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Encyclopedia > Immigration to the United States
2000 Census Population Ancestry Map
2000 Census Population Ancestry Map

Immigration to the United States of America is the movement of non-residents to the United States. Even though the foreign born have never comprised more than 16% of the U.S. population since 1675, immigration has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of American history. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Acap. ... For the rules of English grammar, see English grammar and Disputes in English grammar. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3766x2820, 1311 KB) A chart of the top ancestries in the US, as provided by the 2000 census. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3766x2820, 1311 KB) A chart of the top ancestries in the US, as provided by the 2000 census. ... Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ... Map of countries by population — China and India, the only two countries to have a population greater than one billion, together possess more than a third of the worlds population. ... Foreign born (also non-native) is a term used to describe a person born outside of their country of residence. ... Theoretical Human population increase from 10,000 BC – 2000 AD. Population growth is the change in population over time, and can be quantified as the change in the number of individuals in a population per unit time. ... American history redirects here. ...


The economic, social and political aspects of immigration have caused controversy regarding race, ethnicity, religion, economic benefits, job growth, settlement patterns, impact on upward social mobility, levels of criminality, nationalities, political loyalties, moral values, and work habits. As of 2006, the United States accepts more legal immigrants as permanent residents than any other country in the world.[1] In 2006, the number of immigrants totaled 37.5 million.[2] For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... This is a list of ethnic groups. ... Overview The United States has the largest and the most technologically powerful economy in the world, with a per capita GDP of $40,100. ... Below is a comparison of the unemployment rates by state, ranked from highest to lowest. ... White flight is a term for the demographic trend where working- and middle-class white people move away from increasingly racial-minority inner-city neighborhoods to white suburbs and exurbs. ... Percent below each countrys official poverty line, according to the CIA factbook. ... This graph shows a sharp drop-off in violent crime since 1993. ... Patrick Joseph Buchanan (born November 2, 1938) is an American politician, author, syndicated columnist, and broadcaster. ... The Protestant work ethic, or sometimes called the Puritan work ethic, is a Calvinist value emphasizing the necessity of constant labor in a persons calling as a sign of personal salvation. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Given the distance of North America from Eurasia, most historical U.S. immigration was risky. International jet travel has facilitated travel to the United States since the 1960s, but migration remains difficult, expensive and dangerous for those who cross the United States–Mexico border illegally at unauthorized points. For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... The border between Mexico and the United States spans four U.S. states, six Mexican states, and has over twenty commercial crossings. ...


Immigration led to a 57.4% increase in foreign born population from 1990 to 2000.[3] Controversy has arisen over existing immigration law and immigration outside the law, especially over the 7.5 million illegal alien workers with more than 12 million household members already inside the U.S. Another 700,000 to 850,000 are predicted to enter each coming year. Illegal household members from Mexico alone were estimated at over 8 million.[4]. At issue has been whether immigration laws and enforcement were working as the public desired. Nationality law is the branch of a countrys legal system wherein legislation, custom and court precendent combine to define the ways in which that countrys nationality and citizenship are transmitted, acquired or lost. ... Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) is the largest and primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and is responsible for identifying, investigating, and dismantling vulnerabilities regarding the nations border, economic, transportation, and infrastructure security. ...


Bureau figures show that the U.S. population grew by 2.8 million between July 1, 2004, and July 1, 2005.[5] Hispanics accounted for 1.3 million of that increase.[6] If current birth rate and immigration rates were to remain unchanged for another 60 to 70 years, the U.S. population would double to 600 million. The Census Bureau's estimates actually go as high as predicting that there will be one billion Americans in 2100[7], compared with one million people in 1700 and 5.2 million in 1800.[8] Census statistics also show that 45% of children under age 5 are from a racial or ethnic minority.[9][10] Most common ancestries in the United States (as of 2000) The United States is a diverse country racially. ...


In 2006, a total of 1,266,264 immigrants became legal permanent residents of the United States, up from 601,516 in 1987, 849,807 in 2000, and 1,122,373 in 2005. The top twelve migrant-sending countries in 2006, by country of birth, were Mexico (173,753), People's Republic of China (87,345), Philippines (74,607), India (61,369), Cuba (45,614), Colombia (43,151), Dominican Republic (38,069), El Salvador (31,783), Vietnam (30,695), Jamaica (24,976), South Korea (24,386), Guatemala (24,146), Other countries - 606,370.[11] In fiscal year 2006, 202 refugees from Iraq were allowed to resettle in the United States.[12][13] Muslim immigration to the U.S. is rising and in 2005 alone more people from Muslim countries became legal permanent U.S. residents — nearly 96,000 — than in any year in the previous two decades.[14][15] This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ...


The Census Bureau projects that by 2050, one-quarter of the population will be Hispanic.[16] In 35 of the country's 50 largest cities, non-Hispanic whites are or soon will be in the minority.[17] In California, non-Hispanic whites slipped from 80% of the state's population in 1970 to 43% in 2006.[18] This demographic shift is partly fueled by immigration.[19][20] The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... The term white American (often used interchangeably and incorrectly with Caucasian American[2] and within the United States simply white[3]) is an umbrella term that refers to people of European descent residing in the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


Recent immigration-related proposals have suggested criminalizing illegal immigrants, building a barrier along some or all of the 2,000-mile (3,200 km) U.S.-Mexico border, and creating a new guest worker program. Through much of 2006, the country and Congress was immersed in a debate about these proposals. As of March 2007, few of these proposals had become law, though a partial border fence was approved. Many cities, including Washington D.C., New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago, San Francisco, San Diego, Salt Lake City, Phoenix, Dallas, Houston, Detroit, Jersey City, Minneapolis, Miami, Denver, Baltimore, Seattle, Portland, Oregon and Portland, Maine, have adopted “sanctuary” ordinances banning police from asking people about their immigration status.[21] Illegal immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently, in violation of the law or without documents permitting an immigrant to settle in that country. ... A foreign worker (cf expatriate), is a person who works in a country other than the one of which he or she is a citizen. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Americas Finest City Location Location of San Diego within San Diego County Coordinates , Government County San Diego Mayor City Attorney         City Council District One District Two District Three District Four District Five District Six District Seven District Eight Jerry Sanders (R) Michael Aguirre Scott Peters Kevin... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is Salt Lake Citys top tourist draw. ... Nickname: Location in Maricopa County and the state of Arizona Coordinates: , Country State County Maricopa Incorporated February 25, 1881 Government  - Type Council-Manager  - Mayor Phil Gordon (D) Area  - City  515. ... Dallas redirects here. ... Houston redirects here. ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... The skyline of Jersey City, as seen from Lower New York Bay. ... This article is about the city in Minnesota. ... This article is about the city in Florida. ... This article refers to the state capital of Colorado. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town, B-more Motto: Get In On It (formerly The City That Reads and The Greatest City in America; BELIEVE is not the official motto but rather a specific campaign) Location Location of Baltimore in Maryland Coordinates , Government Country State County United... City nickname Emerald City City bird Great Blue Heron City flower Dahlia City mottos The City of Flowers The City of Goodwill City song Seattle, the Peerless City Mayor Greg Nickels County King County Area   - Total   - Land   - Water   - % water 369. ... Nickname: Location of Portland in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon Coordinates: , Country State Counties Multnomah County Incorporated February 8, 1851 Government  - Mayor Tom Potter[1]  - Commissioners Sam Adams Randy Leonard Dan Saltzman Erik Sten  - Auditor Gary Blackmer Area  - Total 376. ... Nickname: Motto: Resurgam (Latin for I will rise again) Coordinates: , Country State County Cumberland Settled 1632 Incorporated 1786 Government  - Mayor Nicholas M. Mavodones, Jr Area  - City  52. ...

Contents

History

Population and immigration 15,000 BC - 1500 AD

Main article: Historical migration

The first humans in North America are believed to have migrated from northeast Asia, via the land bridge available during the most recent glaciation. The land bridge was closed when the ice melted about 10,000 years ago. The group of people locked into the Americas at that time developed into the various indigenous peoples of the Americas. mtDNA-based chart of large human migrations. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Native Americans redirects here. ...


Population and immigration 1500-1600 AD

European immigration to the current territory of the U.S. started a few decades after Columbus' discovery in 1492 and was mainly composed of Spaniards. The first cities to be founded were Pensacola in 1559 by the Spaniards, Fort Caroline in 1564 by the French, and San Agustín (present-day Saint Augustine) in Florida by the Spaniards in 1565. In the Colorado River valley, Spaniards founded Santa Fe in 1607-1608 and Albuquerque in 1706. The British crown tried to prevent Spanish immigration in Florida, and San Agustín was destroyed or plundered several times by pirates at the service of the crown or by the British army, though it was located in territory belonging to the Spanish Crown. Pensacola is the name of several cities as well as other things: Pensacola (tribe), a group of Native Americans A number of places in the U.S. state of Florida: Pensacola, Florida An area airport, see Pensacola Regional Airport. ... Fort Caroline shown in an old etching Fort Caroline was the first French colony in the present-day United States. ... St. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... The Colorado River from the bottom of Marble Canyon, in the Upper Grand Canyon Colorado River in the Grand Canyon from Desert View The Colorado River from Laughlin Horseshoe Bend is a horseshoe-shaped meander of the Colorado River located near the town of Page, Arizona The Colorado River is... Nickname: Location in Santa Fe County, New Mexico Coordinates: , Country State County Santa Fe Founded ca. ... This article is about the largest city of New Mexico. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Pirates may refer to: A group of people committing any of these activities: Piracy at sea or on a river/lake. ... An anachronous map of the Spanish Empire (1492-1898). ...


Population and immigration 1600-1790 AD

Main article: Colonial history of the United States of America
Main article: Thirteen Colonies

Many speculate that ancient Norse seafarers discovered North America centuries before the British. The first successful English colony in the present-day United States, however, was established as a barely successful business enterprise, after much loss of life, in 1607 in Jamestown, Virginia. Once tobacco was found to be a profitable crop, many plantations were established along the Chesapeake Bay and along the southern rivers and coast. Colonial America redirects here. ... British colonization of the Americas (including colonization under the Kingdom of England before the 1707 Acts of Union created the Kingdom of Great Britain) began in the late 16th century, before reaching its peak after colonies were established throughout the Americas, and a protectorate was established in Hawaii. ... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ... Territories in the Americas colonized or claimed by a European great power in 1750. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... At Jamestown Settlement, replicas of Christopher Newports 3 ships are docked in the harbour. ... The Chesapeake Bay - Landsat photo The Chesapeake Bay where the Susquehanna River empties into it. ...


English Pilgrims established a small settlement near Plymouth, Massachusetts in 1620; much larger numbers of English Puritans came to Boston, Massachusetts and adjacent areas from about 1629 to 1640. Basque, French, English and Portuguese fishermen had been fishing off the New England and Newfoundland coast since about 1520, and some small summer fishing settlements/camps long pre-dated Jamestown. Permanent small English fishing settlements from mostly fishing communities in England were established along the Maine-New Hampshire coast starting roughly in 1621. The colonies from Maine to the New York border were the New England colonies. Nickname: Location in Plymouth County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Plymouth Settled 1620 Incorporated (town) 1670 Government [1]  - Type Representative town meeting  - Town    Manager Mark Sylvia Area  - Total 134. ... The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ... Boston redirects here. ... Language(s) Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers [4] other native languages Religion(s) Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: ) are an indigenous people[5] who inhabit parts of north-central Spain and southwestern... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... Official language(s) English Capital Concord Largest city Manchester Area  Ranked 46th  - Total 9,350 sq mi (24,217 km²)  - Width 68 miles (110 km)  - Length 190 miles (305 km)  - % water 4. ... This article is about the state. ...


The Dutch established settlements along the Hudson River in New York starting about 1626. Some of the early Dutch settlers set up large landed estates along the Hudson River and brought in farmers who became renters. Others established rich trading posts for trading with the Indians and started cities such as New Amsterdam (now New York City) and Albany, New York. Starting in about 1680 Pennsylvania was settled by Quakers and other English and German Protestant sects settling initially around Philadelphia and the Delaware River valley. Along with New York, New Jersey and Baltimore, Maryland this is normally considered the core of the middle colonies. The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami, Muhheakantuck, is a river that runs through the eastern portion of New York State and, along its southern terminus, demarcates the border between the states of New York and... The Dutch (Ethnonym: Nederlanders meaning Lowlanders) are the dominant ethnic group[1] of the Netherlands[2]. They are usually seen as a Germanic people. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses, see Albany. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... For the Delaware River in Kansas, see Delaware River (Kansas) The Delaware River is a river on the Atlantic coast of the United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Baltimore redirects here. ...


The fourth main colonial center of settlement is what is called the western "frontier" in the western parts of Pennsylvania and the South which was settled in the early 1700s to late 1700s by mostly Scots-Irish, Scots and others mostly from northern England border lands. The Scotch-Irish soon became the dominant culture of the Appalachians from Pennsylvania to Georgia. Areas where people reported 'American' ancestry were the places where, historically, Scottish and Scots-Irish Protestants settled in America: in the interior of the South, and the Appalachian region. It is believed the number of Scottish Americans could be in the region of 20 million and Scots-Irish Americans at 27 million. Scots-Irish (also called Ulster Scots) is a Scottish ethnic group that historically resided in Ireland which ultimately traces its roots back to settlers from Scotland, and to a lesser extent, England. ... Scots may refer to: people from Scotland (i. ... Historic Southern United States. ... The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... Map showing the population density of Americans who declared Scottish ancestory in the census. ... Scots-Irish Americans are descendants of the Scots-Irish immigrants who came to North America in the late 17th and 18th centuries. ...


In 1598, Juan de Oñate founded the San Juan colony on the Rio Grande, the first permanent European settlement in present-day New Mexico. In 1609, Pedro de Peralta, a later governor of the Province of New Mexico, established the settlement of Santa Fe at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. The city, along with most of the settled areas of the state, was abandoned by the Spanish for 12 years (1680-1692) as a result of the successful Pueblo Revolt. After the death of the Pueblo leader Popé, Diego de Vargas restored the area to Spanish rule. While developing Santa Fe as a trade center, the returning Spanish settlers founded the old town of Albuquerque in 1706, naming it for the viceroy of New Spain, the Duke of Alburquerque.[22] Don Juan de Oñate Salazar (1552 – 1626) was a Spanish explorer, colonial governor of the New Spain (present-day Mexico) province of New Mexico, and founder of various settlements in the present day Southwest of the United States. ... San Juan is a census-designated place located in Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... The following is a list of governors of the Province of New Mexico under the Viceroyalty of New Spain. ... Nickname: Location in Santa Fe County, New Mexico Coordinates: , Country State County Santa Fe Founded ca. ... The Sangre de Cristo Mountains are a mountain range of the Rocky Mountains located in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado in the United States. ... 1680-The Pueblo Revolt, by George Chacón, Taos Mural Project The Pueblo Revolt of 1680 or Popés Rebellion was an uprising of many pueblos of the Pueblo people against Spanish colonists in the New Spain province of New Mexico. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Diego de Vargas Zapata y Luján Ponce de León y Contreras (1643 – 1704), commonly known as Don Diego de Vargas, was a Spanish Governor of the New Spain territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo México, today the U.S. state of New Mexico, titular 1688 – 1692, effective... This article is about the largest city of New Mexico. ...


Spanish Texas lasted between 1690 and 1821 when Texas was governed as a Spanish colony separate from New Spain, known as the "Kingdom of Texas". In 1731, Canary Islanders (or "Isleños") arrived to establish what is known today as San Antonio. The majority of the people who colonized Texas and New Mexico in the Spanish colonial period drew their identity from the Spaniards and the criollos. In 1781 Spanish settlers founded Los Angeles. Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... map of New Spain in red, with territories claimed but not controlled in orange. ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Texas Coordinates: Counties Bexar County Government  - Mayor Phil Hardberger Area  - City  412. ... Criollo, in the Spanish colonial Casta system (caste system) of Latin America, was a person born in the Spanish colonies deemed to have purity of blood in respect to the individuals European ancestry. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ...


In the late 17th century, French expeditions established a foothold on the Mississippi River and Gulf Coast. The French colony of Louisiana originally claimed all the land on both sides of the Mississippi River and north to French territory in Canada. Louisiana attracted considerably fewer French colonists than its West Indian colonies did. After the Seven Years' War Louisiana became a colony of Spain. During the period of Spanish rule, several thousand French-speaking refugees from the region of Acadia (now Nova Scotia, Canada) made their way to Louisiana following British expulsion; settling largely in the southwestern Louisiana region now called Acadiana. The Acadian refugees were welcomed by the Spanish, and descendants came to be called Cajuns. Canary Islanders, called Isleños, migrated to Louisiana under the Spanish crown between 1778 and 1783. For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... The Gulf of Mexico is a major body of water bordered and nearly landlocked by North America. ... Flag In 1803, the United States concluded the Louisiana Purchase (green area) with France. ... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain and its American Colonies Electorate of Hanover Iroquois Confederacy Kingdom of Portugal Electorate of Brunswick Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Philippines Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of France Empire of Russia Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and... Flag History  - Established 1604  - English conquest 1713 Acadia (1754) Acadia (in the French language lAcadie) was the name given to a colonial territory in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day New England, stretching as far south as Philadelphia. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English, Canadian Gaelic Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... Map of Acadiana Region with the Cajun Heartland USA subregion highlighted in dark red. ... Cajuns are an ethnic group mainly living in Louisiana, consisting of the descendants of Acadian exiles and peoples of other ethnicities with whom the Acadians eventually intermarried on the semitropical frontier. ... Islenos (from the Spanish isleños, plural of islander) are descendants of Canary Islanders who came to America and settled in the lower Mississippi River Delta of Louisiana between 1778 and 1783. ...


The mostly agricultural Southern English colonies initially had very high death rates for new settlers from malaria, yellow fever and other diseases as well as Indian wars. Despite this, a steady flow of new settlers mostly from central England and the London area kept the population growing. The large plantations were mostly owned by friends (mostly minor aristocrats) of the British-appointed governors (Sir William Berkeley initially). Many settlers arrived as indentured servants who had to work off their passage with five to seven years of work for room and board, clothing etc. only. Their wages they earned going to pay for their passage. The same deal was initially offered to some black slaves, but gradually the term of servitude became accepted in the South as life for them. After their terms of indentures many of these settlers settled small farms on the frontier or started small businesses in the towns. The Southern colonies were about 55% British, 38% Black and roughly 7% second or third generation German. By 1780 nearly all Blacks were native born with only sporadic additions of new slaves being brought in. The Southern Colonies of British North America were the North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Maryland, and Virginia, where the first permanent settlement among them was at Jamestown. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Combatants Native Americans Colonial America/United States of America Indian Wars is the name generally used in the United States to describe a series of conflicts between the colonial and federal government and the indigenous peoples. ... Sir William Berkeley (1605/1606-1677) was a governor of Virginia, appointed by King Charles I, of whom he was a favourite. ... The Atlantic slave trade was the capture and transport of black Africans into bondage and servitude in the New World. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ...


The initial areas of New England settlement had been largely cleared of Indians by major outbreaks of measles, smallpox, and plague, among them starting in about 1618 (believed to have been transmitted by visiting fishing fleets from Europe). The peak New England settlement occurred in 1629 to about 1641 when about 20,000 Puritan settlers arrived mostly from the East Anglian parts of England (Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, Kent, and East Sussex) [23]. In the next 150 years, their "[[Yankee" descendants largely filled in the New England states. Norfolk (IPA: //) is a low-lying county in East Anglia in the east of southern England. ... Suffolk (pronounced ) is a large historic and modern non-metropolitan county in East Anglia, England. ... For other meanings of Essex, see Essex (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... East Sussex is a county in South East England. ...


The New England colonists were the most urban and educated of all the colonists and had many skilled farmers as well as tradesmen and skilled craftsmen among them. They started the first English colonial university in the Americas, Harvard, in 1635 to train their ministers. They mostly settled in small villages for mutual support (nearly all had their own militias) and common religious activity. Shipbuilding, commerce, agriculture and fisheries were their main income sources. New England's healthy climate (the cold winters killed the mosquitoes and other disease-bearing insects), small wide-spread villages (minimizing spread of disease) and abundant food supply resulted in the lowest death rate and highest birth rate (marriage was expected and birth control was not, and a much higher than average number of children and mothers survived) of any of the colonies. The eastern and northern frontier around the initial New England settlements was mainly settled by the descendants of the original New Englanders. Immigration to the New England colonies after 1640 and the start of the English Civil War decreased to less than 1% [citation needed] (about equal to the death rate) in nearly all years prior to 1845. The rapid growth of the New England colonies (~700,000 by 1790) was almost entirely due to the high birth rate (>3%) and low death rate (<1%) per year. Harvard Yard Harvard College is the undergraduate section and oldest school of Harvard University, founded in 1636 by the Massachusetts Legislature. ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ...


The middle colonies' settlements were scattered west of New York City (established 1626; taken over by the English in 1664) and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (established 1682). The Dutch-started colony of New York had the most eclectic collection of residents from many different nations and prospered as a major trading and commercial center after about 1700. The Pennsylvania colonial center was dominated by the Quakers for decades after they emigrated, mainly from the North Midlands of England, from about 1680 to 1725. The main commercial center of Philadelphia was run mostly by prosperous Quakers, supplemented by many small farming and trading communities with a strong German contingent located in several small towns in the Delaware River valley. New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Many more settlers arrived in the middle colonies starting in about 1680 when Pennsylvania was founded and many Protestant sects were encouraged to settle there by freedom of religion and good land--cheap. They came by the was about 60% British and 33% of German extraction. By 1780 in New York about 17% of the population were descendants of Dutch settlers and the rest were mostly English with a wide mixture of other Europeans and about 6% blacks. New Jersey and Delaware had a majority of British with 7-11% German-descended colonists, about 6% black population, and a small contingent of Swedish descendants of New Sweden. Nearly all were at least third-generation natives. New Sweden, or Nya Sverige, was a small Swedish settlement along the Delaware River on the Mid-Atlantic coast of North America. ...


Around 60,000 convicts were transported to the British colonies in North America in the 18th century.[24]. Because of the notorious Bloody Code, life in 18th century (and early 19th century) Britain was hazardous. By the 1770s, there were 222 crimes in Britain that carried the death penalty, many of which even included petty offenses such as stealing goods worth over five shillings, cutting down a tree, stealing an animal, stealing from a rabbit warren, and being out at night with a blackened face.[25] For example, Michael Hammond and his sister, Ann, whose ages were given as 7 and 11, were reportedly hanged at King's Lynn on Wednesday, 28 September 1708 for theft. The local press did not, however, consider the executions of two children newsworthy.[26]. The Bloody Code was a system of laws and punishments in England from between the 1700s to mid 1800s. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Kings Lynn is a town and port in the English county of Norfolk. ...


The colonial western frontier was mainly settled from about 1717 to 1775 by mostly Presbyterian settlers from northern England border lands, Scotland, and Northern Ireland, fleeing bad times and persecution in those areas. After the American Revolution these same areas in Britain were the first to resume significant immigration. Most initially landed in family groups in Philadelphia or Baltimore but soon migrated to the western frontier where land was cheaper and restrictions less onerous. This article is about the country. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen...


While these settlements had differences in detail, they had many things in common. Nearly all were settled and financed by privately organized groups of English settlers or families using private free enterprise without any significant English Royal or Parliamentary government support or input. Nearly all commercial activity was run in small privately owned businesses with good credit both at home and in England being essential since they were often cash poor. Most settlements were nearly independent of trade with Britain as most grew or made nearly everything they needed--the average cost of imports per most households was only about 5-15 English pounds per year. Most settlements were done by complete family groups with several generations often present in each settlement. Probably close to 80% of the families owned the land they lived and farmed on. They nearly all used English Common Law as their basic code of law and except initially for the Dutch, Swedes and Germans, spoke some dialect of English. They nearly all established their own popularly elected governments and courts on as many levels as they could and were nearly all, within a few years, mostly armed, self governing, self supporting and self replicating. This self ruling pattern became so ingrained that almost all new settlements by one or more groups of settlers would have their own government up and running shortly after they settled down for the next 200 years. Nearly all, after a hundred years plus of living together, had learned to tolerate other religions than their own. This was a major improvement from the often very bloody Reformation and Counter-Reformation wars going on in Europe in this period. British troops up until the French and Indian War in the 1760s were a great rarity in the colonies as the colonists provided nearly all their own law enforcement and militia forces they wanted or needed from their own ranks. The American Revolution was in many ways a fight to maintain the property and independence they already enjoyed as the British tried, belatedly, to exploit them for the benefit of the crown and Parliament. Nearly all colonies and later, states in the United States, were settled by migration from another colony or state, as foreign immigration usually only played a minor role after the initial settlements were started. Many new immigrants did end up on the frontiers as that was where the land was usually the cheapest. The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and...


After these colonies were settled, they grew almost entirely by natural growth with foreign born populations rarely exceeding 10% (except in isolated instances). The last significant colonies to be settled mainly by immigrants were Pennsylvania in the early 1700s, Georgia and the Borderlands in the late 1700s as migration (not immigration) continued to provide nearly all the settlers for each new colony or state. This pattern would continue throughout U.S. History. The extent of colonial settlements by 1800 is shown by this map from the [great] University of Texas map collection.[9]


Population growth is nearly always by natural increase but significant immigration can sometimes be seen in some states when populations grow by more than 80% {a 3% growth rate) in a 20 year interval.[citation needed]


Population in 1790

According to the source, The Source: A Guidebook of American Genealogy by Kory L. Meyerink and Loretto Dennis Szucs, the following were the countries of origin for new arrivals coming to the United States before 1790. The regions marked * were part of Great Britain. The ancestry of the 3.9 million population in 1790 has been estimated by various sources by sampling last names in the 1790 census and assigning them a country of origin. The Irish in the 1790 census were mostly Scots Irish. The French were mostly Huguenots. The total U.S. Catholic population in 1790 was probably less than 5%. The Indian population inside territorial U.S. 1790 boundaries was less than 100,000. Ulster-Scots is a term mainly used in Ireland and Britain (Scotch-Irish or Scots-Irishis commonly used in North America) primarily to refer to Presbyterian Scots, or their descendents, who migrated from the Scottish Lowlands to Ulster (the northern province of Ireland), largely across the 17th century. ... From the 16th to the 18th century the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ...

U.S. Historical Populations
Country Immigrants Before 1790 Population 1790 -1

Africa -2 360,000 757,000
England* 230,000 2,100,000
Ulster Scot-Irish* 135,000 300,000
Germany -3 103,000 270,000
Scotland* 48,500 150,000
Ireland* 8,000 (Incl. in Scot-Irish)
Netherlands 6,000 100,000
Wales* 4,000 10,000
France 3,000 15,000
Jews -4 1,000 2,000
Sweden 500 2,000
Other -5 50,000 200,000

Total -6 950,000 3,900,000
  1. Data From Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPS)
  2. Several West African regions were the home to most African immigrants. Population from U.S. 1790 Census
  3. Germany in this time period consists of a large number of separate countries, the largest of which was Prussia.
  4. Jewish settlers were from several European countries.
  5. The Other category probably contains mostly English ancestry settlers; but the loss of several states detailed census records in the burning of Washington D.C. in the War of 1812 makes estimating closer difficult. Nearly all states that lost their 1790 (and 1800) census records have tried to reconstitute their original census from tax records etc. with various degrees of success. The summaries of the 1790 and 1800 census from all states survived.
  6. The Total is the total immigration over the approximately 130 year span of colonial existence of the U.S. colonies as found in the 1790 census. Many of the colonists, especially from the New England colonies, are already into their fifth generation of being in America. At the time of the American Revolution the foreign born population is estimated to be from 300,000 to 400,000.

The 1790 population already reflects the approximate 50,000 “Loyalists or Tories”, who emigrated to Canada at the end of the American Revolution and the less than 10,000 more who emigrated to other British possessions including England. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the nine-county Irish province. ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the U.S. – U.K. war. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... Britannia gives a heros welcome to returning American Loyalists. ...


The total white population in 1790 was about 80% British ancestry and roughly doubled by natural increase every 25 years. Since approximately 1675, the native born population of the U.S. has never fallen below 85% of the population.

U.S. postage stamp commemorating the vast Irish immigration to North America during the Great Potato Famine

Relentless population expansion pushed the U.S. frontier to the Pacific by 1848. Most immigrants came long distances to settle in the U.S. Many Irish, however, left Canada for the U.S. in the 1840s. French Canadians who came down from Quebec after 1860 and the Mexicans who came north after 1911 found it easier to move back and forth. Stamp - United States - Irish Immigration This image is a postage stamp produced by the United States Postal Service after 1978. ... Stamp - United States - Irish Immigration This image is a postage stamp produced by the United States Postal Service after 1978. ... USPS and Usps redirect here. ... Bridget ODonnell and her two children during the famine The Great Famine or the Great Hunger (Irish: An Gorta Mór or An Drochshaol), known more commonly outside of Ireland as the Irish Potato Famine, is the name given to a famine in Ireland between 1845 and 1849. ... This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...


Immigration 1790 to 1849

In the early years of the U.S., immigration was only about 6000 people a year on average, including French refugees from the slave revolt in Haiti. The French Revolution, starting in 1789, and the Napoleonic Wars from 1792 to 1814 severely limited immigration from Europe. The War of 1812 (1812-1814) with Britain again prevented any significant immigration. By 1808, Congress had banned the importation of slaves, slowing that human traffic to a trickle. After 1820, immigration gradually increased. For the first time, federal records, including ship passenger lists, were kept for immigration. Total immigration for one year in 1820 was 8,385, gradually building to 23,322 by 1830 with 143,000 total immigrating during the intervening decade. From 1831 to 1840, immigration increased greatly, to 599,000 total, as 207,000 Irish, even before the famine of 1845-49, started to emigrate in large numbers as Britain eased travel restrictions. 152,000 Germans, 76,000 British, and 46,000 French formed the next largest immigrant groups in that decade. From 1841 to 1850, immigration exploded to 1,713,000 total immigrants as at least 781,000 Irish, with the famine of 1845-1919 driving them, fled their homeland to escape poverty and death. The British, attempting to divert some of this traffic to help settle Canada, offered bargain fares of 15 shillings, instead of the normal 5 pounds (100 shillings) for transit to Canada. Thousands of poor Irish took advantage of this offer, and headed to Canada on what came to be called the "coffin ships" because of their high death rates. Once in Canada, many Irish walked across the border or caught an intercoastal freighter to the nearest major city in the United States - usually Boston or New York. Bad potato crops and failed revolutions struck the heart of Europe in 1848, contributing to the decade's total of 435,000 Germans, 267,000 British and 77,000 French immigrants. Bad times in Europe drove people out; land, relatives, freedom, opportunity and jobs in America lured them in. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... This article is about the U.S. – U.K. war. ... Bridget ODonnell and her two children during the famine The Great Famine or the Great Hunger (Irish: An Gorta Mór or An Drochshaol), known more commonly outside of Ireland as the Irish Potato Famine, is the name given to a famine in Ireland between 1845 and 1849. ... A coffin ship is the name given to any boat that is worth more to its owners overinsured and sunk than afloat. ...

Population and Foreign Born 1790 to 1849
Census Population, Immigrants per Decade
Census Population Immigrants-1 Foreign Born  %

1790 3,918,000 60,000
1800 5,236,000 60,000
1810 7,036,000 60,000
1820 10,086,000 60,000
1830 12,785,000 143,000 200,000 -2 1.6%
1840 17,018,000 599,000 800,000 -2 4.7%
1850 23,054,000 1,713,000 2,244,000 9.7%

Immigration records provide data on immigration since 1830. The census of 1850 was the first census in which place of birth was asked. The foreign-born population in the U.S. likely reached its minimum around 1815, at approximately 100,000 or 1.4% of the population. By 1815, most of the immigrants who arrived before the American Revolution had died, and there had been almost no new immigration. John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen...

  1. The total number immigrating in each decade from 1790 to 1820 are estimates.
  2. The number foreign born in 1830 and 1840 decades are extrapolations.

Nearly all population growth up to 1830 was by internal increase; about 98.5% of the population was native-born. By 1850, this had shifted to about 90% native-born. The first significant Catholic immigration started in the mid 1840s, shifting the population from about 95% Protestant down to about 90% by 1850.


In 1848, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, concluding the Mexican War, extended U.S. citizenship to approximately 60,000 Mexican residents of the New Mexico Territory and 4,000 living in California. An additional approximate 2,500 U.S. and foreign born California residents also become U.S. citizens. The Mexican Cession (red) and the Gadsden Purchase (orange). ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


In 1849, the California Gold Rush spurred significant immigration from Mexico, South America, China, Australia, and Europe. The Gold Rush also caused a mass migration within the U.S., resulting in California's admittance to the union on September 9, 1850 with a population of about 90,000. The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began shortly after January 24, 1848 (when gold was discovered at Sutters Mill in Coloma). ...

Mulberry Street, along which Manhattan's Little Italy is centered. Lower East Side, circa 1900.
Mulberry Street, along which Manhattan's Little Italy is centered. Lower East Side, circa 1900.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 591 pixelsFull resolution (2800 × 2067 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 591 pixelsFull resolution (2800 × 2067 pixel, file size: 1. ... Food vendors line the streets of Little Italy. ... L.E.S. redirects here. ...

Immigration 1850 to 1930

Between 1850 and 1930, about 5 million Germans immigrated to the United States with a peak in the years between 1881 and 1885, when a million Germans left Germany and settled mostly in the Midwest. Between 1820 and 1930, 3.5 million British and 4.5 million Irish entered America. Before the 1840s most Irish immigrants were Irish Presbyterians or Scots-Irish. After 1840, the Catholics arrived in large numbers, in part because of the famines of the 1840s. Midwest States (United States of America, ND to OH) The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ... Scots-Irish (also called Ulster Scots) is a Scottish ethnic group that historically resided in Ireland which ultimately traces its roots back to settlers from Scotland, and to a lesser extent, England. ...


Irish immigration was opposed in the 1850s by the Nativist/Know Nothing movement, originating in New York in 1843 as the American Republican Party. It was empowered by popular fears that the country was being overwhelmed by Irish Catholic immigrants, who were often regarded as hostile to American values and controlled by the Pope in Rome. Mainly active from 1854–56, it strove to curb immigration and naturalization, though its efforts met with little success. There were few prominent leaders, and the largely middle-class and Protestant membership fragmented over the issue of slavery, most often joining the Republican Party by the time of the 1860 presidential election.[27][28] The term Nativism is used in both politics and psychology in two fundamentally different ways. ... The Know-Nothing movement was a nativist American political movement of the 1850s. ... The American Republican Party was a minor nativist political organization that was launched in New York in June, 1843, largely as a protest against immigrant voters and officeholders. ... A judge swears in a new citizen. ... The Republican Party of the United States was established in 1854 and is one of the two dominant parties today. ... The United States presidential election of 1860 set the stage for the American Civil War. ...

In this Rosh Hashana greeting card from the early 1900s, Russian Jews, packs in hand, gaze at the American relatives beckoning them to the United States. Over two million Jews would flee the pogroms of the Russian Empire to the safety of the U.S. from 1881-1924.
In this Rosh Hashana greeting card from the early 1900s, Russian Jews, packs in hand, gaze at the American relatives beckoning them to the United States. Over two million Jews would flee the pogroms of the Russian Empire to the safety of the U.S. from 1881-1924.

Between 1840 and 1930, about 900,000 French Canadians left Quebec to immigrate to the United States and settle, mainly in New England. Considering that the population of Quebec was only 892,061 in 1851, this was a massive exodus. 13.6 million Americans claimed to have French ancestry in the 1980 census. A large proportion of them have ancestors who emigrated from French Canada, since immigration from France has been very low during the entire history of the United States. In 1882 Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (408x640, 95 KB) Under the Imperial Russian coat of arms, traditionally dressed Russian Jews, packs in hand, line Europes shore as they gaze across the ocean. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (408x640, 95 KB) Under the Imperial Russian coat of arms, traditionally dressed Russian Jews, packs in hand, line Europes shore as they gaze across the ocean. ... This article is about the Jewish holiday of Rosh Hashanah. ... The Russian word pogrom (&#1087;&#1086;&#1075;&#1088;&#1086;&#1084;) refers to a massive violent attack on people with simultaneous destruction of their environment (homes, businesses, religious centers). ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... French Canadian is a term that has several different connotations. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The first page of the Chinese Exclusion Act. ...


The 1910s marked the high point of Italian immigration to the United States. Over two million Italians immigrated in those years, with a total of 5.3 million between 1820 and 1980. About a third returned to Italy, after working an average of five years in the U.S.


About 1.5 million Swedes and Norwegians immigrated to the United States within this period, due to opportunity in America and poverty and religious oppression in united Sweden-Norway. This accounted for around 20% of the total population of the kingdom at that time. They settled mainly in the Midwest, especially Minnesota and the Dakotas. Danes had comparably low immigration rates due to a better economy; after 1900 many Danish immigrants were Mormon converts who moved to Utah. The Kingdom of Sweden-Norway is a term sometimes, but erroneously, used to refer to the kingdoms of Sweden and Norway between 1814 and 1905, when they were united under one monarch in a personal union, following the Convention of Moss, on August 14, and the Norwegian constitutional revision of... This article is about the history and use of the word Mormon. For information about the religious beliefs and culture of Mormons, see Mormonism. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Over two million Eastern Europeans, mainly Catholics and Jews, immigrated between 1880 and 1924. People of Polish ancestry are the largest Eastern European ancestry group in the United States. Immigration of Eastern Orthodox ethnic groups was much lower.


Lebanese and Syrian immigrants started to settle in large numbers in the late 1800s and early 1900s. The vast majority of the immigrants from Lebanon and Syria were Christians, but smaller numbers of Jews and Muslims also settled. Many lived in New York City and Boston. In the 1920s and 1930s, a large number of these immigrants set out west, with Detroit getting a large number of Middle Eastern immigrants, as well as many Midwestern areas where the Arabs worked as farmers. For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ...


The Dillingham Commission was instituted by the United States Congress in 1907 to investigate the effects of immigration on the country. The Commission's analysis of American immigration during the previous three decades led it to conclude that the major source of immigration had shifted from northern and western Europeans to southern and eastern Europeans. It was, however, apt to generalizations about these regional groups that were subjective and failed to differentiate between distinct cultural attributes William Paul Dillingham was an American Republican politician from the state of Vermont. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political...


The Congress passed the Emergency Quota Act in 1921, followed by the Immigration Act of 1924. The Immigration Act of 1924 was aimed at further restricting the Southern and Eastern Europeans who had begun to enter the country in large numbers beginning in the 1890s. In the United States, the Emergency Quota Act (ch. ... It has been suggested that National Origins Quota of 1924 be merged into this article or section. ... The 1890s were sometimes referred to as the Mauve Decade, because William Henry Perkins aniline dye allowed the widespread use of that colour in fashion, and also as the Gay Nineties, under the then-current usage of the word gay which referred simply to merriment and frivolity, with no...


From 1880 to 1924, around two million Jews moved to the United States, mostly seeking better opportunity in America and fleeing the pogroms of the Russian Empire. After 1933 Jews who tried to flee Nazi Germany were often denied access to the United States, highlighted by the event of the S.S. St. Louis. Immigration restrictions laws passed in the 1920s tried to achieve four goals: reduce drastically the number of unskilled immigrants; favor uniting of families by giving preferences to relatives; keeping the ethnic distribution stable by allocating quotas to various ethnic groups; with no quotas initially set for Mexico and Latin America because of the ongoing Mexican Revolution. In 1900, when the U.S. population was 76 million, there were about 500,000 Hispanics.[29] The Russian word pogrom (&#1087;&#1086;&#1075;&#1088;&#1086;&#1084;) refers to a massive violent attack on people with simultaneous destruction of their environment (homes, businesses, religious centers). ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933&#8211;1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The SS was a steamship which is most famous for carrying 963 Jewish refugees, fleeing the Holocaust during World War II. It was repeatedly denied permission to land in safe harbors in North America and was turned back from Florida on June 4, 1939 after being turned away from Cuba. ... Hispanics in the United States, or Hispanic Americans, are American citizens or residents of Hispanic ethnicity who identify themselves as having Hispanic Cultural heritage. ...


New immigration was a term from the late 1880s that came from the influx of immigrants from southern and eastern Europe (areas that previously didn't have large numbers of immigrants) into the United States. Some Americans feared that the new to life in their new land. This raised the issue of whether the U.S. was still a "melting pot," or if it had just become a "dumping ground," and many Americans subsequently became unhappy with this development. Southern Europe is a region of the European continent. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... Alternate meaning: crucible (science) The melting pot is a metaphor for the way in which heterogenous societies develop, in which the ingredients in the pot (iron, tin; people of different backgrounds and religions, etc. ...

Americans’ preference of old immigration rather than new immigration reflected a sudden rise in conservatism. Immigration, although always being a part of American culture, swelled during the 19th century, coinciding with the rise of urban America. Before the “flood” which occurred in the 1870s was a period called “old” immigration. Old immigrants were mostly from Western Europe, especially Britain, Germany, Ireland and Scandinavia. Since most of them, with the exception of the Irish, had Anglo-Saxon or Protestant backgrounds, they were quickly incorporated into American society, welcomed into the "asylum of liberty." However, beginning in 1870, “new” immigration began, with large numbers of people arriving from eastern and southern Europe as well as Asia, Russia, Italy, and Japan. Not only were these peoples’ language and culture less like that of America, they looked different. They were predominantly Jewish and Catholic, which sparked tensions. The unfortunate circumstances that the new immigrants arrived in made their image even worse. They came to the new urban America, where disease, overcrowding and crime festered. As a result, relations became openly hostile, with many Americans becoming anti-immigrant, fearing the customs, religion, and poverty of the new immigrants, considering them less desirable than old immigrants. In reality, this perceived difference did not exist; the new immigrants, although seeming different, brought the same sort of values as old ones did. Statistically, they did not commit any more crime or contribute to any more of the misfortunes as any previous immigrant generation. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The term Old immigrant was used for someone who came to the United States from Northern or Western Europe (i. ... Ths article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... American cultural icons, apple pie, baseball, and the American flag. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ...


In 1924, quotas were set for European immigrants so that no more than 2% of the 1890 immigrant stocks were allowed into America. In addition, Congress passed a literacy act in 1917 to curb the influx of low-skilled immigrants from entering the country.


By the 1920s, the United States had relatively large populations of many European immigrants spread out over 150 years who had joined the original British descendants majority in America. The foreign born population in the U.S. has never exceeded 15% since before 1675 and has never been a land of immigrant majorities since then. Americans of European ancestry have always been and remain in the majority.


The Mexican Revolution of 1911-1929 killed an estimated one million Mexicans [10] and drove at least a million refugees temporarily into the U.S. Many returned in the 1920s or 1930s. The recorded immigration was 219,000 from 1910-1920 and 459,000 from 1920 to 1930. Because of the porous border and the poor or non-existent records from this time period, the real numbers are undoubtedly higher. This recorded number of Mexican immigrants drops to only 23,000 from the decade of 1930 to 1940. Indeed 100,000s returned during the Great Depression either voluntarily or with some U.S. persuasion. This article is about the Mexican Revolution of 1910. ...


Immigration 1930 to 2000

Immigration patterns of the 1930s were dominated by the Great Depression, which hit the U.S. hard and lasted over ten years there. More people left the U.S. than arrived in some years in the 1930s. In the last prosperous year (1929), there were 279,678 immigrants recorded, but in the depression year 1933 only 23,068 came to the U.S. For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ...


The National Origins Formula was established in 1927. Total annual immigration was capped at 150,000. The law severely restricts immigration by establishing a system of national quotas that blatantly discriminated against immigrants from southern and eastern Europe and virtually excluded Asians. ...


In 1934, the Tydings-McDuffie Act, which provided for independence of the Philippines on July 4, 1946, stripped Filipinos of their status as U.S. nationals. Until 1965, national origin quotas in the immigration law strictly limited immigration from the Philippines. In 1965, after revision of the immigration law, significant Filipino immigration began, totaling 1,728,000 by 2004. The Tydings-McDuffie Act or the Philippine Independence Act (Public Law 73-127) approved on March 24, 1934 is a piece of U.S. legislation which provided for the independence of the Philippines (from the United States) on July 4, 1946. ...


In 1938, the immigration that never happened is one of the great tragedies of the 20th century as shown in the Evian Conference of 1938. The immigration of the oppressed from Nazi Germany and Adolf Hitler's policies was limited to only a small fraction of those who wanted to leave Germany. Due in part to anti-Semitism, isolationism, the Depression and xenophobia, the immigration policy of the Roosevelt Administration made it very difficult for refugees to obtain entry visas. See also:Kristallnacht (November 9, 1938), The Holocaust, Bermuda Conference, British Mandate of Palestine, White Paper of 1939, SS St. Louis The Evian Conference was convened at the initiative of US President Franklin D. Roosevelt in July, 1938 to discuss the problem of Jewish refugees. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Kristallnacht, also known as Reichskristallnacht, Pogromnacht, Crystal Night and the Night of Broken Glass, was a pogrom[1] against Jews throughout Germany and parts of Austria on November 9–November 10, 1938. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... The Bermuda Conference was held on April 19, 1943 at Hamilton, Bermuda. ... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... The White Paper of 1939, also known as the MacDonald White Paper after Malcolm MacDonald, the British Colonial Secretary who presided over it, was a policy paper issued by the British government under Neville Chamberlain in which the idea of partitioning the British Mandate of Palestine was abandoned in favour... SS was a German ocean liner which sailed out of Hamburg into the Atlantic Ocean in the summer of 1939 carrying 963 Jewish refugees, mostly wealthy, seeking asylum from the Holocaust during World War II. The passengers were refused entry to Cuba, despite prior agreement to accept the passengers. ...


In 1945, the War Brides Act allowed foreign-born wives of U.S. citizens who had served in the U.S. armed forces to immigrate to the United States. In 1946, The War Brides Act was extended to include fiancés of American soldiers who were also allowed to immigrate to the United States. In 1946, the Luce-Cellar Act extended the right to become naturalized citizens to newly freed Filipinos and Asian Indians. The immigration quota was set at 100 people a year.[citation needed] War Brides Act was enacted in 1945 to allowed spouses and adopted children of US military personnel to enter the US, after World War II and later from South Korea during the Korean War. ...


At the end of World War II, "regular" immigration almost immediately increased under the official national origins quota system as refugees from war torn Europe started immigrating to the U.S. After the war, there were jobs for nearly everyone who wanted one, including immigrants, while most women employed during the war went back into the home. From 1941 to 1950, 1,035,000 people immigrated to the U.S., including 226,000 from Germany, 139,000 from the UK, 171,000 from Canada, 60,000 from Mexico and 57,000 from Italy.


The Displaced Persons (DP) Act of 1948 finally allowed displaced people of World War II to start immigrating [11]. Some 200,000 Europeans and 17,000 orphans displaced by World War II were initially allowed to immigrate to the United States outside of immigration quotas. Truman signed the first DP act on June 25, 1948, allowing entry for 200,000 DPs, and then followed by the more accommodating second DP act on 16 June, 1950, allowing entry for another 200,000. This quota, included acceptance of 55,000 Volksdeutschen, required sponsorship of all immigrants. The American program was the most notoriously bureaucratic of all the DP programs and much of the humanitarian effort was undertaken by charitable organizations, such as the Lutheran World Federation and other ethnic groups. Along with an additional quota of 200,000 granted in 1953 and more in succeeding years, a total of nearly 600,000 refugees were allowed into the country outside the quota system, second only to Israel’s 650,000. A displaced persons camp is in principle any temporary facility for displaced persons but in common usage refers to camps for individuals displaced as a result of World War II, particularly refugees from Eastern Europe. ... The surname Truman is usually English in origin. ... Volksdeutsche (ethnic Germans) is a historical term which arose in the early 20th century to describe ethnic Germans living outside of the Reich. ... LWF logo The Lutheran World Federation (LWF) is a global association of national and regional Lutheran churches headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. ...


In 1950, after the start of the Korean War, the Internal Security Act barred admission to any foreigner who was Communist, who might engage in activities "which would be prejudicial to the public interest, or would endanger the welfare or safety of the United States." Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... In the wake of World War II, a number of countries around the world introduced legislation that severely curtailed the rights of known or suspected communists. ...


In 1950, the invasion of South Korea by North Korea started the Korean War and left a war ravaged Korea behind. There was little U.S. immigration because of the national origin quotas in the immigration law. In 1965, after revision of the immigration law, significant Korean immigration began, totaling 848,000 by 2004.


In 1952, the McCarran Walter Immigration Act affirmed the national-origins quota system of 1924 and limited total annual immigration to one-sixth of one percent of the population of the continental United States in 1920, or 175,455. The act exempted spouses and children of U.S. citizens and people born in the Western Hemisphere from the quota. In 1953, the Refugee Relief Act extended refugee status to non-Europeans. It has been suggested that Immigtion and Nationality Services Act of 1965 be merged into this article or section. ...


In 1954, Operation Wetback forced the return of thousands of illegal immigrants to Mexico. [12]. Between 1944 and 1954, "the decade of the wetback," the number of illegal immigrants coming from Mexico increased by 6,000 percent. It is estimated that, in 1954, before Operation Wetback got under way, more than a million workers had crossed the Rio Grande illegally. Cheap labor displaced native agricultural workers, and increased violation of labor laws and discrimination encouraged criminality, disease, and illiteracy. According to a study conducted in 1950 by the President's Commission on Migratory Labor in Texas, the Rio Grande valley cotton growers were paying approximately half of the wages paid elsewhere in Texas. The United States Border Patrol aided by municipal, county, state, and federal authorities, as well as the military, began a quasi-military operation of search and seizure of all illegal immigrants. Fanning out from the lower Rio Grande valley, Operation Wetback moved northward. Illegal immigrants were repatriated initially through Presidio because the Mexican city across the border, Ojinaga, had rail connections to the interior of Mexico by which workers could be quickly moved on to Durango. The forces used by the government were actually relatively small, perhaps no more than 700 men, but were augmented by border patrol officials who hoped to scare illegal workers into fleeing back to Mexico. Ships were a preferred mode of transport because they carried the illegal workers farther away from the border than did buses, trucks, or trains. It is difficult to estimate the number of illegal immigrants that left due to the operation--most voluntarily. The INS claimed as many as 1,300,000, though the number officially apprehended did not come anywhere near this total. The program was ultimately abandoned due to questions surrounding the ethics of its implementation. Citizens of Mexican descent complained of police stopping all "Mexican looking" people and utilizing extreme “police-state” methods including deportation of American-born children who by law were citizens. [30] Operation Wetback was a 1954 project of the United States Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) to remove about 1. ...


The failed 1956 Hungarian Revolution, before being crushed by the Soviets, forged a temporary hole in the Iron Curtain that allowed a burst of refugees to escape, bringing in 245,000 new Hungarian families to the U.S. by 1960. In the decade of 1950 to 1960, the U.S. had 2,515,000 new immigrants with 477,000 arriving from Germany, 185,000 from Italy, 52,000 new arrivals from Holland, 203,000 from the UK, 46,000 from Japan, 300,000 from Mexico, and 377,000 from Canada. Combatants Soviet Union ÁVH Hungarian government, various nationalist militias Commanders Yuri Andropov Pál Maléter, Béla Király, Gergely Pongrátz, József Dudás Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks 100,000+ demonstrators (some later armed), unknown number of soldiers Casualties 720 killed according to official... Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ...


After the Cuban revolution of 1959, led by Fidel Castro, refugees flowed in from Cuba. An estimated 409,000 new families had emigrated to the U.S. by 1970. The Cuban Revolution refers to the revolution that led to the overthrow of General Fulgencio Batistas regime on January 1, 1959 by the 26th of July Movement and other revolutionary elements in the country. ... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ...


The Immigration and Nationality Act Amendments of 1965 (the Hart-Cellar Act), passed by a Democratic controlled Congress, abolished the system of national-origin quotas. Over 28,000,000 have legally immigrated since 1965 under its provisions. Prior to 1965, the U.S. was taking in around 178,000 legal immigrants annually. The Immigration Act of 1965 (also known as the Hart-Celler Act) abolished the national-origin quotas that had been in place in the United States since the Immigration Act of 1924. ...


Because of the wide use of family preferences put into immigration law, immigration from then on was mostly "Chain migration" where recent immigrants who were already here sponsored their relatives. Instead of a "national origins system", what the U.S. now has is an "immigrant origins system" where ever increasing numbers of the recent immigrants sponsor ever increasing numbers of their relatives. The result was that most of legal immigrants now come from Asia and Latin America, and not Europe. Total immigration for the decade totaled 3,321,000 immigrants including about 200,000 each from Germany, Italy and the UK, 400,000 from Canada and 453,000 from Mexico. Chain migration refers to the mechanism by which foreign nationals are allowed to immigrate by virtue of the ability of previous immigrants to send for their adult relatives. ...


The U.S. withdrawal from South Vietnam and the subsequent armed Communist takeover of South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia in 1975 brought a new wave of refugees, many of whom spent years in Asian camps waiting to get into the U.S. By 1990, 543,000 Vietnamese family members were settled in the U.S. and 863,000 by 2000. Significant Filipino immigration started with 501,000 family members in 1980, 913,000 in 1990 and 1,222,000 by 2000. South Korean immigration started in 1980 with 290,000 family members in 1980, 568,000 in 1990 and 701,000 in 2000. In 2000, turmoil and war in Central America brought 692,000 family members from the Dominican Republic and 765,000 from El Salvador by 2000. Cuban Americans also continued to grow, with 608,000 family members in 1980, 737,000 in 1990 and 952,000 in 2000. Anthem Thanh niên Hành Khúc (Call to the Citizens) Capital Saigon Language(s) Vietnamese Government Republic Last President¹ Duong Van Minh Last Prime minister Vu Van Mau Historical era Cold War  - Regime change June 14, 1955  - Dissolution April 30, 1975 Area  - 1973 173,809 km² 67,108...


Two new large immigrant groups showed up in 2000: the Chinese with 1,391,000 family members; India with 1,003,000 family members. Both groups were well represented with high levels of expertise and education.


In 1986, the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) was passed, creating for the first time, in theory at least, penalties for employers who hired illegal immigrants. IRCA, as proposed in Congress, was projected to give amnesty to about 1,000,000 undocumented workers. In practice, amnesty for about 3,000,000 immigrants already in the United States was granted. Most were from Mexico. Legal Mexican immigrant family numbers were 2,198,000 in 1980, 4,289,000 in 1990 (includes IRCA) and 7,841,000 in 2000. Adding in another 12,000,000 illegals of which about 80% are thought to be Mexicans would bring the Mexican family total to over 16,000,000 -- about 16% of the Mexican population. The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986 is an American law that was created in order to stop illegal immigration from Mexico, which was seen as a threat to the economy. ...


The Immigration and Nationality Act Amendments of 1965 removed quotas on large segments of the immigration flow and legal immigration to the U.S. surged. The number of legal immigrants rose from about 2.5 million in the 1950s to 4.5 million in the 1970s to 7.3 million in the 1980s to about 10 million in the 1990s. In 2006, legal immigrants to the United States number approximately 1,000,000 legal immigrants per year of which about 600,000 are Change of Status immigrants who already are in the U.S. Legal immigrants to the United States are at their highest level ever at over 35,000,000. Net illegal immigration also soared from about 130,000 per year in the 1970s, to 300,000+ per year in the 1980s to over 500,000 per year in the 1990s to over 700,000 per year in the 2000s. Total illegal immigration may be as high as 1,500,000 per year [in 2006] with a net of at least 700,000 more illegal immigrants arriving each year to join the 12,000,000 to 20,000,000 that are already here. (Pew Hispanic Data Estimates [13]) (See: Illegal immigration to the United States) The Immigration Act of 1965 (also known as the Hart-Celler Act) abolished the national-origin quotas that had been in place in the United States since the Immigration Act of 1924. ... // Illegal immigration to the United States refers to the act of foreign nationals voluntarily resettling in the United States in violation of U.S. immigration and nationality law. ...


Immigration summary 1830 to 2000

The top ten countries of birth of the foreign born population in the U.S. since 1830, according to the U.S. Census, are shown below. Blank entries mean that the country did not make it into the top ten for that census, and not that there are ‘’no’’ data from that census. The 1830 numbers are from immigration statistics as listed in the 2004 Year Book of Immigration Statistics [14]. *The 1830 numbers list un-naturalized foreign citizens in 1830 and does not include naturalized foreign born. The 1850 census is the first census that asks for place of birth. The historical census data can be found online in the Virginia Library Geostat Center [15] Population numbers are in thousands.

Country/Year 1830* 1850 1880 1900 1930 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000
Austria 305 214
Bohemia 85
Canada 2 148 717 1,180 1,310 953 812 843 745 678
China 104 1,391
Cuba 439 608 737 952
Czechoslovakia 492
Dominican Republic 692
El Salvador 765
France 9 54 107
Germany 8 584 1,967 2,663 1,609 990 833 849 712
Holland 1 10
Hungary 245
India 1,007
Ireland 54 962 1,855 1,615 745 339
Italy 484 1,790 1,257 1,009 832 581
Korea 290 568 701
Mexico 11 13 641 576 760 2,199 4,298 7,841
Norway 13 182 336
Pakistan 724
Philippines 501 913 1,222
Poland 1,269 748 548 418
Russia/Soviet Union 424 1,154 691 463 406
Sweden 194 582 595
Switzerland 3 13 89
United Kingdom 27 379 918 1,168 1,403 833 686 669 640
Vietnam 543 863
Total Foreign Born 108* 2,244 6,679 10,341 14,204 10,347 9,619 14,079 19,763 31,100
% Foreign Born 0.8%* 9.7% 13.3% 13.6% 11.6% 5.8% 4.7% 6.2% 7.9% 11.1%
Native Born 12,677 20,947 43,476 65,653 108,571 168,978 193,591 212,466 228,946 250,321
% Native Born 99.2% 90.3% 86.7% 86.4% 88.4% 94.2% 95.3% 93.8% 92.1% 88.9%
Total Population 12,785 23,191 50,155 75,994 122,775 179,325 203,210 226,545 248,709 281,421
1830* 1850 1880 1900 1930 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000

Contemporary immigration

Public attitudes about immigration in the U.S. have been heavily influenced by the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 attacks. The number of Americans who told the Gallup poll they wanted immigration restricted increased 20 percentage points after the attacks.[16] Half of Americans say tighter controls on immigration would do "a great deal" to enhance U.S. national security, according to a Public Agenda survey.[17] A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... A Gallup poll is an opinion poll frequently used by the mass media for representing public opinion. ...


Public opinion surveys suggest that Americans see both the good and bad sides of immigration at the same time.[18] A June 2006 NBC/Wall Street Journal poll found the public evenly divided on the fundamental question of whether immigration helps or hurts the country, with 44 percent saying it helps and 45 percent saying it hurts the U.S.[19] Surveys do show that the U.S. public has a far more positive outlook about legal immigration than illegal immigration. The public is less willing to provide government services or legal protections to illegal immigrants. When survey data is examined by race, African Americans are both more willing to extend government services to illegal immigrants and more worried about competition for jobs, according to the Pew Research Center.[20]


Three-quarters of immigrants surveyed by Public Agenda said they intend to make the U.S. their permanent home. If they had it to do over again, 80 percent of immigrants say they would still come to the U.S. But half of immigrants say the government has become tougher on enforcing immigration laws since 9/11 and three in 10 report they have personally experienced discrimination.[21]


Demography

Legal immigration to the U.S. increased from 2.5 million in the 1950s, 4.5 million in the 1970s, and 7.3 million in the 1980s to about 10 million in the 1990s. Since 2000, legal immigrants to the United States number approximately 1,000,000 per year, of whom about 600,000 are Change of Status immigrants who already are in the U.S. Legal immigrants to the United States now are at their highest level ever at over 35,000,000 legal immigrants. Illegal immigration may be as high as 1,500,000 per year with a net of at least 700,000 illegal immigrants arriving each year to join the 12,000,000 to 20,000,000 that are already here. (Pew Hispanic Data Estimates[22]) Contemporary immigrants settle predominantly in seven states: California, New York, Florida, Texas, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Illinois. These are all high foreign-born population states, together comprising about 44% of the U.S. population as a whole. The combined total immigrant population of these seven states is much higher than what would be proportional, with 70% of the total foreign-born population as of 2000. Of those who immigrated between 2000 and 2005, 58% were from Latin America. Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...


Origin

Rate of immigration to the United States relative to sending countries' population size, 2001-2005
Rate of immigration to the United States relative to sending countries' population size, 2001-2005

Projected immigration 2000, 2004 and 2010: Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1357x624, 57 KB) Created by myself, using data from USCIS http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1357x624, 57 KB) Created by myself, using data from USCIS http://www. ...

Top Ten Foreign Countries - Foreign Born Population Among U.S. Immigrants
Country #/year 2000 2004 2010 2010, %
Canada 24,200 678,000 774,800 920,000 2.3%
China 50,900 1,391,000 1,594,600 1,900,000 4.7%
Cuba 14,800 952,000 1,011,200 1,100,000 2.7%
Dominican Republic 24,900 692,000 791,600 941,000 2.3%
El Salvador 33,500 765,000 899,000 1,100,000 2.7%
India 59,300 1,007,000 1,244,200 1,610,000 4.0%
Korea 17,900 701,000 772,600 880,000 2.2%
Mexico 175,900 7,841,000 8,544,600 9,600,000 23.7%
Philippines 47,800 1,222,000 1,413,200 1,700,000 4.2%
Ireland 33,700 863,000 997,800 1,200,000 3.0%
Total Pop. Top 10 498,900 16,112,000 18,747,600 21,741,000 53.7%
Total Foreign Born 940,000 31,100,000 34,860,000 40,500,000 100%
Historical Data from 2000 U.S. Census and 2004 Yearbook of Immigrant Statistics
  1. The average number of legal immigrants/year immigrating from 2000 to 2004
  2. The number of foreign born immigrants in the U.S. from 2000 census
  3. Year 2004 foreign born. Year 2000 foreign born plus 2000 to 2004 immigration
  4. Year 2010 foreign born projected assuming average number per year is maintained
  5. Percent of foreign born from this country
  6. Legal immigration numbers as reported to immigration authorities only
  7. Estimated illegal immigration numbers.[31]

Immigration to states

Percentage change in Foreign Born Population 1990 to 2000
North Carolina 273.7% South Carolina 132.1% Mississippi 95.8% Wisconsin 59.4% Vermont 32.5%
Georgia 233.4% Minnesota 130.4% Washington 90.7% New Jersey 52.7% Connecticut 32.4%
Nevada 202.0% Idaho 121.7% Texas 90.2% Alaska 49.8% New Hampshire 31.5%
Arkansas 196.3% Kansas 114.4% New Mexico 85.8% Michigan 47.3% Ohio 30.7%
Utah 170.8% Iowa 110.3% Virginia 82.9% Wyoming 46.5% Hawaii 30.4%
Tennessee 169.0% Oregon 108.0% Missouri 80.8% Pennsylvania 37.6% North Dakota 29.0%
Nebraska 164.7% Alabama 101.6% South Dakota 74.6% California 37.2% Rhode Island 25.4%
Colorado 159.7% Delaware 101.6% Maryland 65.3% New York 35.6% West Virginia 23.4%
Arizona 135.9% Oklahoma 101.2% Florida 60.6% Massachusetts 34.7% Montana 19.0%
Kentucky 135.3% Indiana 97.9% Illinois 60.6% Louisiana 32.6% Maine 1.1%
Source: U.S. Census 1990 and 2000

Average change in U.S. from 1990 to 2000 was a 57.4% increase in foreign population.


See:Census 2003 publications [23] for more complete information.


Effects of immigration

Economic

Opinions vary about the economic effects of immigration. Those who find that immigrants produce a negative effect on the U.S. economy often focus on the difference between taxes paid and government services received and wage-lowering effects among low-skilled native workers,[32][33] while those who find positive economics effects focus on added productivity and lower costs to consumers for certain goods and services.[34] In a late 1980s study, economists themselves overwhelmingly viewed immigration, including illegal immigration, as a positive for the economy.[35] According to James Smith, a senior economist at Santa Monica-based RAND Corporation and lead author of the United States National Research Council's study "The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration.", immigrants contribute as much as $10 billion to the U.S. economy each year.[36] The NRC report found that although immigrants, especially those from Latin America, were a net cost in terms of taxes paid versus social services received, overall immigration was a net economic gain due to an increase in pay for higher-skilled workers, lower prices for goods and services produced by immigrant labor, and more efficiency and lower wages for some owners of capital. The report also notes that although immigrant workers compete with domestic workers for some low skilled jobs, some immigrants specialize in activities that otherwise would not exist in an area, and thus are performing services that otherwise would not exist, and thus can be beneficial for all domestic residents[37] U.S. Census Bureau's Survey of Business Owners: Hispanic-Owned Firms: 2002 indicated that the number of Hispanic-owned businesses in the United States grew to nearly 1.6 million in 2002. Those Hispanic-owned businesses generated about $222 billion in revenue.[38] The report notes that the burden of poor immigrants is not born equally among states, and is most heavy in California.[39] Another claim that those supporting current and expanded immigration levels is that immigrants mostly do jobs Americans don't want. A 2006 Pew Hispanic Center report added evidence to support that claim when they found that increasing immigration levels have not hurt employment prospects for American workers.[40] Alternate meanings: See RAND (disambiguation) The RAND Corporation is an American think tank first formed to offer research and analysis to the U.S. military. ... The National Research Council (NRC) of the USA is the working arm of the United States National Academy of Sciences and the United States National Academy of Engineering, carrying out most of the studies done in their names. ... Overview The United States has the largest economy by country, second-largest by economic union (after the EU), and most technologically powerful economy in the world, with a per capita GDP of $39,689 (2nd Quarter 2004 annualized) . In this market-oriented economy, private individuals and business firms make most... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that provides information on the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the USA and the world. ...


On the poor end of the spectrum, the "New Americans" report found that low-skill low wage immigration does not, on aggregate, lower the wages of most domestic workers. The report also addresses the question of if immigration affects black Americans differently from the population in general: "While some have suspected that blacks suffer disproportionately from the inflow of low-skilled immigrants, none of the available evidence suggests that they have been particularly hard-hit on a national level. Some have lost their jobs, especially in places where immigrants are concentrated. But the majority of blacks live elsewhere, and their economic fortunes are tied to other factors."[41]


Immigration from Asia is often seen in a more positive light than that from Latin America. Some refer to Asian Americans as a model minority because the Asian American culture contains a high work ethic, respect for elders and high valuation of family. Statistics such as household income and low incarceration rate are also discussed as positive aspects of Asian Americans.[42] In 2002, Asian American businesses amounted to over 1.1 million. Asian-owned businesses employ more than 2.2 million persons and earn more than $326 billion in business revenues. Asian firms also account for 5% of nonfarm businesses, 2% of their employment and 1.4% of their receipts in the U.S.[43] Compared to their population base, Asian Americans today are well represented in the professional sector and tend to earn higher wages, especially in technology and business.[44] April 1984 cover of Newsweek featuring an article on the success of Asian American students Model minority refers to a minority ethnic, racial, or religious group whose members achieve a higher degree of success than the population average. ... Work ethic is a set of values based on the moral virtues of hard work and diligence. ... For information on the income of individuals, see Personal income in the United States. ... Prisons in the United States are operated by both the federal and state governments as incarceration is a concurrent power under the Constitution of the United States. ... An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ...


Political and social

Immigrants differ on their political views. For example, many Cubans and Colombians tend to favor conservative political ideologies and support the Republicans, while Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Dominicans, and Asian Americans [45] lean more towards the Democratic Party; however, because the latter groups are far more numerous (Mexicans alone are nearly 60% of Hispanics), the Democratic Party is considered to be in a far stronger position among immigrants overall.[46] The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic...


Systematic racism against Japanese and German immigrants occurred during and after World War II. Irish and Jewish immigrants were popular targets early in the 20th century and most recently immigrants from Latin American countries are often viewed with hostility. Some Americans have not completely adjusted to the largely non-European immigration and racism does occur. After September 11, many Middle Eastern immigrants and those perceived to be of Middle Eastern origins were targets of hate crimes. Anti-immigration sentiment has always existed and only in the last century have these sentiments found their way into laws created to control the ethnic composition of the country. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


Minority racism, on the other hand, is sometimes considered controversial because of theories of power in society. Racist thinking among and between minority groups does occur,[47] for example conflicts between blacks and Korean immigrants (notably in the 1992 Los Angeles Riots) or between blacks and Hispanic immigrants.[48][49] There has been a long running racial tension between African American and Mexican prison gangs and significant riots in California prisons where Mexican inmates and African Americans have targeted each other particularly, based on racial reasons.[50][51] There have been reports of racially motivated attacks against African Americans who have moved into neighborhoods occupied mostly by people of Mexican descent, and vice versa.[52][53] There has also been an increase in violence between whites and Hispanic immigrants, and between African immigrants and native-born African Americans.[54] Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Much of the recent sociological debate on power revolves around the issue of the constraining and/or enabling nature of power. ... For other uses, see Los Angeles riots (disambiguation). ... Hispanics in the United States, or Hispanic Americans, are American citizens or residents of Hispanic ethnicity who identify themselves as having Hispanic Cultural heritage. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... A prison gang is an unofficial term used to denote any type of gang activity in prisons and correctional facilities. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... European American is a term for an American of European descent, who are usually referred as White or Caucasian. ... Africans in the United States, in the scope of this article, are recent immigrants to the United States from continental Africa and their descendants. ...


Health

The health of immigrants and the cost to the public of immigrants using public health services has been widely discussed and disputed. Immigrants, legal and illegal, use the public health care system, particularly emergency room services. The use of emergency rooms is indicative of low levels of insurance, and research has shown that immigrants have disproportionately low access to health care and underutilize the health care system.[55] For this and other reasons, there have been various disputes about how much immigration is costing the United States public health system.[56] University of Maryland economist and Cato Institute scholar, Julian Lincoln Simon, concluded in 1995 that although overall, immigrants probably pay more into the health system than they take out, this is not likely the case for elderly immigrants and many refugees, who are more dependent on public services for survival.[57] University of Maryland, College Park The University of Maryland, College Park (also known as UM, UMD, or UMCP) is a public coeducational university situated in suburban College Park, Maryland just outside Washington, D.C. The flagship institution of the University System of Maryland, the university is most often referred to... The Cato Institute is a libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. The Institutes stated mission is to broaden the parameters of public policy debate to allow consideration of the traditional American principles of limited government, individual liberty, free markets, and peace by striving to achieve greater involvement... This article is about the economist Julian Simon. ...


Immigration from areas of high incidence of disease is thought to have fueled the resurgence of tuberculosis (TB), chagas, and hepatitis in areas of low incidence.[58] According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), TB cases among foreign-born individuals remain disproportionately high, at nearly nine times the rate of U.S.-born persons.[59][60] To reduce the risk of diseases in low-incidence areas, the main countermeasure has been the screening of immigrants on arrival.[61] Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Chagas disease (also called American trypanosomiasis) is a human tropical parasitic disease which occurs in the Americas, particularly in South America. ... Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... In medicine, infectious disease or communicable disease is disease caused by a biological agent (e. ...


The history of HIV/AIDS in the United States began in about 1969, when HIV likely entered the United States through a single infected immigrant from Haiti.[62][63] Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ...


Researchers have found what is called the "healthy immigrant effect," in which immigrants in general tend to be healthier (mental health, healthy nutrition) than individuals born in the U.S.[64][65]


Various researchers have criticized the position held by Simon and others that increased U.S. population growth is sustainable. David Pimentel, professor of ecology and agriculture at Cornell University, and Mario Giampietro, senior researcher at the National Research Institute on Food and Nutrition (INRAN), place in their study Food, Land, Population and the U.S. Economy the maximum U.S. population for a sustainable economy at 200 million. To achieve a sustainable economy the United States must reduce its population by at least one-third. Current U.S. population of more than 300 million and U.S. population growth of approximately three million people each year, partly fueled by immigration, are unsustainable, says study.[66] [67] Cornell redirects here. ... The Earth Day flag includes a NASA photo. ... Over-consumption is a concept coined in developing nations to counter the rhetoric of over-population by which developed nations judge them as consuming more than their economy can support. ...


Perceived heavy immigration, especially in the southwest, has led to some fears about population pressures on the water supply in some areas. California continues to grow by more than a half million a year and is expected to reach 48 million in 2030.[68] According to the California Department of Water Resources, if more supplies are not found by 2020, residents will face a water shortfall nearly as great as the amount consumed today.[69] Los Angeles is a coastal desert able to support at most one million people on its own water.[70] California is considering using desalination to solve this problem.[71] Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... The California Department of Water Resources is responsible for the management of water resources in California. ... Deforestation of the Madagascar Highland Plateau has led to extensive siltation and unstable flows of western rivers. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Shevchenko BN350 desalination unit situated on the shore of the Caspian Sea. ...


Crime

A subsequent United States Department of Justice report which surveyed homicide statistics between 1974 and 2004 stated that of the crimes surveyed, 52.1% of the offenders were Black, 45.9% were White, and 2% were Other Races. Of the victims in those same crimes, 51% were White, 46.9% were Black, and 2.1% were Other Races. The report further noted that, "most murders are intraracial", with 86% of White murders committed by Whites, and 94% of Black murders committed by Blacks.[72] It should be noted that the document does not provide any details concerning what races or ethnicities are included in the designations "White", "Black", or "Other Races". The Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building in Washington, D.C. “Justice Department” redirects here. ...


A February 1997 report on rape and sexual-based crime published by the United States Department of Justice stated that of the crimes surveyed, 56% of arrestees were White, 42% were Black, and 2% were of other races; The report additionally noted that "[v]ictims of rape were about evenly divided between whites and blacks; in about 88% of forcible rapes, the victim and offender were of the same race."[73] In 1998, nearly one out of three Black men between the ages of 20-29 were in prison or jail, on probation or parole on any given day.[74][75] Approximately 70% of prisoners in the United States are non-Whites.[76]



Empirical studies on links between immigration and crime are mixed. Certain studies have suggested that immigrants are underrepresented in criminal statistics.[77] An Op-Ed in The New York Times by Harvard University Professor in Sociology Robert J. Sampson says that immigration of Hispanics may in fact be associated with decreased crime.[78]A 1999 paper by John Hagan and Alberto Palloni estimated that the involvement in crime by Hispanic immigrants are less than that of other citizens.[79]Part of this effect might be explained by the fact that immigrants, on average, have spent far less time in their adopted country than native-born citizens have, and so have had less time to rack up legal infractions. The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ...


According to Bureau of Justice Statistics, however, as of 2001, 4% of Hispanic males in their twenties and thirties were in prison or jail, compared with 1.8% of white males. Hispanic men are almost four times as likely to go to prison at some point in their lives as non-Hispanic white males, although less likely than African American males.[80] The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) is a department of the US Department of Justice which is responsible for maintaining criminal justice data and statistics. ...


In his 1999 book Crime and Immigrant Youth, sociologist Tony Waters writes that immigrants themselves are less likely to be arrested and incarcerated. He also noted, however, that the children of some immigrant groups are more likely to be arrested and incarcerated. This is a by-product of the strains that emerge between immigrant parents living in poor inner city neighborhoods, and their sons.[81] Percent below each countrys official poverty line, according to the CIA factbook. ... The term inner-city is often applied to the poorer parts at the centre of a major city. ...


There were an estimated 25,000 street gangs and more than 750,000 gang members active across the U.S. in 2004, up from 731,500 in 2002.[82] By 1999, Hispanics accounted for 46% of all gang members, Blacks 31%, Whites 13%, and Asians 7%.[83] A gang is a group of individuals who share a common identity and, in current usage, engage in illegal activities. ... Hispanics in the United States, or Hispanic Americans, are American citizens or residents of Hispanic ethnicity who identify themselves as having Hispanic Cultural heritage. ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... A European American, or a Euro-American, is an American of European descent. ... An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ...


Environment

Americans constitute approximately 5% of the world's population, but produce roughly 25% of the world’s CO2,[84] consume about 25% of world’s resources,[85] including approximately 26% of the world's energy,[86] although having only around 3% of the world’s known oil reserves,[87] and generate approximately 30% of world’s waste.[88][89] The average American's impact on the environment is approximately 250 times greater than the average Sub-Saharan African's.[90][91] This is, of course, a natural consequence of the U.S. producing about a quarter of the world's GDP. Map of countries by population — China and India, the only two countries to have a population greater than one billion, together possess more than a third of the worlds population. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Rainforest on Fatu-Hiva, Marquesas Islands Natural resources are naturally occurring substances that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified (natural) form. ... The United States is the worlds largest energy consumer in terms of total use, and ranks 7th on a per-capita basis. ... Waste inside a wheelie bin Waste in a bin bag Waste, rubbish, trash, garbage, or junk is unwanted or undesired material. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


With current consumption patterns, population growth in the United States is therefore more of a threat to the Earth's environment than population growth in any other part of the world [92][93][94][95][96] (currently, at least 1.8 million legal and illegal immigrants settle in the United States each year; with the average Hispanic woman giving birth to 3 children in her lifetime).[97][98] Theoretical Human population increase from 10,000 BC – 2000 AD. Population growth is the change in population over time, and can be quantified as the change in the number of individuals in a population per unit time. ... Hispanics in the United States, or Hispanic Americans, are American citizens or residents of Hispanic ethnicity who identify themselves as having Hispanic Cultural heritage. ... Map of countries and territories by fertility rate The total fertility rate (TFR, also called fertility rate or total period fertility rate) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if she were to experience the current age-specific...


Paul Ehrlich made the point that a state or nation may have a large land area or considerable wealth (which implies, by conventional wisdom, that overpopulation should not be at play), and yet be overpopulated.[99] The U.S. state of Arizona, for example, has enormous land area, but has neither the carrying capacity of arable land or potable water[100][101] to support its growing population. While it imports food, using its wealth to offset this shortfall, that only serves to illustrate that it has insufficient carrying capacity. The only way that Arizona (and Southern California) obtains sufficient water is by extraction of water[102] from the Colorado River beyond its fair share[103] (and beyond its own carrying capacity of innate water resources), based on international standards of fair use per lineal mile of river.[104][105][106] Paul Ralph Ehrlich (born May 29, 1932 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) is a Stanford University professor and a renowned entomologist specializing in Lepidoptera (butterflies). ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... This article is about the region of Southern California. ... The Colorado River from the bottom of Marble Canyon, in the Upper Grand Canyon Colorado River in the Grand Canyon from Desert View The Colorado River from Laughlin Horseshoe Bend is a horseshoe-shaped meander of the Colorado River located near the town of Page, Arizona The Colorado River is...


Education

Immigrant children have historically been greatly affected by cultural misunderstanding, language barriers, and feelings of isolation within the school atmosphere. More recently, however, immigrant children are finding a more welcoming school atmosphere. This does not undermine the difficulties immigrants face upon entering U.S. schools. Immigrant children maintain their native tongue which can leave them feeling disadvantaged within English speaking schools. According to Joseph S. Roucek, "a second language, especially when acquired in infancy or childhood, is believed by some to interfere with the proper integration of personality, and in extreme cases to lead to emotional and moral disorganization" (Roucek, 226).


Works Cited:


Roucek, Joseph S. "Some Educational Problems of Children from Immigrant, Refugee and Migrant Families in U.S.A.". International Review of Education (1962): 225-235.


Public opinion

One of the most important factors regarding public opinion about immigration is the level of unemployment; anti-immigrant sentiment is highest where unemployment is highest and vice-versa.[107] Conservative editorialist Robert Samuelson points out that poor immigrants strains public services such as local schools and health care. He points out that "from 2000 to 2006, 41 percent of the increase in people without health insurance occurred among Hispanics."[108] According to the immigration reduction advocacy group Center for Immigration Studies, 25.8% of Mexican immigrants lived in poverty — more than double the rate for natives in 1999.[109] In another report, The Heritage Foundation notes that from 1990 to 2006, the number of poor Hispanics increased 3.2 million, from 6 million to 9.2 million.[110] Below is a comparison of the unemployment rates by state, ranked from highest to lowest. ... The Center for Immigration Studies (CIS) is a nonpartisan immigration reduction-oriented, non-profit research organization and was founded in 1985. ... The Heritage Foundation, a conservative think tank located in Washington, D.C., is widely regarded as one of the worlds most influential public policy research institutes. ...


Legal issues

Laws concerning immigration and naturalization

The first naturalization law in the United States was the Naturalization Act of 1790, which restricted naturalization to "free white persons" of "good moral character" who had resided in the country for two years and had kept their current state of residence for a year. In 1795 this was increased to five years residence and three years after notice of intent to apply for citizenship, and again to 14 years residence and five years notice of intent in 1798. The original United States naturalization law of March 26, 1790 (1 Stat. ...


The Fourteenth Amendment, passed in 1865, protects children born in the United States. The phrase: "All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside" was interpreted by the Supreme Court in the 1898 case United States v. Wong Kim Ark as covering everyone born in the U.S. regardless of the citizenship of the parents, with the exception of the children of diplomats. See the articles jus soli (birthplace) and jus sanguinis (bloodline) for further discussion. Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), first intended to secure rights for former slaves. ... Holding A child born in the United States to foreign parents who are subject to U.S. jurisdiction automatically becomes a U.S. citizen. ... Jus soli (Latin for right of the territory), or birthright citizenship, is a right by which nationality or citizenship can be recognised to any individual born in the territory of the related state. ... Jus sanguinis (Latin for right of blood) is a right by which nationality or citizenship can be recognised to any individual born to a parent who is a national or citizen of that state. ...


In 1870, the law was broadened to allow African Americans to be naturalized. Asian immigrants were excluded from naturalization but not from living in the United States. There were also significant restrictions on some Asians at the state level; in California, for example, non-citizen Asians were not allowed to own land. Since a significant number of people never go through naturalization, once they are authorized to live in the U.S., this restriction for most was merely a formality. African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


After the immigration of 123,000 Chinese in the 1870s, who joined the 105,000 who had immigrated between 1850 and 1870, Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882 which specifically limited further Chinese immigration. Chinese had immigrated to the Western United States as a result of unsettled conditions in China, the availability of jobs working on railroads, and the Gold Rush that was going on at that time in California. The xenophobic "Yellow Peril" expression became popular to justify racism against Asians. The first page of the Chinese Exclusion Act. ... For other meanings, see Gold rush (disambiguation) A California Gold Rush handbill A gold rush is a period of feverish migration of workers into the area of a dramatic discovery of commercial quantities of gold. ... The Yellow Terror In All His Glory, 1899 editorial cartoon Yellow Peril (sometimes Yellow Terror) was a color metaphor for race that originated in the late nineteenth century with immigration of Chinese laborers to various Western countries, notably the United States, and later to the Japanese during the mid 20th...


The act excluded Chinese laborers from immigrating to the United States for ten years and was the first immigration law passed by Congress that targeted a specific ethnic group. Laborers in the United States and laborers with work visas received a certificate of residency and were allowed to travel in and out of the United States. Amendments made in 1884 tightened the provisions that allowed previous immigrants to leave and return, and clarified that the law applied to ethnic Chinese regardless of their country of origin. The act was renewed in 1892 by the Geary Act for another ten years, and in 1902 with no terminal date. It was repealed in 1943, although large scale Chinese immigration did not occur until 1965. The Geary Act was a United States law passed in 1892 written by California Congressman Thomas J. Geary. ...


The Empire of Japan's State Department negotiated the so-called Gentlemen's Agreement in 1907, a protocol where Japan agreed to stop issuing passports to her citizens who wanted to emigrate to the U.S. In practice the Japanese government compromised with its prospective emigrants and continued to give passports to the Territory of Hawaii where many Japanese resided. Once in Hawaii it was easy for the Japanese to continue on to Japanese settlements on the west coast if they so desired. In the decade of 1901 to 1910, 129,000 Japanese immigrated to the U.S. or Hawaii, nearly all were males and on five year work contracts and 117,000 more came in the decades from 1911 to 1930. How many of them stayed and how many returned at the end of their contracts is unknown but it is estimated that about one-half returned. Again this immigrant flow was at least 80% male and the demand for female Japanese immigrants almost immediately arose. This need was met in part by what are called "postcard wives" who immigrated to new husbands who had chosen them on the basis of their pictures. (Similar marriages also occurred in nearly all cultures throughout the female-starved West). The Japanese government finally quit issuing passports to the Territory of Hawaii for single women in the 1920s. This article is about the country in East Asia. ... The Gentlemens Agreement of 1907 ) was an informal agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan regarding immigration and racial segregation. ...


Congress also banned persons because of poor health or lack of education. An 1882 law banned entry of "lunatics" and infectious disease carriers. After President William McKinley was assassinated by an anarchist of immigrant parentage, Congress enacted the Anarchist Exclusion Act in 1901 to exclude known anarchist agitators. A literacy requirement was added in Immigration Act of 1917. This article is about the 25th President of the United States; for other people named William McKinley, see William McKinley (disambiguation). ... The Asiatic Barred Zone as defined by the Immigration Act of 1917. ...


In 1921, the United States Congress passed the Emergency Quota Act, which established national immigration quotas. The quotas were based on the number of foreign-born residents of each nationality who were living in the United States as of the 1910 census. In the United States, the Emergency Quota Act (ch. ...


The crucial 1923 Supreme Court case United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind created the official stance to classify Indians as non-white, which at the time retroactively stripped Indians of citizenship, since zealous prosecutors argued Indian Americans had gained citizenship illegally. The California Alien Land Law of 1913 (invalidated in 1952) and others similar racist laws prohibited these aliens from owning land property, thus effectively stripping Indian Americans from land rights. While the decision was placating racist Asiatic Exclusion League (AEL) demands, spurned by growing outrage at the Turban Tide/Hindoo Invasion (sic) alongside the pre-existing outrage at the "Yellow Peril", and while more recent legislation influenced by the civil-rights movement has removed much of the statutory discrimination against Asians, no case has overturned this 1923 classification. Holding Court membership Chief Justice: William Howard Taft Associate Justices: Joseph McKenna, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. ... In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, due to the originally negligible population of Asian-Indian Americans, the U.S. government did not officially classify Indians as being of any particular race. ... California Alien Land Law of 1913 prohibits aliens ineligible for citizenship (i. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Historical stubs ... The Yellow Terror In All His Glory, 1899 editorial cartoon Yellow Peril (sometimes Yellow Terror) was a color metaphor for race that originated in the late nineteenth century with immigration of Chinese laborers to various Western countries, notably the United States, and later to the Japanese during the mid 20th...


A more complex quota plan replaced this "emergency" system under the Immigration Act of 1924 (Johnson-Reed Act). The reference census used was changed to that of 1890, which greatly reduced the number of Southern and Eastern European immigrants. An annual ceiling of 154,227 was set for the Eastern Hemisphere. Each country had a quota proportional to its population in the U.S. as of the 1920 census. It has been suggested that National Origins Quota of 1924 be merged into this article or section. ...


In 1932 President Roosevelt and the State Department essentially shut down immigration during the Great Depression as immigration went from 236,000 in 1929 to 23,000 in 1933. Total immigration in the decade of 1931 to 1940 was 528,000 averaging less than 53,000 a year. For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ...


The Chinese exclusion laws were repealed in 1943. The Luce-Celler Act of 1946 ended discrimination against Indian Americans and Philippines, who were accorded the right to naturalization, and allowed a meager quota of 100 immigrants per year. The Luce-Celler Act of 1946 was proposed by Republican Clara Booth Luce and Democrat Emanuel Celler in 1943 and signed into being by President Harry Truman on July 2nd, 1946, granting naturalization rights to Filipinos and Indians. ...


The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 (the McCarran-Walter Act) revised the quotas again, basing them on the 1920 census. For the first time in American history, racial distinctions were omitted from the U.S. Code. As could be expected, most of the quota allocation went to immigrants from Ireland, the United Kingdom and Germany who already had relatives in the United States. The anti-subversive features of this law are still in force. The Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) of 1952 (better known as the McCarran-Walter Act) was a law passed by the United States Congress restricting immigration into the United States. ...


The Immigration and Nationality Act Amendments of 1965 (the Hart-Cellar Act) abolished the system of national-origin quotas. There was, for the first time, a limitation on Western Hemisphere immigration (120,000 per year), with the Eastern Hemisphere limited to 170,000. Because of the family preferences put into immigration law, immigration is now mostly "chain immigration" where recent immigrants who are already here sponsor their relatives. Family related immigration is often outside the quota system. At the time, the then-chairman of the Senate Immigration Subcommittee Senator Edward Kennedy remarked that -- "The bill will not flood our cities with immigrants. It will not upset the ethnic mix of our society. It will not relax the standards of admission. It will not cause American workers to lose their jobs." (U.S. Senate, Subcommittee on Immigration and Naturalization of the Committee on the Judiciary, Washington, D.C., Feb. 10, 1965. pp. 1-3.) The Immigration Act of 1965 (also known as the Hart-Celler Act) abolished the national-origin quotas that had been in place in the United States since the Immigration Act of 1924. ...


The 1980 Refugee Act -- Established policies for refugees redefining "refugee" according to United Nations norms. A target for refugees was set at 50,000 and the worldwide ceiling for immigrants was reduced to 270,000 annually.


In 1986, the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) was passed, creating for the first time penalties for employers who knowingly hired illegal immigrants. These penalties are very seldom enforced and forged documents are rampant leading to widespread illegal immigrant employment. IRCA also contained an amnesty for about 3,000,000 illegal immigrants already in the United States, and mandated the intensification of some of the activities of the United States Border Patrol or INS (now part of Department of Homeland Security, DHS). The Immigration Reform and Control Act (Simpson-Mazzoli Act (IRCA), Pub. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


By one account, the actual number of annual legal immigrants was estimated at 500,000 to 600,000 in 1989. This subsequently increased and is now well over 1 million annually, not including illegal migration or temporary work visas.


The 1990 Immigration Act (IMMACT) modified and expanded the 1965 act; it significantly increased the total immigration limit to 700,000 and increased visas by 40 percent. Family reunification was retained as the main immigration criteria, with significant increases in employment-related immigration.


Several pieces of legislation signed into law in 1996 marked a turn towards harsher policies for both legal and illegal immigrants. The Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act (AEDPA) and Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA) vastly increased the categories of criminal activity for which immigrants, including green card holders, can be deported and imposed mandatory detention for certain types of deportation cases. As a result, well over 1,000,000 individuals have been deported since 1996. The Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 (also known as AEDPA) is a series of laws in the United States signed into law on April 24, 1996 to deter terrorism, provide justice for victims, provide for an effective death penalty, and for other purposes. ... The Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (Pub L. 104-208) is a 1996 United States law aimed at reducing illegal immigration into the country. ... A United States Permanent Resident Card (green card) A United States Permanent Resident Card, also green card, is an identification card attesting the permanent resident status of an alien in the United States of America. ... In Australia, the term mandatory detention describes the legislation of the Australian government to detain all persons entering the country or remaining in the country without a valid visa, including children. ...


Visas

Main article: United States visas

There are many different kinds of visas. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Asylum for refugees

In contrast to economic migrants, who generally do not gain legal admission, refugees, as defined by international law, can gain legal status through a process of seeking and receiving asylum, either by being designated a refugee while abroad or by physically entering the United States and requesting asylee status thereafter. A specified number of legally defined refugees, who either apply for asylum overseas or after arriving in the U.S., are admitted annually. Refugees compose about one-tenth of the total annual immigration to the United States, though some large refugee populations are very prominent. The United States honors the right of asylum of individuals as specified by international and federal law. ... Right of asylum (or political asylum) is an ancient judicial notion, under which a person persecuted for political opinions or religious beliefs in his or her country may be protected by another sovereign authority, a foreign country, or Church sanctuaries (as in medieval times). ... Refugee Law is the branch of International Law which deals with the rights and protection of refugees. ...


Since World War II, more refugees have found homes in the U.S. than any other nation and more than two million refugees have arrived in the U.S. since 1980. Of the top ten countries accepting resettled refugees in 2006, the United States accepted more than twice as much as the next nine countries combined. For example, Japan accepted just 16 refugees in 1999, while the United States took in 85,010 for resettlement, according to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. ...


The U.S. will accept 70,000 refugees in fiscal year 2007, and President Bush stated that his eventual goal is a program that resettles 90,000 refugees in the United States each year. In 2006, the State Department officially re-opened the Vietnamese resettlement program. In recent years, the main refugee sending-region has been Africa (Somalia, Liberia, Sudan, Ethiopia).[111] A July 22, 2007 article notes that in the past nine months only 133 of the planned 7000 Iraqi refugees were allowed into the United States.[112][113] George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... For other uses, see Boat people (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ...


Miscellaneous documented immigration

In removal proceedings (deportation) in front of an immigration judge, cancellation of removal is a form of relief that is available for certain long-time residents of the United States. It allows a person being faced with the threat of removal to obtain permanent residence if that person: (1) has been physically present in the U.S. for at least ten years, (2) has had good moral character during that period, (3) has not been convicted of certain crimes, and (4) can show that removal would result in exceptional and extremely unusual hardship to his or her U.S. citizen/permanent resident spouse, children, or parent. This form of relief is only available when a person is served with a Notice to Appear (like a civil summons) to appear in the proceedings in the Immigration Court. Many persons have received their green cards in this way even though removal or deportation was looming. Cancellation of removal is a form of immigration relief available to individuals who have been placed in immigration proceedings before the United States Executive Office for Immigration Review. ...


Member of Congress may submit private bills granting residency to specific named individuals. A special committee vets the requests, which require extensive documentation. Congress has bestowed the title of "Honorary Citizen of the United States" to six people. The only two living recipients were Winston Churchill and Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu (Mother Teresa), the other instances were posthumous honors. A private bill is the term used for legislation that originates from a particular member of a legislature or parliament or from a member of the public. ... A non-United States citizen of exceptional merit may be declared an Honorary Citizen of the United States by the President pursuant to an Act of Congress. ... Churchill redirects here. ... Mother Teresa Mother Teresa of Calcutta (August 27, 1910&#8211;September 5, Catholic nun and founder of the Missionaries of Charity whose work among the poor of Calcutta was widely reported. ...


The Central Intelligence Agency has the statutory authority to admit up to one hundred people a year outside of normal immigration procedures, and to provide for their settlement and support. The program is called "PL110" after the legislation that created the agency, Public Law 110, the Central Intelligence Agency Act. “CIA” redirects here. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Illegal immigration

Illegal immigration has recently resurfaced as a major political issue. Various bills are in the United States Congress either to provide for legalization and amnesty of those present in the country illegally, or to crack down on employers that hire undocumented workers and build a wall along the Mexican border. // Illegal immigration to the United States refers to the act of foreign nationals voluntarily resettling in the United States in violation of U.S. immigration and nationality law. ... In 2004, United States President George W. Bush proposed a guest worker program to absorb migrant laborers who would otherwise come to the U.S. as illegal aliens. ... Thousands gather for illegal immigrant rights rally in Nashville, Tennessee on March 29, 2006. ... Radio Station advertisement in Spanish in East Los Angeles against the H.R.4437. ...


The U.S. Census Bureau estimated that 8.7 million illegal immigrants were living in the United States in 2000, and immigration officials estimate that the illegal immigrant population grows by at least 500,000 every year.[114] The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ...


Immigration in popular culture

1888 cartoon in Puck attacks businessmen for welcoming large numbers of low paid immigrants, leaving the American workingman unemployed
1888 cartoon in Puck attacks businessmen for welcoming large numbers of low paid immigrants, leaving the American workingman unemployed

The history of immigration to the United States of America is the history of the United States itself, and the journey from beyond the sea is an element found in the American myth, appearing over and over again in everything from The Godfather to Gangs of New York to "The Song of Myself" to Neil Diamond's "America" to the animated feature An American Tail. Image File history File links Immigrants1888. ... Image File history File links Immigrants1888. ... The folklore of the United States, or American folklore, is the folk tradition which has evolved on the North American continent since Europeans arrived in the 16th century. ... This article is about the 1972 film. ... Gangs of New York is a 2002 film set in the middle 19th century in the Five Points district of New York City. ... Song of Myself is a poem by Walt Whitman that was included in his book of poems Leaves of Grass. ... Neil Leslie Diamond (born January 24, 1941) is an American singer, songwriter and sometime Actor. ... The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these 6 frames. ... An American Tail is an animated film produced by Steven Spielbergs Amblin Entertainment, and directed by Don Bluth, originally released in movie theatres on November 21, 1986. ...


As in many myths, the immigrant story has been exaggerated. Immigrants, including new colonists from before the establishment of the United States as a separate country, were never more than 15% of the population and usually considerably less. Immigrants were often poor and uneducated but the succeeding generations took good advantage of the opportunities offered. The reality is even more amazing than the myth in some ways as the succeeding generations learn how to cooperate or at least tolerate each other to build a strong system of shared core beliefs that has succeeded far beyond its original founders would have ever believed possible.


Immigration in literature

  • The Swedish author Vilhelm Moberg wrote a series of four novels describing one Swedish family's migration from Småland to Minnesota in the late 19th century, a destiny shared by almost one million people. These novels have been translated into English (The Emigrants, 1951, Unto a Good Land, 1954, The Settlers, 1961, The Last Letter Home, 1961). The musical Kristina från Duvemåla by ex-ABBA members Björn Ulvaeus and Benny Andersson is based on this story.

Vilhelm Moberg (August 20, 1898 - August 8, 1973) was a Swedish author and historian. ...

Quotations

The most famous literary work supporting immigration was the 1883 poem "The New Colossus" by Emma Lazarus. It contrasted the Statue of Liberty with the statue Colossus of Rhodes, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. It is not an official government document and was never approved by Congress, but is a popular romantic sentiment attached to the popular statue. The New Colossus is a sonnet by Emma Lazarus (1849-1887), written in 1883 and, in 1903, engraved on a bronze plaque and mounted inside the Statue of Liberty. ... Emma Lazarus (July 22, 1849 – November 19, 1887) was an American poet born in New York City. ... “The Colossus of Rhodes” redirects here. ... This article is about the Seven Ancient Wonders. ...

"Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!" cries she
With silent lips. "Give me your tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,
I lift my lamp beside the golden door!"
Emma Lazarus

Emma Lazarus (July 22, 1849 – November 19, 1887) was an American poet born in New York City. ...

Interpretive perspectives

The Statue of Liberty was a common sight to many immigrants who entered the United States through Ellis Island
The Statue of Liberty was a common sight to many immigrants who entered the United States through Ellis Island

The American Dream is the belief that through hard work and determination, any United States immigrant can achieve a better life, usually in terms of financial prosperity and enhanced personal freedom of choice.[115] This Dream has been a major factor in attracting immigrants to the United States. According to historians, the rapid economic and industrial expansion of the U.S. is not simply a function of being a resource rich, hard working, and inventive country, but the belief that anybody could get a share of the country's wealth if he or she was willing to work hard.[116] Many have also argued that the basis of the American greatness is how the country began without a rigid class structure at a time when other countries in Africa, Europe, China, India and Latin America had much more stratified social structures.[117][118] Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (400x917, 73 KB) Statue of Liberty, New York Author: Helen Lee Source: [1] Licence: [2] File links The following pages link to this file: Statue of Liberty Libertarianism Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (400x917, 73 KB) Statue of Liberty, New York Author: Helen Lee Source: [1] Licence: [2] File links The following pages link to this file: Statue of Liberty Libertarianism Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... For other monuments to freedom, see Monument of Liberty. ... Ellis Island, at the mouth of the Hudson River in New York Harbor, was at one time the main entry facility for immigrants entering the United States from January 1, 1892 until November 12, 1954. ...


Legal perspectives

Hiroshi Motomura, University of North Carolina law professor and nationally recognized expert on citizenship and immigration, has identified three approaches America has taken to the legal status of immigrants (considering only legal immigrants) in his book Americans in Waiting: The Lost Story of Immigration and Citizenship in the United States. The first, dominant in the 19th century, treated immigrants as in transition--that is, as prospective citizens. As soon as people declared their intention to become citizens, and before the five year wait was over, they received multiple low cost benefits, including eligibility for free homesteads (in the Homestead Act of 1869), and in many states the right to vote. The goal was to make America attractive so large numbers of farmers and skilled craftsmen would settle new lands. By the 1880s, a second approach took over, treating newcomers as "immigrants by contract." An implicit deal existed whereby immigrants who were literate and could earn their own living were permitted in restricted numbers (with the exception of Asians). Once in the United States, they would have somewhat limited legal rights, but were not allowed to vote until they became citizens, and would not be eligible for the New Deal government benefits available in the 1930s. The third more recent policy is "immigration by affiliation," Motomura argues, whereby the treatment in part depends on how deeply rooted people have become in America. An immigrant who applies for citizenship as soon as permitted, has a long history of working in the United States, and has significant family ties (such as American-born children), is more deeply affiliated and can expect better treatment.[119] The Homestead Act was a United States Federal law that gave freehold title to 160 acres (one quarter section or about 65 hectares) of undeveloped land in the American West. ...


Media

  • Ellis Island immigration footage, 1906

    Depicts scenes at the Immigration Depot and a nearby dock on Ellis Island. (3:37, 16.6 MB, ogg/Theora format).


    Ellis Island immigration footage. ... Ellis Island immigration footage. ... ReBoot character, see Megabyte (ReBoot). ... Ogg is an open standard for a free container format for digital multimedia, unrestricted by software patents and designed for efficient streaming and manipulation. ... Theora is a video codec being developed by the Xiph. ...

  • Problems seeing the videos? See media help.

The Making of an American, was named to the National Film Registry in December 2005 by Dr. James H. Billington, the Librarian of Congress. ...

See also

General

A memorial statue in Hanko, Finland, commemorating the thousands of emigrants who left the country to start a new life in the United States Emigration is the act and the phenomenon of leaving ones native country or region to settle in another. ... The birth of the first white child was a celebrated occasion across many parts of the Americas and Australia. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... A judge swears in a new citizen. ... “Citizen” redirects here. ...

Laws

There have been a number of Immigration Acts in the United States. ... Senate Bill 2611 (Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act) (abbreviated CIRA), is a United States Senate bill dealing with immigration reform. ... Radio Station advertisement in Spanish in East Los Angeles against the H.R.4437. ...

History

The United States Immigration Commission was a special congressional committee formed in February 1907 by the by the United States Congress, which was then under intense pressure from various nativist groups, to study the origins and consequences of recent immigration to the United States. ... Territories in the Americas colonized or claimed by a European great power in 1750. ... Ellis Island, at the mouth of the Hudson River in New York Harbor, was at one time the main entry facility for immigrants entering the United States from January 1, 1892 until November 12, 1954. ...

United States

Population of the United States, 1790 to 2000 The demographics of the United States depict a largely urban nation, with 57 percent of its population living in places more than 100 miles away from the ocean (2003). ...

Controversy

// Illegal immigration to the United States refers to the act of foreign nationals voluntarily resettling in the United States in violation of U.S. immigration and nationality law. ... In 2004, United States President George W. Bush proposed a guest worker program to absorb migrant laborers who would otherwise come to the U.S. as illegal aliens. ... Thousands gather for illegal immigrant rights rally in Nashville, Tennessee on March 29, 2006. ...

References

  1. 2004 Year Book of Immigration Statistics [24]
  2. Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970 [25]
  3. The Foreign-Born Population: 2000; U.S. Census [26]
  4. Virginia Library Geostat Center Census Data [27]
  5. The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigrationl Edited by James P. Smith and Barry Edmonston, National Science Foundation ISBN 0-309-06356-6. [28]

Secondary sources

  • Archdeacon, Thomas J. Becoming American: An Ethnic History (1984)
  • Bankston, Carl L. III and Danielle Antoinette Hidalgo, eds. Immigration in U.S. History Salem Press, (2006)
  • Berthoff, Rowland Tappan. British Immigrants in Industrial America, 1790-1950 (1953).
  • Bodnar, John. The Transplanted: A History of Immigrants in Urban America Indiana University Press, (1985)
  • Briggs, John. An Italian Passage: Immigrants to Three American Cities, 1890-1930 Yale University Press, (1978)
  • Daniels, Roger. Asian America: Chinese and Japanese in the United States since 1850 University of Washington Press, (1988)
  • Daniels, Roger. Coming to America 2nd ed. (2005)
  • Daniels, Roger. Guarding the Golden Door : American Immigration Policy and Immigrants since 1882 (2005)
  • Diner, Hasia. The Jews of the United States, 1654 to 2000 (2004)
  • Diner, Hasia. Hungering for America: Italian, Irish, and Jewish Foodways in the Age of Migration (2003)
  • Eltis, David; Coerced and Free Migration: Global Perspectives (2002) emphasis on migration to Americas before 1800
  • Gjerde, Jon, ed. Major Problems in American Immigration and Ethnic History (1998) primary sources and excerpts from scholars.
  • Glazier, Michael, ed. The Encyclopedia of the Irish in America (1999), articles by over 200 experts, covering both Catholics and Protestants.
  • Greene, Victor R. A Singing Ambivalence: American Immigrants Between Old World and New, 1830-1930 (2004), coving musical traditions
  • Isaac Aaronovich Hourwich. Immigration and Labor: The Economic Aspects of European Immigration to the United States (1912) full text online]
  • Joseph, Samuel; Jewish Immigration to the United States from 1881 to 1910 Columbia University Press, (1914)
  • Kulikoff, Allan; From British Peasants to Colonial American Farmers (2000), details on colonial immigration
  • Meagher, Timothy J. The Columbia Guide to Irish American History. (2005)
  • Miller, Kerby M. Emigrants and Exiles (1985), influential scholarly interpretation of Irish immigration
  • Motomura, Hiroshi. Americans in Waiting: The Lost Story of Immigration and Citizenship in the United States (2006), legal history
  • Pochmann, Henry A. and Arthur R. Schultz; German Culture in America, 1600-1900: Philosophical and Literary Influences (1957)
  • Sowell, Thomas. Ethnic America: A History (1981), by a conservative economist
  • Thernstrom, Stephan, ed. Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups (1980) (ISBN 0-674-37512-2), the standard reference, covering all major groups and most minor groups
  • Waters, Tony. Crime and Immigrant Youth Sage Publications (1999), a sociological analysis.
  • U.S. Immigration Commission, Abstracts of Reports, 2 vols. (1911); the full 42-volume report is summarized (with additional information) in Jeremiah W. Jenks and W. Jett Lauck, The Immigrant Problem (1912; 6th ed. 1926)
  • Wittke, Carl. We Who Built America: The Saga of the Immigrant (1939), covers all major groups
  • Yans-McLaughlin, Virginia ed. Immigration Reconsidered: History, Sociology, and Politics Oxford University Press. (1990)
  1. ^ U.S. population hits 300 million
  2. ^ Number of immigrants hits record 37.5 million
  3. ^ Characteristics of the Foreign Born in the United States: Results from Census 2000
  4. ^ Pew Hispanic Center
  5. ^ 300 Million and Counting
  6. ^ U.S. Census Bureau: Nation’s Population One-Third Minority
  7. ^ one billion Americans
  8. ^ Balancing Act: Can America Sustain a Population of 500 Million -- Or Even a Billion -- by 2100?
  9. ^ U.S. Population Is Now One-Third Minority - Population Reference Bureau
  10. ^ Beneath the surface, Americans are deeply ambivalent about diversity
  11. ^ Inflow of foreign-born population by country of birth, by year
  12. ^ US Faced with a Mammoth Iraq Refugee Crisis
  13. ^ United States Unwelcoming to Iraqi Refugees
  14. ^ More Muslims Arrive in U.S., After 9/11 Dip
  15. ^ The People Perceived as a Threat to Security: Arab Americans Since September 11
  16. ^ More than 100 million Latinos in the U.S. by 2050
  17. ^ Asthana, Anushka (2006-08-21). Changing Face of Western Cities. Washington Post. Retrieved on 2007-06-25.
  18. ^ The Best Story of Our Lives
  19. ^ US - Census figures show dramatic growth in Asian, Hispanic populations
  20. ^ Population Growth And Immigration, U.S. Has Highest Population Growth Rate Of All Developed Nations - CBS News
  21. ^ U.S. Cities Provide Sanctuary to Illegals
  22. ^ New Mexico History
  23. ^ http://www.virtualjamestown.org/indentures/england_counties.html
  24. ^ Convict Servants in the American Colonies
  25. ^ History: Early World and American Death Penalty Laws
  26. ^ The history of judicial hanging in Britain
  27. ^ http://ap.grolier.com/article?assetid=0161940-0&templatename=/arti
  28. ^ http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=838
  29. ^ Latinos and the Changing Face of America - Population Reference Bureau
  30. ^ PBS The Border [1]
  31. ^ Pew Hispanic Center [2] reported on the March 2005 Current Population Survey (CPS), conducted jointly by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Census Bureau, that they conservatively estimated at least 500,000 Mexicans had crossed the border illegally each year since 2000. The number of illegal Mexican immigrants is thought to be 80-85% of the total flow of Mexican immigrants and their population in the United States now consists of over 50% illegal immigrants. This would significantly increase the 2004 Mexican population estimate by at least 2,000,000 and the 2010 projected population by at least 5,000,000. Pew also reported that in 2005, there were at least an estimated 7,500,000 unauthorized workers from Mexico and elsewhere, mostly Central America, working in the U.S., with household members totaling somewhere between 11.5 and 12.1 million and increasing at 700,000 to 1,500,000 per year or 2,000 to 5,000 per day. The number of unauthorized workers from other countries besides Mexico is known even less precisely but it is estimated (by Pew) that Mexicans compose approximately 60% of the unauthorized workers with other Latin American unauthorized workers another 20%. This would imply that at least 300,000/year additional unauthorized workers illegally cross the border or violate their visas or border crossing cards each year. (Estimates of the Size and Characteristics of the Undocumented Population) [3], (The Underground Labor Force Is Rising To The Surface)[4]
  32. ^ National Poverty Center - The University of Michigan
  33. ^ The Seattle Times: Some blacks say Latino immigrants taking their jobs
  34. ^ Suarez-Orozco, Carola and Suarez-Orozco, Marcelo (2001) Children of Immigration. Harvard University Press pages 41-45
  35. ^ Survey results reported in Simon, Julian L. (1989) The Economic Consequences of Immigration Boston: Basil Blackwell are discussed widely and available as of September 12, 2007 at a Cato group policy paper by Simon here. They find that 81 percent of the economists surveyed felt that 20th century immigration had very favorable effects, and 74 percent felt that illegal immigration had positive effects, with 76 percent feeling that recent immigration has "about the same effect" as immigrants from past years.
  36. ^ The Immigration Debate / Effect on Economy
  37. ^ James p. Smith, Chair. The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration (1997) Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education (CBASSE), National Academy of Sciences. page 5
  38. ^ U.S. Census Press Releases
  39. ^ Smith (1997) 7,8
  40. ^ Perez, Miguel (2006) "Hire education: Immigrants aren't taking jobs from Americans" Chicago Sun-Times Aug. 22, 2006, available here
  41. ^ Smith (1997) page 6
  42. ^ Bureau of Justice Statistics: Criminal Offenders Statistics, 2005-11-13[5]
  43. ^ Asian Summary of Findings
  44. ^ Broad racial disparities persist. Retrieved on 2006-12-18.
  45. ^ Exit Poll of 4,600 Asian American Voters Reveals Robust Support for Democratic Candidates in Key Congressional and State Races
  46. ^ Hispanics turning back to Democrats for 2008 - USATODAY.com
  47. ^ Gang rivalry grows into race war
  48. ^ Race relations | Where black and brown collide | Economist.com
  49. ^ Riot Breaks Out At Calif. High School, Melee Involving 500 People Erupts At Southern California School
  50. ^ JURIST - Paper Chase: Race riot put down at California state prison
  51. ^ Racial segregation continues in California prisons
  52. ^ A bloody conflict between Hispanic and black gangs is spreading across Los Angeles
  53. ^ The Hutchinson Report: Thanks to Latino Gangs, There’s a Zone in L.A. Where Blacks Risk Death if They Enter
  54. ^ African immigrants face bias from blacks
  55. ^ Brown, Richard, et al (1998) "Access to Health Insurance and Health Care for Mexican American Children in Immigrant Families" In Marcelo M. Suarez-Orozco, ed. Crossings: Mixican Immigration in Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Cambridge, Mass.: David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies and Harvard University Press pages 225-247
  56. ^ in fact, Simon, Juliana (1995) "Immigration: The Demographic and Economic Facts". Washington, D.C.: The Cato Instityte and National Immigration Forum (available here) finds that estimates of the cost of public health care provided to undocumented immigrants that have been used by the press have been extremely inflated
  57. ^ Simon (1995)
  58. ^ National Institutes of Health. Medical Encyclopedia Accessed 9/25/2006
  59. ^ Tuberculosis in the United States, 2004
  60. ^ U.S. tuberculosis cases at an all-time low in 2006, but drug resistance remains a threat
  61. ^ Tuberculosis among US Immigrants
  62. ^ Key HIV strain 'came from Haiti'
  63. ^ The virus from Africa reached the U.S. by way of Haiti, a genetic study shows
  64. ^ What Happens to the "Healthy Immigrant Effect"
  65. ^ notably, National Research Council. (1997) "From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families". Washington D.C.: National Academy Press (Available here
  66. ^ Eating Fossil Fuels | EnergyBulletin.net
  67. ^ Threat to our food security
  68. ^ See, for instance, immigration reform group Federation for American Immigration Reform,s page on Immigration & U.S. Water Supply
  69. ^ A World Without Water -Global Policy Forum- NGOs
  70. ^ Immigration & U.S. Water Supply
  71. ^ State looks to the sea for drinkable water
  72. ^ Bureau of Justice Statistics (2006-06-29). Homicide trends in the U.S.: Trends by race. United States Department of Justice.
  73. ^ Greenfeld, Lawrence A. (February 1997). Sex Offenses and Offenders: An Analysis of Data on Rape and Sexual Assault. United States Department of Justice.
  74. ^ Prison Racism
  75. ^ Race and the Criminal Justice System
  76. ^ State University of New York - Binghamton
  77. ^ On immigration and Crime. [6]
  78. ^ Sampson, Robert. ""Open Doors Don't Invite Criminals"", New York Times (Op-Ed), March 11, 2006.  [7]
  79. ^ John Hagan, Alberto Palloni. [8] Sociological Criminology and the Mythology of Hispanic Immigration and Crime]. Social Problems, Vol. 46, No. 4 (Nov., 1999), pp. 617-632
  80. ^ Hispanic prisoners in the United States
  81. ^ The Immigrant Gang Plague by Heather Mac Donald, City Journal Summer 2004
  82. ^ Measuring the Extent of Gang Problems—National Youth Gang Survey Analysis
  83. ^ Into the Abyss: The Racial and Ethnic Composition of Gangs
  84. ^ Global Warming
  85. ^ Illinois Recycling Association Recycling Facts
  86. ^ SEI: Energy Consumption
  87. ^ NRDC: Reducing U.S. Oil Dependence
  88. ^ Waste WatcherPDF (62.9 KiB)
  89. ^ Alarm sounds on US population boom - The Boston Globe
  90. ^ Consumption Industrialized, Commercialized, Dehumanized, and Deadly
  91. ^ October 4, 2006: U.S. Population Reaches 300 Million, Heading for 400 Million: No Cause for Celebration
  92. ^ The Environmental Impact Of Immigration Into The United States
  93. ^ U.S. immigration, population growth, and the environment
  94. ^ Immigration's Dire Effect On The Environment
  95. ^ Why Excess Immigration Damages The Environment
  96. ^ Remote Island Provides Clues On Population Growth, Environmental Degradation
  97. ^ Women Are Having More Children - MedicalNewsService.com
  98. ^ Welcome to United States Hispanic Business Association! -USHispanics
  99. ^ Paul Ehrlich, The Population Bomb, Buccaneer Books; Reprint edition (December 1995) ISBN 1568495870
  100. ^ Critical water basins worldwide
  101. ^ Colorado River Water Users Association: Arizona
  102. ^ Stakeholders in the Colorado River
  103. ^ Allocation by U.S. of Colorado River use beyond fair share
  104. ^ John F. Kennedy Library, Ralph A. Dungen #8.6 White House Files, Washington DC
  105. ^ Abernethy, C. L., ed. Intersectoral Management of River Basins. Proceedings of an International Workshop on "Integrated Water Management in Water-Stressed River Basins in Developing Countries: Strategies for Poverty Alleviation and Agricultural Growth," Loskop Dam, South Africa, 16­21 October 2000. Colombo, Sri Lanka: IWMI and German Foundation for International Development (DSE), 2001.; Mostert, E., ed. River Basin Management. Proceedings of the International Workshop, The Hague, 27­29 October. UNESCO, 1999
  106. ^ Mexico's small share of Colorado River extraction
  107. ^ Espenshade, Thomas J. and Belanger, Maryanne (1998) "Immigration and Public Opinion." In Marcelo M. Suarez-Orozco, ed. Crossings: Mixican Immigration in Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Cambridge, Mass.: David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies and Harvard University Press, pages 365-403
  108. ^ Samuelson, Robert (2007) "Importing poverty" Washington Post, September 5, 2007 (Accessible as of September 12, 2007 here)
  109. ^ Center for Immigration Studies
  110. ^ Importing Poverty: Immigration and Poverty in the United States: A Book of Charts
  111. ^ A New Era Of Refugee Resettlement
  112. ^ Ambassador wants more visas for loyal Iraqis
  113. ^ "Iraq refugees find no refuge in America." By Ann McFeatters. Seattle Post-Intelligencer. May 25, 2007.
  114. ^ FAIR: : How Many Illegal Aliens?
  115. ^ Boritt, Gabor S. Lincoln and the Economics of the American Dream. Page 1. 1994. ISBN 0-252-06445-3.
  116. ^ Jim Cullen, The American Dream : A Short History of an Idea that Shaped a Nation. 2004. ISBN 0-19-517325-2.
  117. ^ Heiner, Robert. Social Problems: An Introduction to Critical Constructionism. Page 114. August 16, 2001. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 0-19-512992-X.
  118. ^ This argument was made in Isaac A. Hourwich. Immigration and Labor: the Economic Aspects of European Immigration to the United States (2012).
  119. ^ Hiroshi Motomura. Americans in Waiting: The Lost Story of Immigration and Citizenship in the United States (2006)

Rowland Tappan Berthoff (September 20, 1921-March 25, 2001) was an American historian, working in the fields of immigration and social life in the USA. He is best known for his 1971 book An Unsettled People: Order and Disorder in American Life. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building in Washington, D.C. “Justice Department” redirects here. ... The Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building in Washington, D.C. “Justice Department” redirects here. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... The daily Seattle Post-Intelligencer is the second leading newspaper in Seattle, Washington, United States. ...

Recent: post 1965

  • Beasley, Vanessa B. ed. Who Belongs in America?: Presidents, Rhetoric, And Immigration (2006)
  • Bogen, Elizabeth. Immigration in New York (1987)
  • Bommes, Michael and Andrew Geddes. Immigration and Welfare: Challenging the Borders of the Welfare State (2000)
  • Borjas, George J. ed. Issues in the Economics of Immigration (National Bureau of Economic Research Conference Report) (2000) 9 statistical essays by scholars;
  • Borjas, George. Friends or Strangers (1990)
  • Borjas, George J. "Welfare Reform and Immigrant Participation in Welfare Programs" International Migration Review 2002 36(4): 1093-1123. ISSN 0197-9183; finds very steep decline of immigrant welfare participation in California.
  • Briggs, Vernon M., Jr. Immigration Policy and the America Labor Force Johns Hopkins University Press, 1984.
  • Briggs, Vernon M., Jr. Mass Immigration and the National Interest (1992)
  • Fawcett, James T., and Benjamin V. Carino. Pacific Bridges: The New Immigration from Asia and the Pacific Islands . New York: Center for Migration Studies, 1987.
  • Foner, Nancy. In A New Land: A Comparative View Of Immigration (2005)
  • Levinson, David and Melvin Ember, eds. American Immigrant Cultures 2 vol (1997) covers all major and minor groups
  • Lowe, Lisa. Immigrant Acts: On Asian American Cultural Politics (1996)
  • Meier, Matt S. and Gutierrez, Margo, eds. The Mexican American Experience : An Encyclopedia (2003) (ISBN 0-313-31643-0)
  • Mohl, Raymond A. "Latinization in the Heart of Dixie: Hispanics in Late-twentieth-century Alabama" Alabama Review 2002 55(4): 243-274. ISSN 0002-4341
  • Portes, Alejandro, and Robert L. Bach. Latin Journey: Cuban and Mexican Immigrants in the United States. University of California Press, 1985.
  • Portes, Alejandro, and Jozsef Borocz. "Contemporary Immigration: Theoretical Perspectives on Its Determinants and Modes of Incorporation." International Migration Review 23 (1989): 606-30.
  • Portes, Alejandro, and Ruben Rumbaut. Immigrant America. University of California Press, 1990.
  • Reimers, David. Still the Golden Door: The Third World Comes to America Columbia University Press, (1985).
  • Smith, James P, and Barry Edmonston, eds. The Immigration Debate: Studies on the Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration (1998), online version
  • Zhou, Min and Carl L. Bankston III Growing Up American: How VIetnamese Children Adapt to Life in the United States Russell Sage Foundation. (1998)

External links

History

  • Immigrant Servants Database
  • Asian-Nation: Early Asian Immigration to the U.S.
  • Irish Catholic Immigration to America
  • Scotch-Irish Immigration to Colonial America

Immigration policy

  • Brookings Institute: Immigration Policy
  • Urban Institute: Immigration Studies
  • The Real Political Purpose of the ICE Raids from Dollars & Sense magazine

Dollars & Sense is a magazine dedicated to providing left-wing perspectives on economics. ...

Current immigration

  • U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services
  • U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement
  • Cornell University's Legal Information Institute: Immigration
  • Yearbook of Immigration Statistics - U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Office of Immigration Statistics. 2004, 2005 editions available.
  • "Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2005" M. Hoefer, N. Rytina, C. Campbell (2006) "Population Estimates (August). Department of Homeland Security, Office of Immigration Statistics,

Economic impact

  • Immigrants and the Labor Market from Dollars & Sense magazine
  • Immigrants in Black & White: A Review of “Communities Without Borders", The Indypendent, Susan Chenelle

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