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Encyclopedia > Imperial Household of Japan

The Imperial Household of Japan (also referred to as the Imperial Family or kōshitsu (皇室)) refers to those members of the extended family of the reigning Emperor of Japan who undertake official and public duties, as well as their minor children. Under the present Constitution of Japan, the emperor is the symbol of the state and unity of the people. Other members of the imperial family perform ceremonial and social duties, but have no role in the affairs of government. February 2006 : ← - January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → 28 February 2006 (Tuesday) Al Askari Mosque bombing: Sixty-eight people have been killed so far today in Baghdad, Iraq. ... His Majesty Emperor Akihito of Japan Imperial Seal of Japan The Emperor (天皇 tennō, literally heavenly sovereign) is a constitutionally-recognized symbol of the Japanese nation and the unity of its people. ... The Constitution of Japan has been the founding legal document of Japan since 1947. ...


The Japanese monarchy is the oldest continuous hereditary monarchy in the world. The imperial household recognizes one hundred and twenty-five legitimate monarchs since the accession of Emperor Jimmu (traditionally dated to February 11, 660 BCE), including the reigning emperor, Akihito. Most historians regard the first fourteen emperors (Emperor Jimmu to Emperor Chuai) as legendary figures. Meiji era print of Emperor Jimmu The legendary tomb of Emperor Jimmu, Nara Emperor Jimmu (神武天皇 Jinmu Tennō; given name: Kamuyamato Iwarebiko, born according to legend on January 1, 711 BCE, and died, again according to legend, on March 11, 585 BCE), was the mythical founder of Japan and is the... February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 710s BC 700s BC 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC - 660s BC - 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC Events and trends 669 BC - Assurbanipal succeeds his father Esarhaddon as king of Assyria 668 BC - Shamash... Emperor Akihito reads the Speech from the Throne to the Japanese Diet His Imperial Majesty Akihito (明仁) (born December 23, 1933) is the current and 125th Emperor of Japan. ... Meiji era print of Emperor Jimmu The legendary tomb of Emperor Jimmu, Nara Emperor Jimmu (神武天皇 Jinmu Tennō; given name: Kamuyamato Iwarebiko, born according to legend on January 1, 711 BCE, and died, again according to legend, on March 11, 585 BCE), was the mythical founder of Japan and is the... ChÅ«ai was a Japanese monarch, the 14th emperor (tenno) of Japan to appear on the traditional list of emperors. ...

Contents


Current members of the imperial family

The 1947 Imperial Household Law defines the imperial household as: the empress (kōgō 皇后), the empress dowager (kōtaigō 皇太后), the grand empress dowager (tai-kōtaigō 太皇太后), the crown prince (kōtaishi 皇太子) and his consort, the imperial grandson who is heir apparent (kōtaison 皇太孫) and his consort, the shinnō (親王) and their consorts, the naishinnō (内親王), the ō (王) and their consorts, and the nyoō (女王). The legitimate children and male line grandchildren of an emperor are shinnō (imperial princes) in the case of males and naishinnō (imperial princesses) in the case of females. More distant male line descendants are ō (princes) or nyoō (princesses). See below for more information on these titles. 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ...


After the removal of eleven families from the imperial household in October 1947, the official membership of the imperial family has effectively been limited to the male line descendants of the Taishō Emperor, excluding females who married outside the imperial family and their descendants. There are presently 22 members of the imperial family. Their personal names appear in parentheses: 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... Yoshihito (嘉仁), the Taishō Emperor (大正天皇), (August 31, 1879–December 25, 1926, r. ...

  • His Imperial Majesty The Emperor (Akihito) was born at the Imperial Palace in Tokyo on 23 December 1930, the elder son and sixth child of the Shôwa Emperor and Empress Kōjun (Nagako). He was married on 10 April 1959 to Her Imperial Majesty The Empress (Michiko). The Empress, formerly Miss Shoda Michiko, was born in Tokyo on 24 October 1930, the eldest daughter of the late Mr. Shoda Hidesaburo, president and honorary chairman of Nisshin Flour Milling Company. Emperor Akihito succeeded his father as emperor on 7 January 1989.
  • His Imperial Highness The Crown Prince (Naruhito), the eldest son of the Emperor and the Empress, was born at the Tsugo Palace in Tokyo on 23 February 1960. He became heir apparent upon his father's ascension to the throne. Crown Prince Naruhito married on 10 June 1991 to Miss Owada Masako. Her Imperial Highness The Crown Princess (Masako) was born on 6 December 1963, the daughter of Hisashi Owada, former minister of foreign affairs and former permanent representative of Japan to the United Nations. The Crown Prince and Crown Princess have one daughter, Her Imperial Highness Princess Aiko, who was born on 1 December 2001 and who holds the childhood title Princess Toshi (Toshi-no-miya).
  • His Imperial Highness Prince Hitachi (Masahito) was born on 28 November 1934, the second son and seventh child of the Emperor Shôwa (Hirohito) and Empress Kojun (Nagako). His childhood title was Prince Yoshi (Yoshi-no-miya). He received the title Prince Hitachi (Hitachi-no-miya) and permission to set up a new branch of the imperial family on 1 October 1961, the day after his wedding. Her Imperial Highness The Princess Hitachi (Hanako), was born on 19 July 1940, the daughter of late former Count Tsugaru Yoshitaka. The Prince and The Princess Hitachi have no children.
  • His Imperial Highness Prince Mikasa (Takahito) was born on 2 December 1914, the fourth son of the Taisho Emperor and Empress Teimei (Sadako). He is the surviving brother of Emperor Shôwa and the surviving parternal uncle of Emperor Akihito. His childhood title was Prince Sumi (Sumi-no-miya). He received the title Prince Mikasa (Mikasa-no-miya) and permission to start a new branch of the imperial family on 2 December 1935. He married on 22 October 1936. Her Imperial Highness The Princess Mikasa (Yuriko) was born on 6 June 1921, the second daughter of the late Viscount Takagi Masanori. The Prince and The Princess Mikasa have two daughters and three sons. Their youngest son, Prince Takamado (Norihito), is deceased.
  • His Imperial Highness Prince Tomohito of Mikasa is the eldest son of The Prince and The Princess Mikasa and a first cousin of Emperor Akihito. He is also heir apparent to his father's title, Mikasa-no-miya. He was born on 5 January 1941. Prince Tomohito married Miss Aso Nobuko on 7 November 1980. Her Imperial Highness The Princess Tomohito of Mikasa was born on 9 April 1955, the daughter of the late Mr. Aso Takakichi, chairman of Aso Cement Co. and his wife, Kazuko, a daughter of former prime minister Yoshida Shigeru. Prince and Princess Tomohito of Mikasa have two daughters: Her Imperial Highness Princess Akiko (born 20 December 1981) and Her Imperial Highness Princess Yoko (born 25 October 1983).
  • His Imperial Highness Prince Katsura (Yoshihito) is the second son of Prince and Princess Mikasa and a first cousin of Emperor Akihito. He was born on 11 February 1948. Originally known as Prince Yoshihito of Mikasa, he received the title Prince Katsura (Katsura-no-miya) and authorization to start a new branch of the imperial family on 1 January 1988.
  • Her Imperial Highness Princess Takamado (Hisako) is the widow of His Imperial Highness Prince Takamado (Norihito) (born 29 December 1954, died 21 November 2002), the third son of The Prince and The Princess Mikasa and a first cousin of Emperor Akihito. The princess was born 10 July 1953, the daughter of Mr. Tottori Shigejiro. She married the prince on 6 December 1981. Originally known as Prince Norihito of Mikasa, he received the title Prince Takamado (Takamado-no-miya) and permission to start a new branch of the imperial family on 1 December 1981. Princess Takamado has three daughters: Her Imperial Highness Princess Tsuguko (born 6 March 1984), Her Imperial Highness Princess Noriko (born 21 July 1986), and Her Imperial Highness Princess Ayako (b. 15 September 1988).

Emperor Akihito reads the Speech from the Throne to the Japanese Diet His Imperial Majesty Akihito (明仁) (born December 23, 1933) is the current and 125th Emperor of Japan. ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (358th in leap years). ... 1930 (MCMXXX) is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Hirohito (裕仁), the Shōwa Emperor (昭和天皇), (April 29, 1901 - January 7, 1989) reigned over Japan from 1926 to 1989. ... Her Imperial Majesty Empress Kojun of Japan was born Princess Kuni Nagako (jp: 久邇宮良子女王 kuni no miya nagako joō) (March 6, 1903 - June 16, 2000). ... April 10 is the 100th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (101st in leap years). ... 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Empress Michiko of Japan, (born October 20, 1934) formerly Michiko Shōda (正田 美智子 Shōda Michiko) and later the Crown Princess of Japan (April 10, 1959 to January 7, 1989), is the wife and consort of the reigning Emperor of Japan, HIM Emperor Akihito. ... October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 68 days remaining. ... 1930 (MCMXXX) is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... January 7 is the seventh day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Crown Prince Naruhito (徳仁皇太子殿下 Naruhito Kōtaishi Denka) (born at Togu Palace, Tokyo February 23, 1960) is the eldest son of His Majesty Emperor Akihito and Her Majesty Empress Michiko. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... June 10 is the 161st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (162nd in leap years), with 204 days remaining. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Masako, Crown Princess of Japan (雅子皇太子妃殿下 Masako kōtaishihi denka, the Crown Princess Masako) (born December 9, 1963, Tokyo, Japan) is styled Her Imperial Highness The Crown Princess of Japan. ... December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... Hisashi Owada (小和田 恆) (b. ... Princess Toshi (Aiko) of Japan (敬宮愛子内親王殿下 Toshi no miya Aiko naishinnō denka), born December 1, 2001, is the only child of Their Imperial Highnesses Crown Prince Naruhito, heir apparent to the Japanese throne, and Crown Princess Masako. ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... Prince and Princess Akishino after the funeral of Grand Duchess Josephine-Charlotte of Luxembourg His Imperial Highness Prince Akishino (秋篠宮文仁親王殿下 akishino no miya fumihito denka) also known as Prince Fumihito (文仁親王 fumihito shinnō) (born 30 November 1965) is a member of the Japanese imperial family. ... Prince and Princess Akishino after the funeral of Grand Duchess Josephine-Charlotte of Luxembourg His Imperial Highness Prince Akishino (秋篠宮文仁親王殿下 akishino no miya fumihito denka) also known as Prince Fumihito (文仁親王 fumihito shinnō) (born 30 November 1965) is a member of the Japanese imperial family. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... June 29 is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 185 days remaining. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... HIH Princess Kiko Her Imperial Highness Princess Akishino (秋篠宮紀子親王妃 akishino no miya kiko shinnōhi), née Kawashima Kiko (川島紀子), (born 11 September 1966), is the wife of Prince Akishino (Fumihito), the second son of the Emperor Akihito and the Empress Michiko, and a member of the Japanese imperial family through marriage. ... September 11 is the 254th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (255th in leap years). ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... Princess Mako Akishino of Japan (秋篠宮眞子内親王殿下 Akishino-no-miya Mako naishinnō denka) (born 23 October 1991) the elder daughter of Prince Akishino (Fumuhito) and his wife, the former Kawashima Kiko, is a member of the Japanese imperial family. ... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 69 days remaining. ... This article is about the year. ... Princess Kako Akishino of Japan (秋篠宮佳子内親王殿下 Akishino-no-miya Kako naishinnō denka) (born 29 December 1994) the second daughter of Prince Akishino (Fumuhito) and his wife, the former Kawashima Kiko, is a member of the Japanese imperial family. ... December 29 is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 2 days remaining. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... His Imperial Highness Prince Hitachi (Masahito) of Japan (jp: 常陸宮 , Hitachi no miya Mashahito Shinnō) (28 November 1935) is a member of the Japanese imperial family and the younger brother of the Emperor Akihito. ... November 28 is the 332nd day (333rd on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Hirohito ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from 1926 to 1989. ... Nagako (良子), Empress and later Empress Dowager of Japan, consort to the Emperor Showa Hirohito, (March 6, 1903 - June 16, 2000) and mother of the Emperor Akihito. ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... Her Imperial Highness Princess Hitachi (Hanako) of Japan (jp: hitachi no miya Hanako shinnō-hi), was born 19 July 1940. ... July 19 is the 200th day (201st in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 165 days remaining. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... His Imperial Highness, Prince Mikasa (Takahito) of Japan (Mikasa no miya Takahito Shinnō; born December 15, 1915) is the fourth and youngest son of the Emperor Taishō and the Empress Teimei. ... December 2 is the 336th day (337th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Yoshihito (嘉仁), the Taishō Emperor (大正天皇), (August 31, 1879–December 25, 1926, r. ... born Princess Sadako Kujo (九条節子 kujō sadako) (June 25, 1884 - May 17, 1951) was the consort of the Taisho Emperor and the mother of Emperor Hirohito. ... December 2 is the 336th day (337th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... October 22 is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 70 days remaining. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Her Imperial Highness Princess Mikasa (Yuriko) of Japan, (jp: Mikasa no miya Yuriko shinnō-hi), née Ms. ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining. ... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Prince Tomohito of Mikasa (三笠宮寬仁 Mikasa-no-miya Tomohito shinnō), eldest son of the current HIH Prince Mikasa and HIH Princess Mikasa (Yuriko). ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ... November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... Her Imperial Highness Princess Tomohito of Mikasa was born on the 9th of April, 1955. ... April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Shigeru Yoshida (吉田 茂 Yoshida Shigeru, September 22, 1878–October 20, 1967) was the Prime Minister of Japan from 1946 to 1947 and from 1948 to 1954. ... December 20 is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 67 days remaining. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... His Imperial Highness Prince Katsura (Yoshihito) of Japan (jp: æ¡‚å®®, Katsura no miya Yoshihito Shinnō) (11 February 1948) is the second son of Prince and Princess Mikasa and a first cousin of Emperor Akihito. ... February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Her Imperial Highness Princess Takamado (Hisako) of Japan, (jp: Takamado no miya Hisako shinnō-hi), née Ms. ... His Imperial Highness Prince Takamado (Norihito) of Japan (jp: Takamado no miya Norihito shinnō), (b. ... December 29 is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 2 days remaining. ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 21 is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Cusco album, see 2002 (album). ... July 10 is the 191st day (192nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 174 days remaining. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1953 calendar). ... December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... March 6 is the 65th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (66th in Leap years). ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 21 is the 202nd day (203rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 163 days remaining. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years). ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Living former members of the imperial family

Under the terms of the 1947 Imperial Household Law, naishinnō (imperial princesses) and nyoō (princesses) lose their titles and membership in the imperial family upon marriage, unless they marry the Emperor or another member of the imperial family. Three of the five daughters of Emperor Shōwa, the two daughters of Prince Mikasa, and most recently, the only daughter of the Emperor Akihito left the imperial family upon marriage, taking the surnames of their husbands. (The eldest daughter of Emperor Shōwa married the eldest son of Prince Higashikuni Naruhiko in 1943. The Higashikuni family lost its imperial status along with the other collateral branches of the imperial household in October 1947). The living former imperial princesses (whose personal names are in parentheses) are: 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... Hirohito ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from 1926 to 1989. ... Emperor Akihito of Japan (Japanese: 明仁) (born December 23, 1933) is the current Emperor (天皇, tennō) of Japan and the 125th according to the traditional order of succession. ... Prince Naruhiko Higashikuni (東久邇 稔彦 Higashikuni Naruhiko, also Higashikuni no miya Naruhiko ō (東久邇宮 稔彦王)) (3 December 1887 – 26 January 1990) was the 43rd Prime Minister of Japan from 17 August 1945 to 9 October 1945, a period of 54 days. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) is a common year starting on Friday. ... The ōke (王家), literally Prince Houses, were branches of the Imperial Family formed from branches of the Fushimi-no-miya house. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ...

  • Mrs. Ikeda Takamasa (Atsuko), born 7 March 1931, fourth daughter of Emperor Shōwa and surviving elder sister of Emperor Akihito.
  • Mrs. Shimazu Hisanaga (Takako), born 2 March 1939, fifth daughter and youngest child of Emperor Shōwa and younger sister of Emperor Akihito.
  • Mrs. Konoe Tadateru (Yasuko), born 26 April 1944, eldest daughter and eldest child of Prince and Princess Mikasa.
  • Mrs. Sen Soshitsu (Masako), born 23 October 1951, second daughter and fourth child of Prince and Princess Mikasa.
  • Mrs. Kuroda Yoshiki (Sayako), born 18 April 1969, third child and only daughter of Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko.

In addition to these former princesses, there are also descendants of the eleven cadet branches of the dynasty (Asaka, Fushimi, Higashi-Fushimi, Higashi-kuni, Kan'in, Kaya, Kitashirakawa, Kuni, Nashimoto, Takeda, and Yamashina) that left the imperial household in October 1947. March 7 is the 66th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (67th in Leap years). ... 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ... March 2 is the 61st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (62nd in leap years). ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... April 26 is the 116th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (117th in leap years). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 69 days remaining. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... Kuroda Yoshiki, 39, is an urban planner for the Tokyo metropolitan government. ... The imperial household of Japan (also referred to as the imperial family or kōshitsu (皇室)) refers those members of the extended family of the reigning Emperor of Japan who undertake official and public duties, as well as their minor children. ... April 18 is the 108th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (109th in leap years). ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... The Fushimi House (伏見宮) is the oldest of the shinnōke, branches of the Imperial Family which are eligible to succeed to the Chrysanthemum Throne if the main line should die out. ... The Kanin-no-miya house (閑院宮家) is the youngest of the four shinnōke. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ...


Succession

See also Emperor of Japan: Succession.
The Emperor addresses well-wishers at his birthday in 2005. At his left is the Empress; at his right is the Crown Prince.
The Emperor addresses well-wishers at his birthday in 2005. At his left is the Empress; at his right is the Crown Prince.

Historically, the succession to Japan's Chrysanthemum Throne has generally passed in male line of the imperial lineage. The imperial clan previously included specially designated collateral lines or shinnōke (princely houses), too. Most of the cadet branches of the clan were reduced to commoner status in 1947. His Majesty Emperor Akihito of Japan Imperial Seal of Japan The Emperor (天皇 tennō, literally heavenly sovereign) is a constitutionally-recognized symbol of the Japanese nation and the unity of its people. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1913x1416, 1379 KB) Reigning Emperor of Japan on his 72nd birthday, December 23, 2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1913x1416, 1379 KB) Reigning Emperor of Japan on his 72nd birthday, December 23, 2005. ... Succession is the act or process of following in order or sequence. ... The Breast Star of the Order of the Chrysanthemum The Chrysanthemum Throne is the common name given to the Imperial throne of Japan. ... Shinnōke (literally shinnō houses) were the collective name of four cadet branches of the Imperial Household of Japan, entitled to provide a successor to the Chrysanthemum throne if the main line failed to produce an heir. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ...


Before the Meiji Restoration, Japan had eight female tennō or reigning empresses, all of them daughters of male line of the imperial clan. None ascended purely as a wife or as a widow of emperor. None of these empresses married or gave birth after ascending the throne. The Meiji Restoration (Japanese: 明治維新, Meiji-ishin), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to a change in Japans political and social structure. ...


Article 2 of the Constitution of Japan provides that "The Imperial Throne shall be dynastic and succeeded to in accordance with the Imperial Household Law passed by the Diet." The Imperial Household Law of 16 January 1947, enacted by the ninety-second and last session of the Imperial Diet, retained the exclusion on female dynasts found in the 1889 law. The government of Prime Minister Yoshida Shigeru hastily cobbled together the legislation to bring the Imperial Household in compliance with the American-written Constitution of Japan that went into effect in May, 1947. In an effort to control the size of the imperial family, the law stipulates that only legitimate male descendants in the male line can be dynasts; that imperial princesses and princesses lose their status as Imperial Family members if they marry outside the Imperial Family; and that the Emperor and other members of the Imperial Family may not adopt children. The Constitution of Japan has been the founding legal document of Japan since 1947. ... January 16 is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Shigeru Yoshida (吉田 茂 Yoshida Shigeru, September 22, 1878–October 20, 1967) was the Prime Minister of Japan from 1946 to 1947 and from 1948 to 1954. ... The Constitution of Japan has been the founding legal document of Japan since 1947. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ...


There is a potential succession crisis since no male child has been born into the imperial family since Prince Akishino in 1965. Following the birth of Princess Aiko, there was some public debate about amending the Imperial Household Law to allow women to succeed to the throne. In January 2005 Prime Minister Koizumi Junichiro appointed a special panel comprised of judges, university professors, and civil servants to study changes to the Imperial Household Law and to make recommendations to the government. On October 25, 2005, the commission recommended amending the law to allow females in the male line of imperial descent to succeed to the throne. There is broad public support for such a change. See Japanese Imperial succession controversy. 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... Princess Toshi (Aiko) of Japan (敬宮愛子内親王殿下 Toshi no miya Aiko naishinnō denka), born December 1, 2001, is the only child of Their Imperial Highnesses Crown Prince Naruhito, heir apparent to the Japanese throne, and Crown Princess Masako. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Junichiro Koizumi Junichiro Koizumi (小泉 純一郎 Koizumi Junichirō, born January 8, 1942) is a Japanese politician and the 87th, and current, Prime Minister of Japan. ... October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 67 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Japanese Imperial succession controversy refers to the question of whether Japans laws of succession should be changed from male-only primogeniture to equal primogeniture - that is, allowing women of the Imperial house to inherit the Chrysanthemum Throne. ...


Current order of succession

  Belgium An order of succession is a formula or algorithm that determines who inherits an office upon the death, resignation, or removal of its current occupant. ... A monarchy, (from the Greek monos, one, and archein, to rule) is a form of government that has a monarch as Head of State. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium. ...


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  1. His Imperial Highness Crown Prince Naruhito, the current Emperor's first son
  2. His Imperial Highness Prince Akishino (Fumihito), the current Emperor's second son
  3. His Imperial Highness Prince Hitachi (Masahito), the current Emperor's brother
  4. His Imperial Highness Prince Mikasa (Takahito), the current Emperor's uncle
  5. His Imperial Highness Prince Tomohito of Mikasa, Prince Mikasa's first son (the current Emperor's eldest male cousin)
  6. His Imperial Highness Prince Katsura (Yoshihito), Prince Mikasa's second son (the current Emperor's second eldest male cousin)

Except for Prince Mikasa, none of the princes now in the line of succession have sons. Crown Prince Naruhito has a daughter (Aiko), Prince Akishino has two daughters (Mako and Kako). The emperor's brother, Prince Hitachi, is childless. Of the three sons of Prince Mikasa: Prince Tomohito of Mikasa has two daughters (Akiko and Yōko), Prince Katsura is childless, and the late Prince Takamado had three daughters (Tsuguko, Noriko, and Ayako). Crown Prince Naruhito (徳仁皇太子殿下 Naruhito Kōtaishi Denka) (born at Togu Palace, Tokyo February 23, 1960) is the eldest son of His Majesty Emperor Akihito and Her Majesty Empress Michiko. ... Prince and Princess Akishino after the funeral of Grand Duchess Josephine-Charlotte of Luxembourg His Imperial Highness Prince Akishino (秋篠宮文仁親王殿下 akishino no miya fumihito denka) also known as Prince Fumihito (文仁親王 fumihito shinnō) (born 30 November 1965) is a member of the Japanese imperial family. ... His Imperial Highness Prince Hitachi (Masahito) of Japan (jp: 常陸宮 , Hitachi no miya Mashahito Shinnō) (28 November 1935) is a member of the Japanese imperial family and the younger brother of the Emperor Akihito. ... His Imperial Highness, Prince Mikasa (Takahito) of Japan (Mikasa no miya Takahito Shinnō; born December 15, 1915) is the fourth and youngest son of the Emperor Taishō and the Empress Teimei. ... Prince Tomohito of Mikasa (三笠宮寬仁 Mikasa-no-miya Tomohito shinnō), eldest son of the current HIH Prince Mikasa and HIH Princess Mikasa (Yuriko). ... His Imperial Highness Prince Katsura (Yoshihito) of Japan (jp: æ¡‚å®®, Katsura no miya Yoshihito Shinnō) (11 February 1948) is the second son of Prince and Princess Mikasa and a first cousin of Emperor Akihito. ...


Possible succession solutions

Aside from amending the Imperial Household Law to allow women to succeed to the throne, there are a limited number of viable solutions.

  1. Crown Prince Naruhito attempts to produce a male heir.
  2. Prince Akishino attempts to produce a male heir.
  3. Prince Katsura could marry and produce a male heir.

In theory, one the other male members of the Imperial Family could have a son, but this is considered to very unlikely for various reasons. The remaining members of the Imperial Family are all female, namely the daughters of the above mentioned princes. These female members would all lose their Imperial status upon marrying a commoner. Since there are no eligible male members of the Imperial Family for them to marry, they will all eventually become commoners. Furthermore, according to the succession law, an heir must descend from the male line, thus excluding any children from any of these princesses. Theoretically, the Imperial Family may come to end after the last male heir dies. Naruhito is a Japanese name, used for males, normally only of the imperial family. ... Prince and Princess Akishino after the funeral of Grand Duchess Josephine-Charlotte of Luxembourg His Imperial Highness Prince Akishino (秋篠宮文仁親王殿下 akishino no miya fumihito denka) also known as Prince Fumihito (文仁親王 fumihito shinnō) (born 30 November 1965) is a member of the Japanese imperial family. ... His Imperial Highness Prince Katsura (Yoshihito) of Japan (jp: æ¡‚å®®, Katsura no miya Yoshihito Shinnō) (11 February 1948) is the second son of Prince and Princess Mikasa and a first cousin of Emperor Akihito. ...


On February 6, 2006, it was announced that The Prince Akishino's wife Princess Kiko is pregnant. If the baby is male, he will be third in line to the throne. [1] February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... HIH Princess Kiko Her Imperial Highness Princess Akishino (秋篠宮紀子親王妃 akishino no miya kiko shinnōhi), née Kawashima Kiko (川島紀子), (born 11 September 1966), is the wife of Prince Akishino (Fumihito), the second son of the Emperor Akihito and the Empress Michiko, and a member of the Japanese imperial family through marriage. ...


History of titles

Ō (王) is a title (commonly translated Prince) given to male members of the Japanese Imperial Family who do not have the higher title of shinnō. The female equivalent is nyoō (女王). Ō can also be translated as "king". The origin of this double meaning is a copying of the Chinese pattern. Unlike in China, however, ō was only used for Imperial Family members. Interestingly, "queen" is joō, using the same characters as nyoō. Wang (King) and Huangdi (Emperor) The King or Wang (王 wang2) was the title of the Chinese head of state from the Zhou dynasty until the Qin dynasty. ...


Historically, any male member of the Imperial Family was titled ō by default, with shinnō (親王; literally relative-prince) and its female equivalent naishinnō (内親王; literally internal relative-princess) being special titles granted by the Emperor. After the Meiji Restoration, the difference between ō and shinnō were altered. A shinnō or naishinnō was a legitimate Imperial Family member descended from an Emperor down to the great grandchild. The term "legitimate Imperial Family" excludes anyone not connected by a direct male line descent, as well as the descendants of anyone who renounced their membership in the Imperial Family, or were expelled from the Imperial Family. Shinnō also included the heads of any of the shinnōke. A provision of law which never had an opportunity to be applied also stipulated that if the head of a shinnōke succeeded to the Chrysanthemum Throne, then his brothers would acquire the title of shinnō, as well as their descendants (down to the grandchildren?). The Emperor could also specially grant the title of shinnō to any ō. His Majesty Emperor Akihito of Japan Imperial Seal of Japan The Emperor (天皇 tennō, literally heavenly sovereign) is a constitutionally-recognized symbol of the Japanese nation and the unity of its people. ... The Meiji Restoration (Japanese: 明治維新, Meiji-ishin), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to a change in Japans political and social structure. ... Shinnōke (literally shinnō houses) were the collective name of four cadet branches of the Imperial Household of Japan, entitled to provide a successor to the Chrysanthemum throne if the main line failed to produce an heir. ... The Breast Star of the Order of the Chrysanthemum The Chrysanthemum Throne is the common name given to the Imperial throne of Japan. ...


In 1947, the law was changed so that shinnō only extended to the male-line grandchildren of an Emperor. The Imperial Family was also drastically pruned, disestablishing the ōke and shinnōke. The consort of an ō or shinnō has the suffix -hi (妃) to ō or shinnō. 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ...


Related terms

His Majesty Emperor Akihito of Japan Imperial Seal of Japan The Emperor (天皇 tennō, literally heavenly sovereign) is a constitutionally-recognized symbol of the Japanese nation and the unity of its people. ... Shinnōke (literally shinnō houses) were the collective name of four cadet branches of the Imperial Household of Japan, entitled to provide a successor to the Chrysanthemum throne if the main line failed to produce an heir. ... The ōke (王家), literally Prince Houses, were branches of the Imperial Family formed from branches of the Fushimi-no-miya house. ...

Shinnōke

  • Fushimi
  • Katsura
  • Arisugawa (extinct)
  • Kan'in (extinct)

The Fushimi House (伏見宮) is the oldest of the shinnōke, branches of the Imperial Family which are eligible to succeed to the Chrysanthemum Throne if the main line should die out. ... The Katsura House (桂宮) is one of the shinnōke, a branch of the Imperial Family which is eligible to succeed to the Chrysanthemum Throne if the main line should die out. ... The Arisugawa-no-miya house (有栖川宮家) is one of the shinnōke, branches of the Imperial Family which are eligible to succeed to the Chrysanthemum Throne in the event that the main line should die out. ... The Kanin-no-miya house (閑院宮家) is the youngest of the four shinnōke. ...

Ōke

  • Nashimoto
  • Kuni
  • Yamashina (extinct)
  • Kachō or Kwachō (extinct)
  • Kitashirakawa
  • Higashifushimi (extinct)
  • Kaya
  • Asaka
  • Higashikuni
  • Takeda

See also

An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... Emperor is also a Norwegian black metal band; see Emperor (band). ... Crown Princess redirects here, for the ship, see Crown Princess (ship). ... A royal family is the extended family of a monarch. ... A monarchy, (from the Greek monos, one, and archein, to rule) is a form of government that has a monarch as Head of State. ... Look up monarch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term prince (the female form is princess), from the Latin root princeps, when used for a member of the highest aristocracy, has several fundamentally different meanings - one generic, and several types of titles. ... Princess is the feminine form of prince (Latin princeps, meaning principal citizen). ... An order of succession is a formula or algorithm that determines who inherits an office upon the death, resignation, or removal of its current occupant. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Imperial Household of Japan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2228 words)
His Imperial Majesty The Emperor (Akihito) was born at the Imperial Palace in Tokyo on 23 December 1930, the elder son and sixth child of the Shôwa Emperor and Empress Kōjun (Nagako).
Her Imperial Highness The Crown Princess (Masako) was born on 6 December 1963, the daughter of Hisashi Owada, former minister of foreign affairs and former permanent representative of Japan to the United Nations.
Her Imperial Highness Princess Takamado (Hisako) is the widow of His Imperial Highness Prince Takamado (Norihito) (born 29 December 1954, died 21 November 2002), the third son of The Prince and The Princess Mikasa and a first cousin of Emperor Akihito.
Welcome to the Imperial Household Agency Homepage (772 words)
This homepage presents an introduction to the official duties and various public activities of Their Majesties the Emperor and Empress, and other members of the Imperial Family, carried out both at the Imperial Palace and outside, the latter including their official visits within Japan and their fostering of friendly relations with foreign countries.
Her Imperial Highness Princess Sayako relinquished her position as a member of the Imperial Family on 15 November, 2005 by marriage, but this homepage presents an introduction for the time being.
Press Conference on the Occasion of the Visit by Her Imperial Highness Princess Sayako to the Oriental Republic of Uruguay and the Republic of Honduras(2003)
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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