Nagato Province ) in Japan ChōshÅ« Domain ) in Japan The wrestler Riki Choshu ) Category: ... The Tokugawa shogunate or Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) (also known as the Edo bakufu) was a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. ... Emperor Mutsuhito Mutsuhito or Mitsuhito (睦仁), the Meiji Emperor (明治天皇, literally wise ruling heaven emperor) (3 November 1852–30 July 1912) was the 122nd Emperor of Japan. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ...


This central army, the "Imperial Japanese Army" (IJA), became even more essential after the abolition of the feudal domains in 1871. To reform the military, the government instituted nationwide conscription in 1873, mandating that every male serve in the armed forces for 3 years upon turning twenty-one. One of the primary differences between the samurai and peasant class was the right to bear arms; this ancient privilege was suddenly extended to every male in the nation. Occurring in 1871, the abolition of the han system and establishment of the prefecture system (廃藩置県, haihan-chiken; hai abolish + han + chi set down + ken prefecture) was an act to replace the traditional han system and introduce new local government. ...

Soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army in 1875.
Soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army in 1875.

In 1874, the Taiwan expedition was the first foray abroad of the new Imperial Japanese Navy and the Imperial Japanese Army. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 440 pixelsFull resolution (876 × 482 pixel, file size: 328 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Japanese soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army, 1875. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 440 pixelsFull resolution (876 × 482 pixel, file size: 328 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Japanese soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army, 1875. ... Combatants Paiwan tribes Empire of Japan Commanders Paiwan tribal leaders Saigō Tsugumichi Strength Paiwan Tribesmen: ? Japanese: 3,600 Casualties Killed: 30 Wounded: ? Killed: 12 Wounded: ? Diseased: 531 The Taiwan Expedition of 1874 (Japanese: Taiwan Shuppei: 台湾出兵. In Taiwan, the expedition is referred to as the Mudan incident. ... For Combined Fleet, please see that article. ...


Foreign assistance

Main article: Boshin War

The early Imperial Japanese Army was essentially developed with the assistance of French advisors, through the second French Military Mission to Japan (1872-1880), and the third French Military Mission to Japan (1884-1889). However, due to the German victory in the Franco-Prussian War, the Japanese government also relied on Prussia as a model for their army, and hired two German military advisors (Major Jakob Meckel, replaced in 1888 by von Wildenbrück and Captain von Blankenbourg) for the training of the Japanese General Staff from 1886 to April 1890: the Imperial Army General Staff Office, created after the Prussian Generalstab, was established directly under the Emperor in 1878 and was given broad powers for military planning and strategy. Other known foreign military consultants were the Italian Major Pompeo Grillo, who worked at the Osaka foundry from 1884 to 1888, followed by Major Quaratezi from 1889 to 1890, and the Dutch Captain Schermbeck, who worked on improving coastal defenses from 1883 to 1886. Combatants Imperial faction: Satsuma, ChōshÅ«, Tosa Tokugawa Shogunate Commanders Ruler: Meiji Emperor, CIC: Saigō Takamori, Army: Kuroda Kiyotaka Shogunate: Ruler: Tokugawa Yoshinobu, Army: Katsu Kaishu, Navy: Enomoto Takeaki, Ezo Republic: President:Enomoto Takeaki, CIC: Otori Keisuke, Navy: Arai Ikunosuke Casualties ~1,000 killed ~2,000 killed Campaign map of... Colonel Munier, commander of the Second French Military Mission to Japan. ... Captain de Villaret (front row, center), of the Third French Military Mission to Japan, with his officer students of the Ichigaya Military Academy. ... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with south German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III Otto Von Bismarck, Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at the beginning of the war 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000 dead or wounded 284,000 captured 350,000 civilian... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Klemens Wilhelm Jacob Meckel; (28 March 1842 - 5 July 1905) was a general in the Prussian army and foreign advisor to the government of Meiji period Japan. ... The Imperial Army General Staff Office of Japan ), also called the Army General Staff Office, was one of the four principal agencies charged with overseeing the Imperial Japanese Army. ... The German General Staff or Großer Generalstab was the most important German weapon for nearly two centuries. ... Osaka )   is a city in Japan, located at the mouth of the Yodo River on Osaka Bay, in the Kansai region of the main island of HonshÅ«. The city is the capital of Osaka Prefecture. ... Schermbeck is a village in the district of Wesel, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ...


Japan did not use foreign military advisors between 1890 and 1918, until again a French Military Mission to Japan (1918-1919), headed by Commandant Jacques Faure, was requested to assist in the development of the Japanese air services. French Military Mission to Japan 1918-1919. ...


Satsuma rebellion

Soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army during the Satsuma Rebellion (Garrison of Kumamoto, 1877).
Soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army during the Satsuma Rebellion (Garrison of Kumamoto, 1877).

Not surprisingly, the new order led to a series of riots from disgruntled samurai. One of the major riots was the one led by Saigō Takamori, the Satsuma rebellion, which eventually turned into a civil war. This rebellion was put down swiftly by conscripts in the newly- formed imperial army, trained in Western tactics and weapons, even though the core of the new army was actually the Tokyo Police force, consisting mostly of former samurai. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 509 pixelsFull resolution (1259 × 801 pixel, file size: 1 MB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Kumamoto, officers of the garrisson, who fought against the troops of Saigo Takamori, 1877. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 509 pixelsFull resolution (1259 × 801 pixel, file size: 1 MB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Kumamoto, officers of the garrisson, who fought against the troops of Saigo Takamori, 1877. ... Categories: Cities in Kumamoto Prefecture | Japan geography stubs ... Saigō Takamori 23 January 1827/28 — 24 September 1877), one of the most influential samurai in Japanese history, lived during the late Edo Period and early Meiji Era. ... Combatants Imperial Japanese Army Satsuma fief Commanders Ruler: Meiji Emperor CIC: Sumiyoshi Kawamura Saigō Takamori Strength 300,000 40,000 Casualties estimate ~60,000 dead soldiers about 30,000 dead The Satsuma Rebellion (Seinan Sensō 西南戦争, Southwestern War) was a revolt of the Satsuma clan samurai against the Imperial Japanese Army... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ...

Japanese artillery unit, at the Koishikawa arsenal, Tokyo, in 1882. Photographed by Hugues Krafft.
Japanese artillery unit, at the Koishikawa arsenal, Tokyo, in 1882. Photographed by Hugues Krafft.

An imperial rescript of 1882 called for unquestioning loyalty to the Emperor by the new armed forces and asserted that commands from superior officers were equivalent to commands from the Emperor himself. Thenceforth, the military existed in an intimate and privileged relationship with the imperial institution. Top-ranking military leaders were given direct access to the Emperor and the authority to transmit his pronouncements directly to the troops. The sympathetic relationship between conscripts and officers, particularly junior officers who were drawn mostly from the peasantry, tended to draw the military closer to the people. In time, most people came to look more for guidance in national matters to military commanders than to political leaders. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 572 pixelsFull resolution (1514 × 1083 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 572 pixelsFull resolution (1514 × 1083 pixel, file size: 1. ... A locality within Bunkyo, Tokyo. ... Hugues Krafft in Japan in 1882-1883 Hugues Krafft (1853 - 1935) was a French photographer born in Reims. ... The Imperial Rescript to Soldiers and Sailors ) was issued by Emperor Meiji of Japan on 4 January 1882. ...


By the 1890’s, the Imperial Japanese Army had grown to become the most modern army in Asia, well-trained, well equipped and high in morale. However, it was basically an infantry force which at times was deficient in cavalry and artillery when compared with its European contemporaries. Modernization (also Modernisation) is a concept in the sphere of social sciences that refers to process in which society goes through industrialization, urbanization and other social changes that completely transforms the lives of individuals. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, bicycles, or other means. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ...


Sino Japanese War

Further information: First Sino-Japanese War

The First Sino-Japanese War (Simplified Chinese: 中日甲午战争; Traditional Chinese: 中日甲午戰爭; pinyin: Zhōngrì Jiǎwǔ Zhànzhēng; Japanese: 日清戦争 Romaji: Nisshin Sensō) (1 August 189417 April 1895) was a war fought between Qing Dynasty China and Meiji Japan over the control of Korea. The Sino-Japanese War would come to symbolize the degeneration and enfeeblement of the Qing Dynasty and demonstrate how successful modernization had been in Japan since the Meiji Restoration as compared with the Self-Strengthening Movement in China. The principal results were a shift in regional dominance in Asia from China to Japan and a fatal blow to the Qing Dynasty and the Chinese classical tradition. These trends would result later in the 1911 Revolution. Japan fielded a force of 120,000 in two armies and five divisions. Combatants Qing Empire (China) Empire of Japan Commanders Li Hongzhang Yamagata Aritomo Strength 630,000 men Beiyang Army Beiyang Fleet 240,000 men Imperial Japanese Army Imperial Japanese Navy Casualties 35,000 dead or wounded 13,823 dead, 3,973 wounded The First Sino-Japanese War (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Romaji ローマ字 The title given to this article lacks diacritics because of certain technical limitations. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... The Meiji period ), or Meiji era, denotes the 45-year reign of Emperor Meiji, running, in the Gregorian calendar, from 23 October 1868 to 30 July 1912. ... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ... The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ... Self-Strengthening Movement (Traditional Chinese: ; c 1861–1894) was a period of institutional reforms initiated during the late Qing Dynasty following a series of military defeats and concessions to foreign powers. ... Combatants Qing Dynasty Chinese Revolutionary Alliance Commanders Feng Guozhang, Yuan Shikai, and local Qing governors. ...


The Boxer Rebellion

Main article: Boxer Rebellion
Soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army in 1900
Soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army in 1900

In 1899-1900, Boxer attacks against foreigners in China intensified and later accumulated in the siege of the diplomatic legations in Beijing. An international force consisting of British, French, Russian, German, Italian Austro-Hungarian, American and Japanese troops was assembled to relieve the legations. The Japanese provided the largest contingent - 20,840 troops, 18 warships, 540 naval rikusentai, and 20,300 troops of the 5th Infantry Division under Lt. General Yamaguchi Motoomi. Combatants Eight-Nation Alliance (ordered by contribution): Empire of Japan Russian Empire British Empire France United States German Empire Kingdom of Italy Austro-Hungarian Empire Righteous Harmony Society Qing Dynasty (China) Commanders Edward Seymour Alfred Graf von Waldersee Ci Xi Strength 20,000 initially 49,000 total 50,000-100... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1473x1233, 401 KB)The Imperial Japanese Army in 1900. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1473x1233, 401 KB)The Imperial Japanese Army in 1900. ... Combatants Eight-Nation Alliance (ordered by contribution): Empire of Japan Russian Empire British Empire France United States German Empire Kingdom of Italy Austro-Hungarian Empire Righteous Harmony Society Qing Dynasty (China) Commanders Edward Seymour Alfred Graf von Waldersee Ci Xi Strength 20,000 initially 49,000 total 50,000-100... “Peking” redirects here. ... Military of the Powers during the Boxer Rebellion, with their naval flags, from left to right: Italy, United States, France, Austria-Hungary, Japan, Germany, United Kingdom, Russia. ... Official languages Latin, German, Hungarian Established church Roman Catholic Capital & Largest City Vienna pop. ... The 5th Infantry Division ) was an infantry division in the Imperial Japanese Army. ...


Russo-Japanese War

Further information: Russo-Japanese War

The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: 日露戦争 Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: Русско-японская война, Chinese: 日俄戰爭 Rìézhànzhēng, February 10, 1904September 5, 1905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Japanese Empire over Manchuria and Korea. The major theatres of operations were Southern Manchuria of China, specifically the area around the Liaodong Peninsula and Mukden, and the seas around Korea, the Yellow Sea and Japan. The Russians were in constant pursuit of a warm water port on the Pacific, for their navy as well as maritime trade. The recently established Pacific seaport of Vladivostok was the only active Russian port that was reasonably operational during the summer season; but Port Arthur would be operational all year. Japanese negotiations with the Tsar's Government since the end of their 1894 war with China (First Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895)) up until 1903, had proved futile; the Japanese chose war to maintain exclusive dominance in Korea. Combatants Russian Empire Montenegro[1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: , Chinese: , February 10, 1904 – September 5, 1905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Imperialism is the policy of extending the control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires, either through direct territorial or through indirect methods of exerting control on the politics and/or economy of other countries. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... His Imperial Majesty, Emperor Akihito of Japan The Emperor of Japan (天皇, tennō) is Japans titular head of state and the head of the Japanese imperial family. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Major districts of Shenyang. ... ... A warm water port is a port where the water does not freeze (rendering it unusable) in the winter. ... Vladivostok (Russian: ) is the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated close to the Russo-Sino border and North Korea. ... Port Arthur is the name of some places: Port Arthur, Tasmania, Australia Old Western name for Lushun, China Port Arthur, Texas, United States of America Port Arthur, Ontario, a city in Ontario, Canada, became part of Thunder Bay in 1970. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Combatants Qing Empire (China) Empire of Japan Commanders Li Hongzhang Yamagata Aritomo Strength 630,000 men Beiyang Army Beiyang Fleet 240,000 men Imperial Japanese Army Imperial Japanese Navy Casualties 35,000 dead or wounded 13,823 dead, 3,973 wounded The First Sino-Japanese War (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese...


The resulting campaigns, in which the fledgling Japanese military consistently attained victory over the forces arrayed against them, were unexpected by world observers. These victories, as time transpired, would dramatically transform the balance of power in East Asia, resulting in a sober reassessment of Japan's recent entry onto the world stage. The embarrassing string of defeats increased dissatisfaction of the Russian populace with the Tsar's inefficient and autocratic rule, and was a major cause of the Russian Revolution of 1905. Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ...


World War I

Imperial Japanese army uniform as worn on the expedition to Kiaochow.
Imperial Japanese army uniform as worn on the expedition to Kiaochow.

Japan participated in World War I (第一次世界大戦 Daiichiji Sekai Taisen?) from 1914 - 1917, as one of the major Entente Powers, played an important role in securing the sea lanes in South Pacific and Indian Oceans against the Kaiserliche Marine. The Asian and Pacific Theater of World War I was a largely bloodless conquest of a number of German controlled islands in the Pacific Ocean. The only real military action was the careful and well executed Japanese attack on German Tsingtao. Politically, Japan seized the opportunity to expand its sphere of influence in China, and to gain recognition as a great power in postwar geopolitics. At the end of World War I, the League of Nations transferred authority over Germany's Micronesian colonies to Japan, and after the Battle of Tsingtao, the German coaling port of Qingdao, in the Chinese Shandong peninsula, was also seized. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 3072 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 3072 pixel, file size: 3. ... The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (KyÅ«jitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun), or more officially Army of the Greater Japanese Empire was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... Jiaozhou Bay is located in northeastern China, on the southern coast of the Shandong peninsula. ... Combatants Empire of Japan British Empire United Kingdom Australia New Zealand German Empire The Asian and Pacific Theater of World War I was a largely bloodless conquest of a number of German controlled islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... Japan participated in World War I ) from 1914-1917, as one of the major Entente Powers, played an important role in securing the sea lanes in South Pacific and Indian Oceans against the Kaiserliche Marine. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... “Pacific” redirects here. ... The Kaiserliche Marine or Imperial Navy was the German Navy created by the formation of the German Empire and existed between 1871 and 1919; it grew out of the Prussian Navy and the Norddeutsche Bundesmarine. ... A sphere of influence (SOI) is an area or region over which an organization or state exerts some kind of indirect cultural, economic, military or political domination. ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919–1920. ... The Battle of Tsingtao was the attack on the German-controlled port of Tsingtao (now Qingdao) in China during World War I. It too took place between 27 August-7 November 1914 and was fought by Japan and the United Kingdom against Germany. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-tao), well-known to the West by its Postal map spelling Tsingtao, is a sub-provincial city in eastern Shandong province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Location of the Shandong Peninsula. ...


Post World War I

In 1918, Japan continued to extend its influence and privileges in China via the Nishihara Loans. Following the collapse of the Russian Empire in Bolshevik Revolution, Japan and the United States sent forces to Siberia in 1918 to bolster the armies of the White Movement leader Admiral Aleksandr Kolchak against the Bolshevik Red Army. In this Siberian Intervention, the Imperial Japanese Army initially planned to send more than 70,000 troops to occupy Siberia as far west as Lake Baykal. The plan was scaled back considerably due to opposition from the United States. The Nishihara Loans ) were a series of loans made by the Japanese government under the administration of Prime Minister Terauchi Masatake to the Anhui clique warlord Duan Qirui from January 1917 to September 1918, in exchange for territorial concessions and rights in northern China. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... “Siberian” redirects here. ... White Army redirects here. ... Admiral Kolchak Aleksandr Vasiliyevich Kolchak (Александр Васильевич Колчак in Russian) (November 4 (November 16 NS), 1874 – February 7, 1920) was a Russian naval commander and later head of part of the anti-Bolshevik White forces during the Russian Civil War. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... The Siberian Intervention ) of 1918–1922 was the dispatch of troops of the Imperial Japanese Army to the Russian Maritime Provinces as part of a larger effort by western powers to support White Russian forces against the Bolshevik Red Army in the Russian Civil War. ... Lake Baikal The Yenisei River basin, Lake Baikal, and the cities of Dikson, Dudinka, Turukhansk, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk Lake Baikal (Russian: О́зеро Байка́л (Ozero Baykal)), a lake in southern Siberia, Russia, between Irkutsk Oblast on the northwest and Buryatia on...


In July 1918, President Wilson asked the Japanese government to supply 7000 troops as part of an international coalition of 25,000 troops planned to support the American Expeditionary Force Siberia. After heated debate in the Diet, the administration of Prime Minister Terauchi Masatake agreed to send 12,000 troops, but under the command of Japan, rather than as part of an international coalition. The National Diet of Japan ) is Japans legislature. ... Emblem of the Office of Prime Minister of Japan Kantei, Official residence of PM The Prime Minister of Japan ) is the usual English-language term used for the head of government of Japan, although the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Prime Minister of the Cabinet. ... Field Marshal Count Masatake Terauchi ) (5 February 1852 –3 November 1919) was Field Marshal in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 18th Prime Minister of Japan from 9 October 1916 to 29 September 1918. ...


Once the political decision had been reached, the Imperial Japanese Army took over full control under Chief of Staff General Yui Mitsue, and by November 1918, more than 70,000 Japanese troops had occupied all ports and major towns in the Russian Maritime Provinces and eastern Siberia. This is a Japanese name; the family name is Yui Mitsue Yui , 1860-1940) was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army during the First Sino-Japanese War and Russo-Japanese War. ... Administrative center Vladivostok Area - total - % water Ranked 26th - 165,900 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density Ranked 26th - est. ... “Siberian” redirects here. ...


In June 1920, America and its allied coalition partners withdrew from Vladivostok after the capture and execution of White Army leader Admiral Aleksandr Kolchak by the Red Army. However, the Japanese decided to stay, primarily due to fears of the spread of communism so close to Japan, and Japanese controlled Korea and Manchuria. The Japanese army provided military support to the Japanese-backed Provisional Priamur Government based in Vladivostok against the Moscow-backed Far Eastern Republic. Vladivostok (Russian: ) is the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated close to the Russo-Sino border and North Korea. ... Admiral Kolchak Aleksandr Vasiliyevich Kolchak (Александр Васильевич Колчак in Russian) (November 4 (November 16 NS), 1874 – February 7, 1920) was a Russian naval commander and later head of part of the anti-Bolshevik White forces during the Russian Civil War. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Provisional Priamur Government existed in the Amur Krai, Russia, between May 27, 1921 and October 25, 1922, the last White Army enclave during the Russian Civil War. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Flag of the Far Eastern Republic The Far Eastern Republic (Russian: Дальневосто́чная Респу́блика (ДВР); English transliteration: Dalnevostochnaya Respublika (DVR)) was a nominally independent state established in the former Russian Far East and Siberia east of Lake Baikal on April 6, 1920. ...


The continued Japanese presence concerned the United States, which suspected that Japan had territorial designs on Siberia and the Russian Far East. Subjected to intense diplomatic pressure by the United States and Great Britain, and facing increasing domestic opposition due to the economic and human cost, the administration of Prime Minister Kato Tomosaburo withdrew the Japanese forces in October 1922. Katō Tomosaburō Viscount Katō Tomosaburō (加藤 友三郎 Katō Tomosaburō, February 22, 1861–August 24, 1923) was a Japanese politician and the 21st Prime Minister of Japan from June 12, 1922 to August 24, 1923. ...


Rise of militarism in Showa era

Hirohito in full dress uniform
Hirohito in full dress uniform

In the 1920s the Imperial Japanese Army expanded rapidly and by 1937 had a force of 300,000 men. Unlike western countries it enjoyed a great deal of independence from government. Under the provisions of the Meiji Constitution, the War Minister was held accountable only to the Emperor himself, and not to the elected civilian government. In fact, Japanese civilian administrations needed the support of the Army in order to survive. The Army controlled the appointment of the War Minister and in 1936 a law was passed that stipulated that only an active duty general or lieutenant-general could hold the post. As a result, the military spending as a proportion of the national budget rose disproportionately in the 1920s and 1930s, and various factions within the military exerted disproportionate influence on Japanese foreign policy. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 435 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (465 × 640 pixel, file size: 45 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 435 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (465 × 640 pixel, file size: 45 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Jōyu (上諭) - The Emperors words (1) The Constitution of the Empire of Japan ), more commonly known as the Imperial or Meiji Constitution, was the fundamental law of the Empire of Japan from 29 November 1889 until 2 May 1947. ... The Ministry of War of Japan (陸軍省 Rikugun shó) was established in the late 19th century, alongside many other Ministries, as part of the creation of the first modern Japanese government. ...


The Imperial Japanese Army was originally known simply as the Army (rikugun) but after 1928, as part of the Army's turn toward romantic nationalism and also in the service of its political ambitions, it retiled itself the Imperial Army (kōgun). This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Action by the military, largely independent of the civilian leadership, led to the invasion of Manchuria in 1931; and the subsequent Second Sino-Japanese War and Pacific War. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants China Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Mao Zedong, Peng Dehuai Hirohito, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata, Toshizo Nishio, Yasuji Okamura, Umezu Yoshijiro, Fumimaro Konoe Strength 58,600,000 4,100,000... For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ...


World War II

Lt Gen Arthur Percival, led by a Japanese officer, marches under a flag of truce to negotiate the capitulation of Allied forces during the Battle of Singapore, on February 15, 1942.

In 1941, the Imperial Japanese Army had 51 divisions and various special-purpose artillery, cavalry, anti-aircraft and armored units with a total of 1,700,000 men. At the beginning of the Second World War most of the Japanese Army was stationed in China. However, from 1942 soldiers were sent to Hong Kong (23rd Army), the Philippines (14th Army), Thailand (15th Army), Burma (15th Army), Dutch East Indies (16th Army) and Malaya (25th Army). Image File history File links Singaporesurrender. ... Image File history File links Singaporesurrender. ... Lieutenant-General Arthur Ernest Percival December 26, 1887 – January 31, 1966. ... == T.R.U.C.E == Teachers Resisting Unhealthy Childrens Entertainment. ... Combatants Malaya Command: Indian III Corps Australian 8th Div. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ...


The Japanese Army performed well in the early stages of the war. After 1943 they suffered from a shortage of supplies. This included a lack of guns, tanks and aircraft, and was worsened by a long-standing and severe rivalry with the Imperial Japanese Navy. By 1945 there were 5.5 million men in the Imperial Japanese Army. For Combined Fleet, please see that article. ...


Throughout the second Sino-Japanese War and World War II the Imperial Japanese Army had gained a reputation both for its fanaticism and for its brutality against prisoners of war and civilians alike. After Japan surrendered in the summer of 1945, many Imperial Japanese Army officers and enlisted men were tried and punished for committing numerous atrocities and war crimes. Combatants China Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Mao Zedong, Peng Dehuai Hirohito, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata, Toshizo Nishio, Yasuji Okamura, Umezu Yoshijiro, Fumimaro Konoe Strength 58,600,000 4,100,000... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Fanaticism is an emotion of being filled with excessive, uncritical zeal, particularly for an extreme religious or political cause, or with an obsessive enthusiasm for a pastime or hobby. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ... Nanjing Massacre March 1st Movement Sook Ching Massacre Last Empress of Korea Bataan Death March Manila Massacre Unit 731 Unit 516 Unit 100 Death Railway External links History of Japans biological weapons program. In Federation of American Scientists. 2000-04-16. ... Japanese war crimes occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism. ...


Several reasons are theorized for the especially brutal and unmerciful behavior exhibited by many members of the IJA towards their adversaries or non-Japanese civilians. One is probably the brutal behavior that they themselves experienced. The IJA was known for the extremely harsh treatment of its enlisted soldiers, including beatings, unnecessarily strenuous duty tasks, lack of adequate food, and other violent or harsh disciplinary tactics.


After the defeat of Japan in World War II, the Imperial Japanese Army was formally dissolved in September 1945 by the U.S. occupying forces. Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


In 1954, Japan created the Japan Self-Defense Forces. These forces, though significantly smaller than the Imperial Japanese Army and purely for defense, constitutes the modern army of Japan. The Japan Self-Defense Forces ), or JSDF, are the military forces in Japan that were established after the end of World War II. The force has not been engaged in real combat but has been engaged in some international peacekeeping operations. ...


Imperial General Headquarters and the power of the Emperor in Showa era

During the first part of the Showa era, according to the Meiji Constitution, the Emperor had the "supreme command of the Army and the Navy" (Article 11). Emperor Showa was thus legally supreme commander of the Imperial General Headquarters, founded in 1937 and by which the military decisions were made. Hirohito (裕仁), the Shōwa Emperor (昭和天皇), (April 29, 1901 - January 7, 1989) reigned over Japan from 1926 to 1989. ... Jōyu (上諭) - The Emperors words (1) The Constitution of the Empire of Japan ), more commonly known as the Imperial or Meiji Constitution, was the fundamental law of the Empire of Japan from 29 November 1889 until 2 May 1947. ... Hirohito (裕仁), the Shōwa Emperor (昭和天皇), (April 29, 1901 - January 7, 1989) reigned over Japan from 1926 to 1989. ... The Imperial General Headquarters or Daihonei, as part of the Supreme War Council was the supreme command for Japanese military forces during the World War II era. ...


The primary sources such as the "Sugiyama memo", and the diaries of Fumimaro Konoe and Koichi Kido, describe in detail the many informal meetings the Emperor had with his chiefs of staff and ministers. These documents show that he was kept informed of all military operations and frequently questioned his senior staff and asked for changes. Hajime Sugiyama (Sujiyama; 1880—September 12, 1945) was a chief of the Japanese General Staff, Inspector-General of military training, minister of war and a Commander-in-Chief of the 1st General Army during World War II. In 1941 Sugiyama confidently told Emperor Hirohito that Japanese operations in the South... Fumimaro Konoe Prince Fumimaro Konoe (è¿‘è¡ž{è¡› in Shinjitai} 文麿 Konoe Fumimaro) (sometimes Konoye, October 12, 1891–December 16, 1945) was a Japanese politician and the 34th (June 4, 1937–January 5, 1939), 38th (July 22, 1940–July 18, 1941) and 39th (July 18, 1941–October 18, 1941) Prime Minister of Japan. ... Marquis Koichi Kido (木戸幸一 Kido Kōichi, July 18, 1889 - April 6, 1977), grandson of Kido Takayoshi, served as Lord Privy Seal from 1940 to 1945, and was Emperor Hirohitos closest advisor throughout World War II. He was also one of the more cautious advisors...


According to historians Yoshiaki Yoshimi and Seiya Matsuno, Hirohito authorized by specific orders, transmitted by the Chief of staff of the Army such as prince Kan'in or Hajime Sugiyama, the use of chemical weapons against Chinese civilians and soldiers. For example, he authorized the use of toxic gas on 375 separate occasions during the invasion of Wuhan in 1938. [1] Such weapons were also authorized during the invasion of Changde. Professor of modern Japanese history at the Chuo University in Tokyo, Yoshimi is a founder member of the Center for Research and Documentation on Japans war responsibility. ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ... His Imperial Highness Prince Kanin (Kotohito) of Japan (Kanin-no-miya Kotohito Shinnō) (10 November 1865 - 21 May 1945), was a member of the Japanese imperial family and a career army officer who served as chief of staff of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1931 to 1940. ... Hajime Sugiyama (Sujiyama; 1880—September 12, 1945) was a chief of the Japanese General Staff, Inspector-General of military training, minister of war and a Commander-in-Chief of the 1st General Army during World War II. In 1941 Sugiyama confidently told Emperor Hirohito that Japanese operations in the South... Early detection of chemical agents Sociopolitical climate of chemical warfare While the study of chemicals and their military uses was widespread in China, the use of toxic materials has historically been viewed with mixed emotions and some disdain in the West (especially when the enemy were doing it). ... Combatants National Revolutionary Army Military Region 5, 9, Soviet Air Force volunteers[1] Imperial Japanese Army, Central China Expeditionary Force, 11th Army, 2nd Army, China Area Fleet, Central China Aviation Army Corps Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Xue Yue, Wu Qiwei, Zhang Fakui, Wang Jingjiu, Ou Zhentong, Yu Jishi,Duan Langru... The Changde Chemical Weapon Attack refers to the Japanese chemical/biological attacks during the Battle of Changde, in the Chinese Province of Hunan during April and May 1943 In the intense fighting around Changde, Japanese forces could not punch through the heavy Chinese resistance, and decided to launch poison gas...


According to historians Akira Fujiwara and Akira Yamada, Hirohito even made major interventions in some military operations. For example, he pressed Sugiyama four times, on January and February 1942, to increase troop strength and launch attack on Bataan. [2] On August 1943, he scolded Sugiyama who could not stop the American advance on the Solomon Islands and asked him to consider other places to attack. [3]. Hajime Sugiyama (Sujiyama; 1880—September 12, 1945) was a chief of the Japanese General Staff, Inspector-General of military training, minister of war and a Commander-in-Chief of the 1st General Army during World War II. In 1941 Sugiyama confidently told Emperor Hirohito that Japanese operations in the South... REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Province of Bataan Region: Central Luzon (Region III) Capital: Balanga City Founded: —1754 Population: 2000 census—557,659 (46th largest) Density—406 per km² (12th highest) Area: 1,373. ...


Only in rare moments of special importance, decisions were made in Imperial council. The Imperial government used this special institution to sanction the invasion of China, the Greater East Asia War and to end the war. In 1945, executing the decision approved in Imperial conference, Emperor Showa for the first and last time directly ordered via recorded radio broadcast to all of Japan, as his last role as commander-in-chief, the surrender to United States forces. Combatants China Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Mao Zedong, Peng Dehuai Hirohito, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata, Toshizo Nishio, Yasuji Okamura, Umezu Yoshijiro, Fumimaro Konoe Strength 58,600,000 4,100,000... The Greater East Asia War ) is a translation of one of several terms used in Japan to describe its period of warfare in the 1930s and early 1940s, which includes Japans part in World War II. The two major components of it were the Greater East Asia War in... The Japanese representatives on board USS Missouri during the surrender ceremonies on 2 September 1945. ...


Ideology

Japanese nationalism meant that the military was built around a concept of the time period: a Rich Country has a Strong Military. Nationalists asserted that Japan as a land was sacred, and its people were special due to a combination of Zen-Chan and various forms of Japanese Buddhism with Shinto. Service in the Japanese military was seen as service to the Emperor. Each soldier in theory believed it was a great honor to die for the Emperor as the samurai concept "to serve" was deeply ingrained in all the soldiers' culture. Japanese nationalism, also known as Japanese imperialism or Japanese nationalist ideology is a generic title, referring to a complex series of patriotic and nationalist ideas held in Japan. ... For other uses, see Zen (disambiguation). ... Japanese Buddhist priest c. ... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... For the CPR ocean liner, see Empress of Japan. ...


The concept of Yamato Damashi equipped each soldier with a strict code: never be captured, never break down, and never surrender. To be a coward or to be captured was a disgrace to one's family, community, and country. Each soldier was trained to fight to the death and was expected to die before suffering dishonor. Often, imperial soldiers would shout "Banzai" before charging into battle, believing that the exuberant cheer would indicate their willingness to die with honor. Every soldier accepted that they were expected to serve stoically as part of their bushido, represented in the idea of "death before dishonor". Sadao Araki, an Army theorist, devised the contemporary adaptation to bushido code as a Seishin Kyoiku (spiritual training) doctrine for the army. As such, each soldier would leave everything behind when going into the service, needing nothing but honor. Indeed, honor as represented by name and face meant everything to these soldiers. Yamato Damashi is an old Nippon spirit of self-pride and persistence in the face of grave danger, a sort of kokoro. Yamato Damashi (Japanese: 大和魂, yamato damashii) is a concept meaning Japanese Spirit or the Soul of Old Japan. 大和 (Yamato) refers to the Yamato, or the ancient Japanese and culture that existed before contact with China, and Damashii is the rendaku form of é­‚ (tamashii, soul or spirit). This is often explained as... Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Romaji: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Han Tu: The use of the phrase ten thousand years in various East Asian languages originated in ancient China as an expression used to wish long life to the Emperor, and is typically translated as long live... Japanese samurai in armor, 1860s. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The true name of Japan as said in Japanese ... Bravery and Fortitude redirect here. ...


Tied in with this concept of bushido was immense, religious respect for the Emperor. Although during Meiji and Taisho eras, the Emperor was practically a figurehead, with the real power being held by the bureaucrats underneath him, he was still considered a divine figure. In theory the commander in chief, the Emperor usually went along with whatever the government "asked" him to do. The Emperor wore the commander-in-chief's uniform, and was saluted by the Imperial Forces, at all ceremonial functions involving the IJA forces. History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei The Meiji period (Japanese: Meiji Jidai 明治&#26178... History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei The Taisho period (大正 Taishō, lit. ...


At the time, the Imperial government could only mobilize the military if the cabinet ministers came to a unanimous consensus on the order. The role of the Emperor lay in giving his blessing to execute and bind such orders. Since the Emperor was required to be present at all Imperial government meetings for their decision to be binding, The Emperor silently observed all the official arguments made by the ministers. Presuming his blessing was given, after an agreement of the ministers, these requests became the orders of the Emperor, enforceable upon the people of Japan.


Strength

  • 1870, consisted of 12,000 men.
  • 1885, consisted of seven divisions including the Imperial Guard Division.
  • In the early 1900s, the IJA consisted of 12 divisions, the Imperial Guard Division, and numerous other units. These contained the following:
    • 380,000 active duty and 1st Reserve personnel - former Class A and B(1) conscripts after 2 year active tour with 17 and 1/2 year commitment
    • 50,000 Second line Reserve - Same as above but former Class B(2) conscripts
    • 220,000 National Army
      • 1st National Army - 37 to 40 year old men from end of 1st Reserve to 40 years old.
      • 2nd National Army - untrained 20 year olds and over 40 year old trained reserves.
    • 4,250,000 males available for service and mobilization.
  • 1934 - army increased to 17 Divisions
  • 1940 - 376,000 active with 2 million reserves in 31 divisions
    • 2 Divisions in Japan (Imperial Guard plus one other)
    • 2 Divisions in Korea
    • 27 Divisions in China and Manchuria
  • In late 1941 - 460,000 active in 41 divisions
    • 2 divisions in Japan and Korea
    • 12 divisions in Manchuria
    • 27 divisions in China
    • plus 59 Brigade equivalents.
      • Independent brigades, Independent Mixed Brigades, Cavalry Brigades, Amphibious Brigades, Independent Mixed regiments, Independent Regiments.
  • Japan Defense Army in 1945 had 55 divisions with 2 million men.

Total military in August 1945 was 6,095,000. The Japanese Imperial Guard (近衛師団 このえしだん Konoe Shidan) protects the Emperor, the Empress and Imperial Family, the Imperial Palaces and other imperial properties. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia A Militia is an organization of citizens to provide defense, emergency or paramilitary service, or those engaged in such activity. ... The Imperial Japanese Army Air Service, or more traditionally called the Japanese Army Air Force (陸軍航空本部 Rikugun Kōkū Hombu), was Imperial Japans land-based aviation force. ...


Arsenals

Additionally Japanese Army managed various Arsenals: This article is about armaments factories. ...

  • Japanese Army Sagami Arsenal - with Mitsubishi, developed and manufactured tanks
  • Japanese Army Osaka Arsenal - with Mitsubishi and Hitachi manufactured tanks and artillery
  • Japanese Army Sasebo Arsenal - with Mitsubishi, manufactured tanks
  • Japanese Army Heijo Arsenal - with Nambu, manufactured hand and long infantry weapons
  • Japanese Army Mukden Arsenal - with Nambu, manufactured infantry weapons
  • Japanese Army Kokura Arsenal - with Nambu, manufactured small arms and Machine Guns
  • Japanese Army Tokyo Arsenal - the Army administrative and testing center related with light and heavy weapons production
  • Japanese Army Tachikawa Arsenal - dedicated to develop and manufacture aircraft for the Imperial Japanese Army Air Service

Mitsubishi Logo The Mitsubishi Group ), Mitsubishi Group of Companies, or Mitsubishi Companies, all refer to a large grouping of independently operated Japanese companies which share the Mitsubishi brand name. ... Kijiro Nambu Kijiro Nambu (1869-1949) A prolific Japanese small arms designer. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, bicycles, or other means. ... “Flying Machine” redirects here. ... The Imperial Japanese Army Air Service, or more traditionally called the Japanese Army Air Force (陸軍航空本部 Rikugun Kōkū Hombu), was Imperial Japans land-based aviation force. ...

Organization of the Imperial Japanese Army

Japanese armies

The Imperial Japanese Army was organized into several types of Armies: Territorial Armies The General Defense Command was responsible for Japan, Korea and Formosa. ...

Japanese divisions

Japanese Army, during conflict only organized four divisions,this if nexts: 1st. ... List of Japanese Infantry divisions of the Imperial Japanese Army. ...

Brigades and equivelents

Independent brigades

Mixed Brigades

  • List of IJA Mixed Brigades

The Japanese Imperial Army had two types of Mixed Brigades. The Japanese Imperial Army had divisional Mixed Brigades, which were the detachment of a brigade from an IJA Infantry Division with various Divisional support units or units attached from its Corps or Army. ...

  • First type was the divisional Mixed Brigade. This was the semi-permanent detachment of a brigade from an Infantry Division with various Divisional support units or units attached from its Corps or Army.

This provided a combined arms force of infantry, artillery, cavalry and other support units. List of Japanese Infantry divisions of the Imperial Japanese Army. ...

  • Second was the Independent Mixed Brigade. These were detachments made of various units detached from other units or independent support units formed together in a brigade.

The first two Independent Mixed Brigades, formed by the Kwangtung army in the 1930s was the IJA 1st Independent Mixed Brigade and the IJA 11th Independent Mixed Brigade. Each of these brigades were organized in a unique manner and one of them, the 11th was later formed into the IJA 26th Division. IJA 1st Independent Mixed Brigade 4th Tank Battalion 12 Type 89 Medium Tanks 13 Type 95 Light Tanks 12 Type 94 Tankettes 4 Armored Engineer Vehicles 1st Independent Infantry Regiment 1st Independent Artillery Battalion 1st Independent Engineer Company In July 1937 at the beginning of the Second Sino-Japanese War... There were two11th Independent Mixed Brigades in the Imperial Japanese Army. ... IJA Twenty Sixth Division ) was an infantry division in the Imperial Japanese Army. ...


Later a series of Independent Mixed Brigades were formed for the purpose of garrisoning the large territories of China captured in the early phase of the Second Sino-Japanese War. This variety for China was usually organized with five infantry battalions, an artillery unit, and labor troops. In the Pacific theater they had different and more varied configurations of subordinate units. ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Combatants China Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Mao Zedong, Peng Dehuai Hirohito, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata, Toshizo Nishio, Yasuji Okamura, Umezu Yoshijiro, Fumimaro Konoe Strength 58,600,000 4,100,000...

  • Amphibious Brigades,
  • Independent Mixed regiments,
  • Independent Regiments
  • IJA Cavalry Units
  • IJA Artillery Units

Japanese Cavalry were formed in Regiments most were either operating attached to Infantry divisions or directly under a Brigade attached to an army prior to the formation of the Cavalry Group in 21 April 1933. ...

Detachments

Detachments were particular military formations of the Imperial Japanese Army. Similar to German Kampfgruppen these detachments were usually a force of infantry, artillery, armor, and other support units which were temporarily assigned for independent action and had a special mission. They were usually named after their commanders or the area in which they were to operate, and could be any size below division.

  • List of Military Detachments WW2 (Japan)

The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...

Casualties

Over the course of the Imperial Japanese Army's existence, millions of its soldiers were either killed, wounded, missing and captured. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Superficial bullet wounds In medicine, a wound is a type of physical trauma wherein the skin is torn, cut or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound). ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...

  • First Sino-Japanese War

The IJA suffered 13,823 dead and 3,973 wounded.

  • Russo-Japanese War

The number of total Japanese dead in combat is put at around 47,000 with around 80,000 if disease is included.

  • World War One

1,455 Japanese were killed, mostly at the Battle of Tsingtao The Battle of Tsingtao was the attack on the German-controlled port of Tsingtao (now Qingdao) in China during World War I. It too took place between 27 August-7 November 1914 and was fought by Japan and the United Kingdom against Germany. ...

  • World War Two
    • Deaths
      • 2,566,000 Armed Forces dead including non-combat deaths, plus 672,000 civilian dead.
        • includes 1,506,000 killed in action
    • 810,000 missing in action and presumed dead.
    • 7,500 prisoners of war.
Imperial Japanese Military
Administration
Imperial General Headquarters
Components
Navy Imperial Japanese Navy
(Dai Nippon Teikoku Kaigun)
        Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service
    Major battles
    List of ships
    List of aircraft
    Main admirals
Imperial Japanese Army
(Dai Nippon Teikoku Rikugun)
        Imperial Japanese Army Air Service
        Railways and Shipping Section
    Uniforms
Rank insignia
Naval rank insignia
Army rank insignia
History of the Japanese Military
Military History of Japan during World War II

MIA is a three-letter acronym that is most commonly used to designate a combatant who is Missing In Action, and has not yet returned or otherwise been accounted for as either dead (KIA) or a prisoner of war (POW). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... The Imperial General Headquarters or Daihonei, as part of the Supreme War Council was the supreme command for Japanese military forces during the World War II era. ... Image File history File links Naval_Ensign_of_Japan. ... For Combined Fleet, please see that article. ... The Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service or Dai Nippon Teikoku Kaigun Koku Hombu was a major force in the Pacific War during World War II. The Japanese military acquired their first aircraft in 1910 and followed the development of air combat during World War I with great interest. ... Boshin War (1868-1869): Naval Battle of Hakodate (Imperial Navy victory over the remnants of the Shoguns Navy of the Republic of Ezo. ... The following is the list of ships of the Imperial Japanese Navy and the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force. ... This is the list of aircrafts of the Imperial Japanese Navy and the Japan Self-Defence Forces, including ones in the past and ones in the present time. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Imperial Japanese Army Air Service, or more traditionally called the Japanese Army Air Force (陸軍航空本部 Rikugun Kōkū Hombu), was Imperial Japans land-based aviation force. ... The Imperial Japanese Army Railway and Shipping Section was the logistics unit of the Imperial Japanese Army charged with shipping personnel, materiel and equipment from metropolitan Japan to the combat front overseas. ... Imperial Japanese Army Uniforms tended to reflect the uniforms of those countries who were the principal advisors to the Imperial Japanese Army at the that time. ... The following graphs present the rank insignia of the Japanese navy during World War II. These designs had been used between the years 1931 to 1945, but were discontinued after World War II, when the Imperial navy had been dissolved. ... The following graphs present the rank insignia of the Japanese military during World War II. These designs had been used between the years 1938 to 1945, but were discontinued after World War II, when the Imperial military had been dissolved. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

See also

Imperial Japanese Army special research units
Unit 100 (Shenyang) | Unit 516 (Qiqihar) | Unit 543 (Hailar) | Unit 731 (Pingfang) / Unit 200 (Manchuria) / Unit 8604 or Nami Unit (Guangzhou) | Unit 773 (Songo) | Unit Ei 1644 (Nanjing) | Unit 1855 (Nanjing) | Unit 2646 or Unit 80 (Hailar) | Unit 9420 or Oka Unit (Singapore)

The Double Leaf Society (双葉会 Futabakai) was a Japanese military secret society of the 1920s, comprising radical officers with a belief in ultranationalism and the need for a purge of the corrupt Choshu elements of the Imperial Japanese Army. ... Marshal ) (also frequently translated as (Field marshal) was the highest rank in the prewar Imperial Japanese Military, especially the Imperial Japanese Army. ... The Greater East Asia War ) is a translation of one of several terms used in Japan to describe its period of warfare in the 1930s and early 1940s, which includes Japans part in World War II. The two major components of it were the Greater East Asia War in... The Imperial Japanese Army Air Service, or more traditionally called the Japanese Army Air Force (陸軍航空本部 Rikugun KōkÅ« Hombu), was Imperial Japans land-based aviation force. ... Imperial Japanese Army Uniforms tended to reflect the uniforms of those countries who were the principal advisors to the Imperial Japanese Army at the that time. ... For Combined Fleet, please see that article. ... Imperial Japanese rations were the field rations issued by Imperial Japan in World War II, and which reflected the culture of the Japanese military. ... Kyokujitsu-ki, the Flag of Imperial Japan, symbol of the Imperial Way Faction, before and during their government administrative period. ... Japanese Army and Navy Strategies for South Seas areas(1942) Immediatelly after the fall of Singapore,in 1942 the view mounted within certain Army circles that now was the best time for Japans military to exploit their advantage and seek peace with Great Britain. ... The Japanese Army Railway and Shipping Section was the logistics unit charged with shipping personnel, materiel and equipment from metropolitan Japan to the combat front overseas. ... During the Second World War, Japanese soldiers have carried out human exprimentations on the Chinese on different parts of the conquered lands. ... Japanese military ranks were broadly divided into those of the Imperial Japanese Navy and the Imperial Japanese Army. ... The following graphs present the rank insignia of the Japanese military during World War II. These designs had been used between the years 1938 to 1945, but were discontinued after World War II, when the Imperial military had been dissolved. ... The following graphs present the rank insignia of the Japanese navy during World War II. These designs had been used between the years 1931 to 1945, but were discontinued after World War II, when the Imperial navy had been dissolved. ... Japanese nationalism, also known as Japanese imperialism or Japanese nationalist ideology is a generic title, referring to a complex series of patriotic and nationalist ideas held in Japan. ... Japanese war crimes occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism. ... The Kempeitai (憲兵隊, Corps of Law Soldiers) was the military police arm of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1881 to 1945. ... The Singapore Armed Forces Military Police Command providing security coverage at the Padang in Singapore during the National Day Parade in 2000. ... Kokuryu-kai (Amur River Society), also known as the Black Dragon Society, was a prominent paramilitary, ultra-nationalist right-wing group in Japan. ... This is a list of Japanese Army Military Engineer Vehicles during World War II. Included are diverse types of Armored lumberjacks, mine clearing vehicles, engineering vehicles, Recovery Cranes and other materiel used by Japanese Army Engineer units during World War II. Armoured Stretcher Armored Lumberjack Brasso Ki T G Armored... List of Bombs in use by Japanese Army They are: air-to-air bombs Type Ro-3 10Kg (Explosive charge of 0. ... // Type 38 Rifle Type 38 Cavalry Rifle Type 44 Cavalry Rifle Type 97 Sniper Rifle Type 99 Rifle Type 99 Sniper Rifle Type I Rifle TERA Rifles (Type 100 Rifle, Type 1 Rifle, Type 2 Rifle) Experimental Automatic Rifles (Type 5 rifle) Type 26 9 mm Pistol Type 14 8... This is a list of Imperial Japanese Army radar and electronic warfare systems. ... INFANTRY WEAPONS RIFLES Type 38 Rifle Type 38 Cavalry Rifle Type 44 Cavalry Rifle Type 97 Sniper Rifle Type 99 Rifle Type 99 Sniper Rifle TERA Rifles (Type 100 Rifle, Type 1 Rifle, Type 2 Rifle) Experimental Automatic Rifles (Type 5 rifle) PISTOLS Type 26 9 mm Pistol Type 14... The Rikugun Shikan Gakko (陸軍士官学校) was the Army Military Academy in Japan. ... As a result of her victories in the wars against China (1894-95) and Czarist Russia (1904-05), Japan secured the basic elements of her national desires - for the time being. ... In the years after the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-5, strategic thinking in the Japanese military was largely divided between the priority of mainland Asia (see North Strike group), and the southern, Pacific Ocean direction. ... Tosei-Ha Faction The Tosei-Ha (Control Group) led by General Kazushige Ugaki along Gen Sujiyama,Koiso Kuniaki,Yoshijiro Umezu,Tetsuza Nagata and Hideki Tojo. ... Imperial Japanese Army units were covert medical experiment units of the Imperial Japanese Army which researched biological warfare through human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937 - 1945) and World War II. Imperial Japanese Army units was responsible for some of the most notorious war crimes carried out by... Unit 100 was a secret Imperial Japanese Army facility that focused on the development of chemical weapons during World War II. It was operated by the Kempeitai, the Japanese military police. ... This article is about a city. ... Unit 516 was a top secret Japanese chemical weapons facility, operated by the Kempeitai, in Qiqihar (齊齊哈爾), China. ... Qiqihar ( Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Manchu: Cicigar hoton) is a major city in the Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China and has 895,000 inhabitants. ... Unit 543 was a secret Imperial Japanese Army facility that focused on the development of biological weapons during World War II. It was operated by the Kempeitai, the Japanese military police. ... Hailar (海拉尔; Pinyin: Hǎilāěr) is a city and administrative district in Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia, Peoples Republic of China. ... Body disposal at Unit 731 Unit 731 was a covert biological warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) and World War II. It was responsible for some of the most notorious war crimes carried... Pingfang (Chinese: 平房), today a district in the outskirts of Harbin, China (in the 1930s and 1940s a part of the Japanese puppet state Manchukuo), Pingfang was the headquarters of the Japanese Biological Warfare Unit 731 during the Japanese invasion of China and World War II. It had an airport, railway... Unit 200 was a secret military medical unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that researched biological warfare and other topics through human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War(1937-1945) and World War II era. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Unit 773 was a secret Imperial Japanese Army facility that focused on the development of biological weapons during World War II. It was operated by the Kempeitai, the Japanese military police. ... Unit Ei 1644, also known as Unit 1644 was a medical research unit of the Japanese Imperial Army based in Nanjing, China. ... “Nanking” redirects here. ... Unit 1855 was a secret Imperial Japanese Army facility that focused on the development of biological weapons during World War II. It was operated by the Kempeitai, the Japanese military police. ... “Nanking” redirects here. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Hailar may refer to: Hailar River Hailar, China This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Unit 9420 or Oka Unit was formed in 1942 in Singapore by Naito Ryoichi. ...

References

  1. ^ Yoshimi and Matsuno, Dokugasusen Kankei Shiryo II, Kaisetsu, 1997, p.25-29.
  2. ^ Fujiwara, Showa tenno no ju-go nen senso, 1991, p.135-138, Yamada, Daigensui Showa tenno, 1994, p.180, 181, 185
  3. ^ Herbert Bix, Hirohito and the making of modern Japan, 2000, p.466,citing the Sugiyama memo, p.24

External links

  • Overview of Imperial Japanese Army weapons and armaments in World War II
  • Japanese war posters
  • The PBS program "Victory in the Pacific."

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