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Encyclopedia > Immunity (medical)

Immunity is a medical term that describes a state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion. Immunity involves both specific and non-specific components. The non-specific components act either as barriers or as eliminators of pathogens to stop infection by micro-organisms before they can cause disease. Other components of the immune system adapt themselves to each new disease encountered and are able to generate pathogen-specific immunity. An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... The term disease refers to an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs function. ...


Specific, or adaptive immunity is often sub-divided into two major types depending on how the immunity was introduced. Natural immunity occurs through contact with a disease causing agent, when the contact was not deliberate, whereas artificial immunity develops only through deliberate actions. Both natural and artificial immunity can be further subdivided, depending on the amount of time the protection lasts. Passive immunity is short lived, and usually lasts only a few months, whereas protection via active immunity lasts much longer, and is sometimes life-long. The diagram below summarizes these divisions of immunity. Immunity against some infections that can cause serious illness is generally beneficial. ...

Contents

A further subdivision of adaptive immunity is characterized by the cells involved; humoral immunity is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by secreted antibodies, whereas the protection provided by cell mediated immunity involves T-lymphocytes alone. Humoral immunity is active when the organism generates it’s own antibodies, and passive when antibodies are transferred between individuals. Similarly, cell mediated immunity is active when the organisms’ own T-cells are stimulated and passive when T cells come from another organism.
Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1412x525, 20 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Immunity (medical) ... Humoral immunity is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by secreted antibodies, produced in the cells of the B lymphocyte lineage (B cell). ... Cell-mediated immunity is an immune response that does not involve antibodies but rather involves the activation of macrophages and NK-cells, the production of antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen. ...


History of theories of immunity

A representation of the cholera epidemic of the nineteenth century.
A representation of the cholera epidemic of the nineteenth century.

The concept of immunity has intrigued mankind for thousands of years. The prehistoric view of disease was that it was caused by supernatural forces, and that illness was a form of theurgic punishment for “bad deeds” or “evil thoughts” visited upon the soul by the gods or by one’s enemies.[1] Between the time of Hippocrates and the 19th century, when the foundations of the scientific method were laid, diseases were attributed to an alteration or imbalance in one of the four humors (blood, phlegm, yellow bile or black bile).[2] Also popular during this time was the miasma theory, which held that diseases such as cholera or the Black Plague were caused by a miasma, a noxious form of "bad air".[1] If someone were exposed to the miasma, they could get the disease. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Cholera (frequently called Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is a severe diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... In epidemiology, an epidemic (from [[Latin language] epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during... Theurgy describes the practice of rituals, sometimes seen as magical in nature, performed with the intention of invoking the action of God (or other personified supernatural power), especially with the goal of uniting with the divine, or perfecting or improving oneself. ... Hippocrates of Cos II or Hippokrates of Kos (ca. ... The four humours were four fluids that were thought to permeate the body and influence its health. ... The miasmatic theory of disease held that diseases such as cholera or the Black Death were caused by a miasma (Greek language: pollution), a noxious form of bad air. A representation of the cholera epidemic of the nineteenth century depicts the spread of the disease in the form of poisonous... Cholera (frequently called Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is a severe diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... This article concerns the epidemic of the mid-14th century. ... The miasma theory of disease held that diseases like cholera were caused by a miasma (Greek language: pollution), a noxious form of bad air. The miasma theory was consistent with the observations that: disease was associated with poor sanitation (and hence foul odors) and that sanitary improvements reduced disease, but...


The modern word “immunity” derives from the latin immunis, meaning exemption from military service, tax payments or other public services.[3] The first written descriptions of the concept of immunity may have been made by the Athenian Thucydides who, in 430 BC, described that when the plague hit Athens “the sick and the dying were tended by the pitying care of those who had recovered, because they knew the course of the disease and were themselves free from apprehensions. For no one was ever attacked a second time, or not with a fatal result.[3] The term “immunes”, is also found in the epic poem “Pharsalia” written around 60 B.C. by the poet Marcus Annaeus Lucanus to describe a North African tribe’s resistance to snake venom.[2] Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα - Athína) is the largest city and capital of Greece, located in the Attica periphery of central Greece. ... In Roman literature, the Pharsalia (also known as the Bellum civile) is an epic poem by the poet Lucan. ... Marcus Annaeus Lucanus (November 3, AD 39-April 30, 65), better known in English as Lucan, was a Roman poet, and is one of the outstanding figures of the Silver Latin period. ... // Snake venom is a highly modified saliva that is produced by special glands. ...


The first clinical description of immunity which arose from a specific disease causing organism is probably Kitab fi al-jadari wa-al-hasbah (A Treatise on Smallpox and Measles, translated 1848[4]) written by the Islamic physician Al-Razi in the 9th century. In the treatise, Al Razi describes the clinical presentation of smallpox and measles and goes on to indicate that that exposure to these specific agents confers lasting immunity (although he does not use this term).[2] However, it was with Louis Pasteur’s Germ theory of disease that the fledgling science of immunology began to explain how bacteria caused disease, and how, following infection, the human body gained the ability to resist further insults.[3] Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Not to be confused with Fakhr al-Din al-Razi. ... Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist best known for his remarkable breakthroughs in microbiology. ... The germ theory of disease, also called the pathogenic theory of medicine, is a theory that proposes that microorganisms are the cause of many diseases. ... Immunology is a broad branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. ...


The birth of passive immunotherapy may have begun with Mithridates VI of Pontus, who sought to harden himself against poison, and took daily sub-lethal doses of poison to build tolerance. Mithridates is also said to have fashioned a 'universal antidote' to protect him from all earthly poisons.[2] For nearly 2000 years, poisons were thought to be the proximate cause of disease, and a complicated mixture of ingredients, called Mithridate, was used to cure poisoning during the Renaissance.[2] An updated version of this cure, Theriacum Andromachi, was used well into the 19th century.[5] A silver coin depicting Mithradates VI of Pontus. ... In Philosophy a Proximate Cause is an event which is closest, or immediately responsible, for producing some observed result. ... Elaborately-gilded drug jar for storing mithridate. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... When King Mithridates was defeated by the Romans they got the recipe for Antidotum Mithridates, a universal antidote created by Mithridates himself. ...

Louis Pasteur in his laboratory, 1885.

In 1888 Emile Roux and Alexandre Yersin isolated diphtheria toxin, and following the 1890 discovery by Behring and Kitasato of antitoxin based immunity to diphtheria and tetanus, the antitoxin became the first major success of modern therapeutic Immunology.[2] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (574x680, 390 KB) from fr. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (574x680, 390 KB) from fr. ... Emile Roux Pierre Paul Emile Roux (b. ... Alexandre Emile John Yersin (September 22, 1863 - March 1, 1943) was a Swiss physician and bacteriologist. ... Diphtheria toxin is an exotoxin secreted by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the pathogen bacterium that causes diphtheria. ... Emil Adolf von Behring( March 15, 1854 – March 31, 1917) was born at Hansdorf, Eylau, Germany(as Emil Adolf Behring) . Between 1874 and 1878, he studied medicine at the Army Medical College in Berlin. ... Shibasaburo Kitasato (北里 柴三郎) (1852-1931) was a Japanese physician and bacteriologist. ... Tetanus is a medical condition characterized by a prolonged contraction of skeletal muscle fibers. ... An antitoxin is an antibody with the ability to neutralize a specific toxin. ...


In Europe, the induction of active immunity emerged in an attempt to contain smallpox. Immunization, however, had existed in various forms for at least a thousand years.[3] The earliest use of immunization is unknown, however, around 1000 A.D., the Chinese began practicing a form of immunization by drying and inhaling powders derived from the crusts of smallpox lesions.[3] Around the fifteenth century in India, the Ottoman Empire, and east Africa, the practice of variolation (poking the skin with powdered material derived from smallpox crusts) became quite common.[3] Variolation was introduced to the west in the early 18th century by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu.[3] In 1796, Edward Jenner introduced the far safer method of inoculation with the cowpox virus, a non-fatal virus that also induced immunity to smallpox. The success and general acceptance of Jenner's procedure would later drive the general nature of vaccination developed by Pasteur and others towards the end of the 19th century.[2]
This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a highly contagious disease unique to humans. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... Obsolete: inoculation against smallpox using material from a vesicle or lesion of a person with smallpox. ... Mary Wortley Montague, by Charles Jervas, after 1716. ... Portrait of Edward Jenner Edward Jenner, FRS, (May 17, 1749 – January 26, 1823) was an English country doctor who studied nature and his natural surroundings from childhood and practiced medicine in Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England. ... Inoculation, originally Variolation, is a method of purposefully infecting a person with smallpox (Variola) in a controlled manner so as to minimise the severity of the infection and also to induce immunity against further infection. ... Cowpox is a disease of the skin caused by a virus (Cowpox virus) that is related to the Vaccinia virus. ... Vaccination is the process of administering weakened or dead pathogens to a healthy person or animal, with the intent of conferring immunity against a targeted form of a related disease agent. ...


Passive immunity

Main article: Passive immunity

Passive immunity is the transfer of active immunity, in the form of readymade antibodies, from one individual to another. Passive immunity can occur naturally, when maternal antibodies are transferred to the fetus through the placenta, and can also be induced artificially, when high levels of human (or horse) antibodies specific for a pathogen or toxin are transferred to non-immune individuals. Passive immunization is used when there is a high risk of infection and insufficient time for the body to develop its own immune response, or to reduce the symptoms of ongoing or immunosuppressive diseases.[6] Passive immunity provides immediate protection, but the body does not develop memory, therefore the patient is at risk of being infected by the same pathogen later.[7] Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) in the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Immunosuppression is the medical suppression of the immune system. ...


Naturally acquired passive immunity

Maternal passive immunity is a type of naturally acquired passive immunity, and refers to antibody-mediated immunity conveyed to a fetus by its mother during pregnancy. Maternal antibodies (MatAb) are passed through the placenta to the fetus by an FcRn receptor on placental cells. This occurs around the third month of gestation.[8] IgG is the only antibody isotype that can pass through the placenta.[8] Passive immunity is also provided through the transfer of IgA antibodies found in breast milk that are transferred to the gut of the infant, protecting against bacterial infections, until the newborn can synthesize its own antibodies.[7] Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key. ... Human fetus at eight weeks. ... The placenta is an ephemeral (temporary) organ present in female placental vertebrates during gestation (pregnancy), but a placenta has evolved independently also in other animals as well, for instance scorpions and velvet worms. ... The neonatal Fc receptor is a Fc receptor which is similar in structure to MHC Class I. MeSH neonatal+Fc+receptor      Transmembrane receptors: immune receptors Antigen receptor (B-cell receptor, T cell receptor) - Complement - Fc (FcεRI, FcεRII, FcγRI, FcγRII, FcγRIII, FcαRI, Fcα/μR, Neonatal... Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside a female viviparous animal. ... Isotype - the International System of Typographic Picture Education - was developed by the Austrian educator and philosopher Otto Neurath, along with the illustrator Gerd Arntz. ... IGA may stand for: Koji Igarashi, a video game producer Interactive genetic algorithm International Geothermal Association Independent Glass Association International Gothic Association International Gamers Award International Goat Association Irish Games Association Irish Geological Association ImmunoGlobulin A - see IgA nephritis which is a renal disease IGA (supermarkets) Independent Grocers Association or... It has been suggested that the section Benefits for the infant from the article Breastfeeding be merged into this article or section. ...

One of the first bottles of diphtheria antitoxin produced (Dated 1895).
One of the first bottles of diphtheria antitoxin produced (Dated 1895).

Image File history File links Antitoxin_diphtheria. ... Image File history File links Antitoxin_diphtheria. ...

Artificially acquired passive immunity

see also: Temporarily-induced immunity Immunity against some infections that can cause serious illness is generally beneficial. ...


Artificially acquired passive immunity is a short-term immunization induced by the transfer of antibodies, which can be administered in several forms; as human or animal plasma or serum, as pooled human immunoglobulin for intravenous (IVIG) or intramuscular (IG) use, and in the form of monoclonal antibodies (MAb). Passive transfer is used prophylactically in the case of immunodeficiency diseases, such as hypogammaglobulinemia.[9] It is also used in the treatment of several types of acute infection, and to treat poisoning.[6] Immunity derived from passive immunization lasts for only a short period of time, and there is also a potential risk for hypersensitivity reactions, and serum sickness, especially from gamma globulin of non-human origin.[7] Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... Look up Serum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is a blood product used in the treatment of inflammatory or autoimmune diseases, hypogammaglobulinemia and other diseases featuring low antibody levels. ... // Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are antibodies that are identical because they were produced by one type of immune cell and are all clones of a single parent cell. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... In medicine, immune deficiency (or immunodeficiency) is a state where the immune system is incapable of defending the organism from infectious disease. ... Hypogammaglobulinemia is a type of immune deficiency. ... For biological toxicity, see toxin and poison. ... Hypersensitivity refers to undesirable (damaging, discomfort-producing and sometimes fatal) reactions produced by the normal immune system. ... Serum sickness is a reaction to an antiserum derived from an animal source. ... Gamma globulins are a class of proteins in the blood, identified by their position after serum protein electrophoresis. ...


The artificial induction of passive immunity has been used for over a century to treat infectious disease, and prior to the advent of antibiotics, was often the only specific treatment for certain infections. Immunoglobulin therapy continued to be a first line therapy in the treatment of severe respiratory diseases until the 1930’s, even after sulfonamide antibiotics were introduced.[9] An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... Diseases of the mamalian Respiratory system are classified physiologically into obstructive (i. ... There are several sulphonamide-based groups of drugs. ...


Passive transfer of cell-mediated immunity

Passive or "adoptive transfer" of cell-mediated immunity, is conferred by the transfer of "sensitized" or activated T-cells from one individual into another. It is rarely used in humans because it requires histocompatible (matched) donors, which are often difficult to find. In unmatched donors this type of transfer carries severe risks of graft versus host disease.[6] It has, however, been used to treat certain diseases including some types of cancer and immunodeficiency. This type of transfer differs from a bone marrow transplant, in which (undifferentiated) hematopoietic stem cells are transferred. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Graft-versus-host disease is a common complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... In medicine, immune deficiency (or immunodeficiency) is a state where the immune system is incapable of defending the organism from infectious disease. ... Bone marrow transplantation or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a medical procedure in the field of hematology and oncology that involves transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). ... Sketch of bone marrow and its cells Pluripotential hemopoietic stem cells (PHSCs) are stem cells found in the bone marrow. ...


Active Immunity

The time course of an immune response. Due to the formation of immunological memory, reinfection at later time points leads to a rapid increase in antibody production and effector T cell activity. These later infections can be mild or even inapparent.
The time course of an immune response. Due to the formation of immunological memory, reinfection at later time points leads to a rapid increase in antibody production and effector T cell activity. These later infections can be mild or even inapparent.

When B cells and T cells are activated by a pathogen, memory B-cells and T- cells develop. Throughout the lifetime of an animal these memory cells will “remember” each specific pathogen encountered, and are able to mount a strong response if the pathogen is detected again. This type of immunity is both active and adaptive because the body's immune system prepares itself for future challenges. Active immunity often involves both the cell-mediated and humoral aspects of immunity as well as input from the innate immune system. The innate system is present from birth and protects an individual from pathogens regardless of experiences, whereas adaptive immunity arises only after an infection or immunization and hence is "acquired" during life. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1136x704, 75 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Immune system Immunity (medical) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1136x704, 75 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Immune system Immunity (medical) ... B cells are lymphocytes that play a large role in the humoral immune response (as opposed to the cell-mediated immune response). ... T cells are a subset of lymphocytes that play a large role in the immune response. ... The innate immune system comprises the cells and mechanisms that defend the host from infection by other organisms, in a non-specific manner. ... The adaptive immune system is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogenic challenges. ...


Naturally acquired active immunity

For more details on this topic, see Immune system.

Naturally acquired active immunity occurs when a person is exposed to a live pathogen, and develops a primary immune response, which leads to immunological memory.[6] This type of immunity is “natural” because it is not induced by man. Many disorders of immune system function can affect the formation of active immunity such as immunodeficiency (both acquired and congenital forms) and immunosuppression. A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... A request has been made on Wikipedia for this article to be deleted in accordance with the deletion policy. ... In medicine, immune deficiency (or immunodeficiency) is a state where the immune system is incapable of defending the organism from infectious disease. ... Immunosuppression is the medical suppression of the immune system. ...


Artificially acquired active immunity

Artificially acquired active immunity can be induced by a vaccine, a substance that contains antigen. A vaccine stimulates a primary response against the antigen without causing symptoms of the disease.[6]The term vaccination was coined by Edward Jenner and adapted by Louis Pasteur for his pioneering work in vaccination. The method Pasteur used entailed treating the infectious agents for those diseases so they lost the ability to cause serious disease. Pasteur adopted the name vaccine as a generic term in honor of Jenner's discovery, which Pasteur's work built upon. Immunity against some infections that can cause serious illness is generally beneficial. ... Vaccination is the process of administering weakened or dead pathogens to a healthy person or animal, with the intent of conferring immunity against a targeted form of a related disease agent. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... Portrait of Edward Jenner Edward Jenner, FRS, (May 17, 1749 – January 26, 1823) was an English country doctor who studied nature and his natural surroundings from childhood and practiced medicine in Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England. ... Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist best known for his remarkable breakthroughs in microbiology. ...

Poster from 1979, promoting smallpox vaccination.
Poster from 1979, promoting smallpox vaccination.

In 1807, the Bavarians became the first group to require that their military recruits be vaccinated against smallpox, as the spread of smallpox was linked to combat.[10] Subsequently the practice of vaccination would increase with the spread of war. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (700x1083, 107 KB) Poster created prior to 1979 promoting the importance of Smallpox/Measles vaccination. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (700x1083, 107 KB) Poster created prior to 1979 promoting the importance of Smallpox/Measles vaccination. ... Geography Bavaria shares international borders with Austria and the Czech Republic. ...


There are four types of traditional vaccines:[11] A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ...

  • Inactivated vaccines are composed of micro-organisms that have been killed with chemicals and/or heat and are no longer infectious. Examples are vaccines against flu, cholera, bubonic plague, and hepatitis A. Most vaccines of this type are likely to require booster shots.
  • Live, attenuated vaccines are composed of micro-organisms that have been cultivated under conditions which disable their ability to induce disease. These responses are more durable and do not generally require booster shots. Examples include yellow fever, measles, rubella, and mumps.
  • Toxoids are inactivated toxic compounds from micro-organisms in cases where these (rather than the micro-organism itself) cause illness, used prior to an encounter with the toxiod. Examples of toxoid-based vaccines include tetanus and diphtheria.
  • Subunit -vaccines are composed of small fragments of disease causing organisms. A characteristic example is the subunit vaccine against Hepatitis B virus.

Most vaccines are given by hypodermic injection as they are not absorbed reliably through the gut. Live attenuated Polio and some Typhoid and Cholera vaccines are given orally in order to produce immunity based in the bowel. Model of Influenza Virus from NIH The flu vaccine is a vaccine to protect against the highly variable influenza virus. ... Cholera (frequently called Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is a severe diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Bubonic plague is the best-known variant of the deadly infectious disease plague, which is caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis. ... Hepatitis A (formerly known as infectious hepatitis) is an acute infectious liver disease caused by the hepatovirus hepatitis A virus. ... The attenuator plays an important regulatory role in prokaryotic cells because of the absence of the nucleus in prokaryotic organisms. ... Rubella (also known as epidemic roseola, German measles, liberty measles[1] or three-day measles) is a disease caused by the Rubella virus. ... A toxoid is a bacterial toxin whose toxicity as been weakened or supressed while other properties, typically immunogenicity, are maintained. ... Tetanus is a medical condition characterized by a prolonged contraction of skeletal muscle fibers. ... In structural biology, a protein subunit or subunit protein is a single protein molecule that assembles (or coassembles) with other protein molecules to form a multimeric or oligomeric protein. ... Originally known as serum hepatitis, Hepatitis B has only been recognized as such since World War II, and has caused current epidemics in parts of Asia and Africa. ... Different bevels on hypodermic needles Syringe on left, hypodermic needle with attached color-coded luer lock on right. ... Poliomyelitis (polio), or infantile paralysis, is a viral paralytic disease. ... This is about the disease typhoid fever. ... Cholera (frequently called Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is a severe diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Look up oral in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The intestine is the portion of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. ...


See also

Antiserum is blood serum containing antibodies. ... Antivenin (or antivenom, or antivenene) is a biological product used in the treatment of venomous bites or stings. ... Immunology is a broad branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. ... Inoculation, originally Variolation, is a method of purposefully infecting a person with smallpox (Variola) in a controlled manner so as to minimise the severity of the infection and also to induce immunity against further infection. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Lindquester, Gary J. (2006) Introduction to the History of disease. Disease and Immunity, Rhodes College.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Silverstein, Arthur M. (1989) History of Immunology (Hardcover) Academic Press. Note: The first six pages of this text are available online at: (Amazon.com easy reader)
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Gherardi E. The Concept of Immunity. History and Applications. Immunology Course Medical School, University of Pavia.
  4. ^ A "al-Razi." 2003 The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press (from Answers.com, 2006.)
  5. ^ ^ This article incorporates content from the 1728 Cyclopaedia, a publication in the public domain. "Mithridate".
  6. ^ a b c d e Microbiology and Immunology On-Line Textbook: USC School of Medicine
  7. ^ a b c Janeway, Charles; Paul Travers, Mark Walport, and Mark Shlomchik (2001). Immunobiology; Fifth Edition. New York and London: Garland Science. ISBN 0-8153-4101-6. .
  8. ^ a b Coico, R., Sunshine, G., and Benjamin, E. (2003). “Immunology: A Short Course.” Pg. 48.
  9. ^ a b Keller, Margaret A. and E. Richard Stiehm (2000). "Passive Immunity in Prevention and Treatment of Infectious Diseases.". Clinical Microbiology Reviews 13 (4): 602-614. PMID 11023960. 
  10. ^ National Institutes of Health "Smallpox - A Great and Terrible Scourge" Variolation
  11. ^ Immunization: You call the shots. The National Immunization Program at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

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