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Immune Complex Diseases
An immune complex is the combination of an epitope with an antibody directed against that epitope. After an antigen-antibody reaction, the immune complexes are in turn processed by proteases or ingested by phagocytes. Image File history File links Wiki_letter_w. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... An epitope is the part of a macromolecule that is recognized by the immune system, specifically by antibodies, B cells, or cytotoxic T cells. ... Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key. ... Proteases (proteinases, peptidases, or proteolytic enzymes) are enzymes that break peptide bonds between amino acids of proteins. ... A phagocyte is a cell that ingests and destroys foreign matter such as microorganisms or debris via a process known as phagocytosis, in which these cells ingest and kill offending cells by a process analogous to cellular digestion, usually using lysosomes which carry potent enzymes that digests cell components such...
Immune complexes may themselves cause disease when they are deposited in organs, e.g. in certain forms of vasculitis. This is the third form of hypersensitivity in the Gell-Coombs classification. In medicine, vasculitis (plural: vasculitides) is a group of diseases featuring inflammation of the wall of blood vessels due to leukocyte migration and resultant damage. ... Hypersensitivity refers to undesirable (damaging, discomfort-producing and sometimes fatal) reactions produced by the normal immune system. ...
Immune complex deposition is a prominent feature of scleroderma and Sjögren's syndrome. Scleroderma is a rare, chronic disease characterized by excessive deposits of collagen in the skin or other organs. ... SjÃ¶grens syndrome is an autoimmune disorder in which immune cells attack and destroy the glands that produce tears and saliva. ...
Categories: Articles to be expanded since January 2007 | All articles to be expanded | Immunology | Immune system
Soluble circulating complexes of antigen and antibody lodge in the filtration barrier of the glomerulus.
Immunecomplexes of this size are formed by animals unable to mount a vigorous antibody response to clear an antigen, therefore the antigen and associated antibodies stay in circulation for long periods of time.
Because the immunecomplexes are still in close contact with the contents of the capillary lumen and blood in the capillary lumen is the vehicle which brings in inflammatory cells, immunecomplexes in this location incite a greater inflammatory response than those which become embedded deeper in the filtration barrier.
In most cases, circulating immunecomplexes are simply removed from circulation by macrophages in the liver and spleen prior to triggering a cascade of events which may cause multiple symptoms and possible tissue damage.
The function of immunecomplex is to lyse cells by activation of this complex, assemble into pores on the cell membrane (membrane attack complex), and disrupt the cell membrane or cell walls.
A classic model of immunecomplex induced pathology is the Arthus reaction to the small pox vaccine.
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