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Encyclopedia > Impeachment
Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868.
Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868.

In the constitutions of several countries, impeachment is the first of two stages in a specific process for a legislative body to remove a government official without that official's agreement. The second stage is called conviction. Download high resolution version (1208x801, 243 KB)The Senate as a Court of Impeachment for the Trial of Andrew Johnson Theodore R. Davis, artist, illustration in Harpers Weekly, April 11, 1868. ... Download high resolution version (1208x801, 243 KB)The Senate as a Court of Impeachment for the Trial of Andrew Johnson Theodore R. Davis, artist, illustration in Harpers Weekly, April 11, 1868. ... Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 – July 31, 1875) was the seventeenth President of the United States (1865–1869), succeeding to the presidency upon the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. ...


Impeachment is so rare that the term is often misunderstood. A typical misconception is to confuse it with involuntary removal from office; in fact, it is only the legal statement of charges, parallelling an indictment in criminal law. An official who is impeached faces a second legislative vote (whether by the same body or another), which determines conviction, or failure to convict, on the charges embodied by the impeachment. Most constitutions require a supermajority to convict. In the common law legal system, an indictment (IPA: ) is a formal charge of having committed a most serious criminal offense. ... Criminal law (also known as penal law) is the body of statutory and common law that deals with crime and the legal punishment of criminal offenses. ... A supermajority or a qualified majority is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level or type of support which exceeds a simple majority in order to have effect. ...


One tradition of impeachment has its origins in the law of England and Wales, where the procedure last took place in 1806. Impeachment exists under constitutional law in many nations around the world, including the United States, India, Brazil, Russia, the Philippines, the Republic of Ireland, and Kyrgyzstan.[1] See also Constitution of Kyrgyzstan. English law is a formal term of art that describes the law for the time being in force in England and Wales. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Supreme Council of Kyrgyzstan approved the Constitution of Kyrgyzstan on 8 November, 2006 following several months of political discord. ...


Etymologically, the word "impeachment" derives from Latin roots expressing the idea of becoming caught or entrapped, and has analogues in the modern French verb empêcher (to prevent) and the modern English impede. Medieval popular etymology also associated it (wrongly) with derivations from the Latin impetere (to attack). (In its more frequent and more technical usage, impeachment of a person in the role of a witness is the act challenging the honesty or credibility of that person.) Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Witness impeachment, in the law of evidence, is the process of calling into question the credibility of an individual who is testifying in a trial. ... This article is about witnesses in law courts. ...


The process should not be confused with recall election. A recall election is usually initiated by voters and can be based on "political charges", for example mismanagement, whereas impeachment is initiated by a constitutional body (usually a legislative body) and is usually based, but not always, on indictable offenses. The process of removing the official is also different. A recall election is a procedure by which voters can remove an elected official from office. ...

Contents

United Kingdom

Procedure

In the United Kingdom, the House of Commons technically (though never tested) holds the power of initiating an impeachment. Any member may make accusations of high treason or high crimes and misdemeanors. The member must support the charges with evidence and move for impeachment. If the Commons carries the motion, the mover receives orders to go to the bar at the House of Lords and to impeach the accused "in the name of the House of Commons, and all the commons of the United Kingdom." The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... {{main|Treason}} High treason, broadly defined, is an action which is grossly disloyal to ones country or sovereign. ... High crimes and misdemeanors is a phrase from the United States Constitution, Article II, Section 4: The President, Vice President and all civil officers of the United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. ... A motion is a formal step to introduce a matter for consideration by a group. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ...


The House of Lords hears the case, with the Lord Chancellor presiding (or the Lord High Steward if the impeachment relates to a peer accused of high treason). The hearing resembles an ordinary trial: both sides may call witnesses and present evidence. At the end of the hearing the Lord , and after all have voted, proceeds to deal with any remaining articles similarly. Upon being called, a Lord must rise and declare upon his honour, "Guilty" or "Not Guilty". After voting on all of the articles has taken place, and if the Lords find the defendant guilty, the Commons may move for judgment; the Lords may not declare the punishment until the Commons have so moved. The Lords may then provide whatever punishment they find fit, within the law. A Royal Pardon cannot excuse the defendant from trial, but a Pardon may reprieve a convicted defendant. This article is about the British House of Lords. ... The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and prior to the Union the Chancellor of England and the Lord Chancellor of Scotland, is a senior and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom, and its predecessor states. ... The position of Lord High Steward of England, not to be confused with the Lord Steward, a court functionary, is the first of the Great Officers of State. ... For other uses, see Peerage (disambiguation). ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In April 1996 the Young Liberals' annual conference unanimously passed a motion to call on the Liberal leader (David Steel) to move for the impeachment of Ronald King Murray QC, the Lord Advocate. Mr. Steel did not call the motion but Murray (now Lord Murray, a former Senator of the College of Justice of Scotland) agrees that the Commons still have the right to initiate an impeachment motion. On 25 August 2004, Plaid Cymru MP Adam Price announced his intention to move for the impeachment of Tony Blair for his role in involving Britain in the 2003 invasion of Iraq. In response Peter Hain, the Commons Leader, insisted that impeachment was obsolete, given modern government's responsibility to parliament. Ironically, Peter Hain had served as president of the Young Liberals when they called for the impeachment of Mr. Murray in 1977. The Young Liberal Movement, or the Young Liberals, is the youth-division of the Liberal Party of Australia, and membership is open to those between 16 and 30 years of age. ... This article is about the historic Liberal Party. ... David Martin Scott Steel, Baron Steel of Aikwood KT PC KBE (born March 31, 1938) is a British and Scottish politician and a Liberal Democrat member of the UK House of Lords. ... Media:Example. ... Her Majestys Advocate, known as the Lord Advocate (Morair Tagraidh in Scottish Gaelic) is the chief legal adviser to the Scottish Executive and the Crown in Scotland for both civil and criminal matters that fall within the devolved powers of the Scottish Parliament. ... The Senators of the College of Justice, and the Chairman of the Scottish Land Court (who ranks as a Senator), in order of appointment: The Rt Hon. ... August 25 is the 237th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (238th in leap years), with 128 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Plaid Cymru (pronounced IPA: ) – The Party of Wales, is the principal nationalist political party in Wales. ... Adam Robert Price (born September 23, 1968, Carmarthen) is a politician in Wales, and Plaid Cymru Member of Parliament for Carmarthen East and Dinefwr. ... UK Prime Minister Tony Blair. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... Combatants Coalition Forces: United States United Kingdom South Korea Australia Poland Romania others. ... Peter Gerald Hain (born February 16, 1950, Nairobi, Kenya) is a British Labour Party politician, Secretary of State for Northern Ireland and Secretary of State for Wales. ... The Leader of the House of Commons is a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom who is responsible for arranging government business in the House of Commons. ... Peter Gerald Hain (born February 16, 1950, Nairobi, Kenya) is a British Labour Party politician, Secretary of State for Northern Ireland and Secretary of State for Wales. ...


In 2006, General Sir Michael Rose revived the call for the impeachment of the United Kingdom's Prime Minister, Tony Blair, for leading the country into the invasion of Iraq in 2003 under false pretenses. This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Look up sir in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... General Sir (Hugh) Michael Rose, KCB, CBE (born 1940 in what was then British India) is a retired British Army General. ... A prime minister is the very most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... For other uses of the term, see Iraq war (disambiguation) The 2003 invasion of Iraq (also called the 2nd or 3rd Persian Gulf War) began on March 20, 2003, when forces belonging primarily to the United States and the United Kingdom invaded Iraq without the explicit backing of the United...


United States

The impeachment trial of President Bill Clinton in 1999, Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist presiding. The House managers are seated beside the quarter-circular tables on the left and the president's personal counsel on the right, much in the fashion of President Andrew Johnson's trial.
The impeachment trial of President Bill Clinton in 1999, Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist presiding. The House managers are seated beside the quarter-circular tables on the left and the president's personal counsel on the right, much in the fashion of President Andrew Johnson's trial.

In the United States, impeachment can occur both at the federal and state level. At the federal level, different standards apply when the impeachment involves a member of the executive branch or of the judiciary (and dispute currently exists over the use of impeachment against members of the legislative branch.) For the executive branch, only those who have allegedly committed "treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors" may be impeached. Although treason and bribery are obvious, the Constitution is silent on what constitutes a "high crime or misdemeanor." Several commentators have suggested that Congress alone may decide for itself what constitutes an impeachable offense. In 1970, then-Representative Gerald R. Ford defined the criteria as he saw it: "An impeachable offense is whatever a majority of the House of Representatives considers it to be at a given moment in history." Four years later, Ford would assume the Presidency, following the resignation of President Richard Nixon. (Nixon resigned following a committee vote to approve impeachment proceedings, but before actual impeachment by the full House.) The impeachment trial of President Bill Clinton in 1999, Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist presiding. ... Image File history File links Senate_in_session. ... Image File history File links Senate_in_session. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... William H. Rehnquist has served as the Chief Justice of the United States since 1986. ... The executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law and running the day-to-day affairs of the government or state. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      In law, the judiciary or judicial is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... Traitor redirects here. ... Bribery is a crime implying a sum or gift given alters the behaviour of the person in ways not consistent with the duties of that person. ... Type Bicameralism Houses Senate House of Representatives United States Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, D, since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, D, since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups (as of November 7, 2006 elections) Democratic Party Republican... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ...


The standard for impeachment among the judiciary is much broader. Article III of the Constitution states that judges remain in office "during good behavior," implying that Congress may remove a judge for bad behavior. The standard for impeachment of members of the legislature is/would be the same as the Executive standard, "treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors."


The central question regarding the Constitutional dispute about the impeachment of members of the legislature is this: Are members of Congress "officers" of the United States? The Constitution grants to the House the power to impeach "The President, the Vice President, and all civil Officers of the United States." Many believe firmly that Members of Congress are not "officers of the United States." Many others, however, believe that Members are civil Officers and are subject to impeachment. The House of Representatives did impeach a Senator once, Senator William Blount. The Senate expelled Senator Blount and, after initially hearing his impeachment, dismissed the charges for lack of jurisdiction. Left unsettled was the question "Are members of Congress civil officers of the United States?" In modern times, expulsion has become the preferred (albeit rare) method of dealing with errant Members of Congress, as each House has the authority to expel their own members—without involving the other chamber, as impeachment would require. For the English scholar see William Blount, 4th Baron Mountjoy. ...


The impeachment procedure is in two steps. The House of Representatives must first pass "articles of impeachment" by a simple majority. (All fifty state legislatures as well as the District of Columbia city council may also pass articles of impeachment against their own executives.) The articles of impeachment constitute the formal allegations. Upon their passage, the defendant has been "impeached." Seal of the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress, the other being the Senate. ... ...


Next, the Senate tries the accused. In the case of the impeachment of a President, the Chief Justice of the United States presides over the proceedings. Otherwise, the Vice President, in his capacity as President of the Senate, or the President pro tempore of the Senate presides. This may include the impeachment of the Vice President him- or herself, although legal theories suggest that allowing a person to be the judge in the case where she or he was the defendant wouldn't be permitted. If the Vice President did not preside over an impeachment (of someone other than the President), the duties would fall to the President Pro Tempore. Seal of the U.S. Senate Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      Senate composition following 2006 elections The United States Senate is... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial branch of... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of... Robert C. Byrd of West Virginia the current President pro tempore of the United States Senate. ... A President Pro Tempore is a constitutionally recognized officer of the United States Senate who presides over the chamber in the absence of the President of the Senate. ...


In order to convict the accused, a two-thirds majority of the senators present is required. Conviction automatically removes the defendant from office. Following conviction, the Senate may vote to further punish the individual by barring them from holding future federal office (either elected or appointed). Despite a conviction by the Senate, the defendant remains liable to criminal prosecution. It is possible to impeach someone even after the accused has vacated their office in order to disqualify the person from future office or from certain emoluments of their prior office (such as a pension). If a two-thirds majority of the senators present does not vote "Guilty" on one or more of the charges, the defendant is acquitted and no punishment is imposed. A two-thirds majority is a common supermajoritarian requirement in elections, especially whenever minority rights can be changed (e. ... A two-thirds majority is a common supermajoritarian requirement in elections, especially whenever minority rights can be changed (e. ...


Congress regards impeachment as a power to be used only in extreme cases; the House has initiated impeachment proceedings only 62 times since 1789 (most recently President Clinton), and only the following 17 federal officers have been impeached: 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...

  • two presidents:
  • one cabinet officer, William W. Belknap (Secretary of War). He resigned before his trial, and was later acquitted. Allegedly most of those who voted to acquit him believed that his resignation had removed their jurisdiction.
  • one Senator, William Blount (though the Senate had already expelled him).
  • Associate Justice Samuel Chase in 1804. He was acquitted.
  • twelve other federal judges, including Alcee Hastings, who was impeached and convicted for allegedly taking over $150,000 in bribe money in exchange for sentencing leniency. The Senate did not bar Hastings from holding future office, and Hastings won election to the House of Representatives from South Florida. Hastings' name was mentioned as a possible Chairman of the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, but was passed over by House Speaker-designate Nancy Pelosi, presumably because of his previous impeachment and removal. Source U.S. Senate

Many mistakenly assume Richard Nixon was impeached, but he wasn't. While the House Judiciary Committee did approve articles of impeachment against him (by wide margins) and did report those articles to the full House, Nixon resigned prior to House consideration of the impeachment resolutions. Both his impeachment by the House of Representatives and his conviction by the Senate were near certainties; Nixon reportedly decided to resign after being told this by Republican Senator Barry Goldwater. The presidential seal was first used in 1880 by President Rutherford B. Hayes and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. ... Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 – July 31, 1875) was the seventeenth President of the United States (1865–1869), succeeding to the presidency upon the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. ... 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The Tenure of Office Act, passed in 1867 over the veto of President Andrew Johnson, denied the President of the United States the power to remove from office anyone who had been appointed or approved by Congress, unless the removal was also approved by Congress. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... The impeachment trial of President Bill Clinton in 1999, Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist presiding. ... December 19 is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... Seal of the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress, the other being the Senate. ... Perjury is the act of lying or making verifiably false statements on a material matter under oath or affirmation in a court of law or in any of various sworn statements in writing. ... A grand jury is a type of jury, in the common law legal system, which determines if there is enough evidence for a trial. ... Modern Obstruction of Justice, in a common law state, refers to the crime of offering interference of any sort to the work of police, investigators, regulatory agencies, prosecutors, or other (usually government) officials. ... Perjury is the act of lying or making verifiably false statements on a material matter under oath or affirmation in a court of law or in any of various sworn statements in writing. ... ‹The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ... William Worth Belknap (September 22, 1829 – October 13, 1890) was a United States Army general, government administrator, and United States Secretary of War. ... A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... For the English scholar see William Blount, 4th Baron Mountjoy. ... Associate Justice or Puisne (pronounced puny) Justice is the title for a member of a judicial panel who is not the Chief Justice. ... Samuel Chase (April 17, 1741 – June 19, 1811), was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court and a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of Maryland. ... A federal judge is a judge appointed in accordance with Article III of the United States Constitution. ... Alcee Lamar Hastings (born September 5, 1936) is a member of the United States House of Representatives representing the 23rd District of Florida (map). ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998[1]) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for President in the 1964 election. ...


Other jurisdictions

  • Austria: The Austrian Federal President can be impeached by the Federal Assembly (Bundesversammlung) before the Constitutional Court. The constitution also provides for the recall of the president by a referendum. Neither of these courses has ever been taken, likely because the President is an unobtrusive and largely ceremonial figurehead who, having little power, is hardly in a position to abuse it.
  • Brazil: The President of Federative Republic of Brazil can be impeached. This happened to Fernando Collor de Mello, due to evidences of bribery and misappropriation. State governors and mayors can also be impeached, though only the latter has actually happened.
  • Germany: The Federal President of Germany can be impeached both by the Bundestag and by the Bundesrat for willfully violating German law. Once the Bundestag or the Bundesrat impeaches the president, the Federal Constitutional Court decides whether the President is guilty as charged and, if this is the case, whether to remove him or her from office. No such case has yet occurred, not the least because the President's functions are mostly ceremonial and he or she seldom makes controversial decisions. The Federal Constitutional Court also has the power to remove federal judges from office for willfully violating core principles of the federal constitution or a state constitution.
  • Iran: Member of Majlis representatives and the Supreme Leader can remove the President. In January 1980, Abolhassan Banisadr, then the president of Iran, was impeached by the Majlis representatives in June, 1981.
  • Norway: Members of government, representatives of the national assembly (Stortinget) and Supreme Court judges can be impeached for criminal offences tied to their duties and committed in office, according to the Constitution of 1814, §§ 86 and 87. The procedural rules were modelled on the US rules and are quite similar to them. Impeachment has been used 8 times since 1814, last in 1927. Many argue that impeachment has fallen into desuetude.
  • The Philippines: The President of The Philippines can be impeached by the Philippine House of Representatives with at least one-thirds vote. After the House of Representatives files the case in the Senate of the Philippines, the Senate can start an investigation. When at least two-thirds of members of the Senate of The Philippines vote to convict the President of The Philippines, the President shall be removed from office.
  • Russia: The President of Russia can be impeached if both the State Duma (which initiates the impeachment process through the formation of a special investigation committee) and the Federation Council of Russia vote by a two-thirds majority in favor of impeachment and, additionally, the Supreme Court finds the President guilty of treason or a similarly heavy crime against the nation. In 1995-1999, the Duma made several attempts to impeach then-President Boris Yeltsin, but they never had a sufficient amount of votes for the process to reach the Federation Council.
  • Taiwan: Officials can be impeached by a two-thirds vote in the Legislative Yuan together with an absolute majority in a referendum. President Chen Shui-bian is currently being impeached.

The Leopoldine Wing of Hofburg Imperial Palace in Vienna: home to the offices of the Federal President. ... The Federal Assembly of Austria or Österreichische Bundesversammlung is a federal-level deliberative body consisting of the members of the two houses of the Austrian parliament, the National Council and the Federal Council, in joint session. ... Ballots of the Argentine plebiscite of 1984 on the border treaty with Chile A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Fernando Affonso Collor de Mello, pron. ... The President of Germany (German: Bundespräsident, formerly Reichspräsident) is Germanys head of state. ... The Bundestag (Federal Diet) is the parliament of Germany. ... The Bundesrat (federal council) is the representation of the 16 Federal States (Bundesländer) of Germany at the federal level. ... The Bundesverfassungsgericht The Federal Constitutional Court (in German: Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) is a special court established by the German constitutional document, the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). ... The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution of modern Germany. ... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ... In law, desuetude (from the French word désuet, outdated) is a doctrine that causes statutes, similar legislation, or legal principles to lapse and become unenforceable by a long habit of non-enforcement or lapse of time; it is what happens to unrepealed laws when they become obsolete. ... The President of the Philippines is the head of state and government of the Republic of the Philippines. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      House of Representatives is a name used for legislative bodies in many countries. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      House of Representatives is a name used for legislative bodies in many countries. ... The Senate of the Philippines is the upper chamber of the bicameral legislature of the Philippines, the Congress of the Philippines. ... The President of the Philippines is the head of state and government of the Republic of the Philippines. ... The President of Russia (ru: Президент России is the highest position within the Government of Russia. ... For other uses, see State Duma (disambiguation). ... Federation Council of Russia (Russian: ; Sovet Federatsii) is the upper house of the Federal Assembly of Russia (parliament of the Russian Federation), according to the 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation. ... The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation (Russian: ) is the final instance in administrative law, civil law and criminal law cases. ... Traitor redirects here. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... “Yeltsin” redirects here. ... The Legislative Yuan building in Zhongzheng District, Taipei City (the view is partially obscured by the childrens hospital building of the National Taiwan University Hospital). ... Absolute majority is a supermajoritarian voting requirement which is stricter than a simple majority. ... Chen Shui-bian, President of the Republic of China Chen Shui-bian (ch. ...

Presidents who were removed from office following impeachment

Abolhassan Banisadr Abolhassan Banisadr (Persian: ابوالحسن بنی‌صدر;born March 22, 1933) was the first elected President of Iran after the 1979 Iranian Revolution. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Fernando Affonso Collor de Mello, pron. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... Carlos Andrés Pérez Rodríguez (born October 27, 1922), best known as CAP was President of Venezuela from 1974 to 1979 and again from 1989 to 1993. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... Raúl Cubas Grau (born August 23, 1943) was the President of Paraguay from 1998 until 1999. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Rolandas Paksas ( (help· info)) (born 10 June 1956 in Telšiai, Lithuania) is a well known politician in Lithuania and currently heads the Liberal Democrats Party in Lithuania. ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

The impeachment trial of President Bill Clinton in 1999, Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist presiding. ... Main article: Andrés Manuel López Obrador Desafuero refers, in Spanish, to the process through which a government official immunity to criminal prosecution is removed. ...

References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Impeachment - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2261 words)
In the constitutions of several countries, impeachment is the first of two stages in a specific process for a legislative body to remove a government official without that official's agreement.
Furthermore, impeachment as a means of punishment for wrongdoing, as distinct from being a means of removing a minister, remains a valid reason for accepting that is continues to be available, at least in theory.
President Bill Clinton was impeached on December 19, 1998 by the House of Representatives on grounds of perjury to a grand jury (by a 228-206 vote) and obstruction of justice (by a 221-212 vote).
Impeachment - definition of Impeachment in Encyclopedia (2127 words)
Impeachment is the process by which a legislative body formally levels charges against a high official of government.
Impeachment does not necessarily mean removal from office; it comprises only a formal statement of charges, akin to an indictment in criminal law, and thus is only the first step towards possible removal.
Because impeachment and conviction of officials involves an overturning of the normal constitutional procedures by which individuals achieve high office (election, ratification, or appointment) and because it generally requires a supermajority, typically only those deemed to have seriously abused their offices will suffer impeachment.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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