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Encyclopedia > Immigration to New Zealand

To date, five periods of Immigration to New Zealand may be identified. These began with Polynesian settlement of a so far uninhabited New Zealand in the thirteenth century. European colonisation began with the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi of 1840. Post-World War II immigration was characterised by not only those displaced by war, but also those emigrating to meet a labour shortage. The introduction of a points system in 1986 was part of the sweeping reforms of neo-liberalism. Finally, immigration policies after the 9/11 terrorist attacks were adapted in response to security concerns and continues to shape the debate around immigration into New Zealand. It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... One of the few extant copies of the Treaty of Waitangi The Treaty of Waitangi (Māori: Tiriti o Waitangi) is a treaty signed on February 6, 1840 by representatives of the British Crown, and Māori chiefs from the North Island of New Zealand. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The World Trade Center on fire The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. ...


Polynesian settlement

This is the period in which travellers of the South Pacific discovered the landmass of New Zealand. Eastern Polynesian explorers had settled in New Zealand by approximately the thirteenth century AD. Their arrival gave rise to the Māori culture and the Māori language, both of which are unique to New Zealand, although very closely related to those of other parts of Eastern Polynesia. The resemblance is especially strong to the languages and cultures of the Cook and Society Islands, which are regarded as the most likely places of origin. Due to New Zealand's geographic isolation, 500 years passed before the next phase of settlement, the arrival of Europeans. Only then did the original inhabitants need to distinguish themselves from the new arrivals, using the term "Māori" which means "ordinary" or "indigenous". Polynesian is an adjectival form which refers variously to: Polynesian pie Polynesian sauce, a food condiment available at Chick-fil-A the aboriginal inhabitants of Polynesia, and their: Polynesian culture Polynesian mythology Polynesian languages Category: ... Māori culture is a distinctive part of New Zealand culture. ... Māori or Te Reo Māori, commonly shortened to Te Reo (literally the language) is an official language of New Zealand. ... Anthem Te Atua Mou E God is Truth Capital (and largest city) Avarua Official languages English Cook Islands Māori Government  -  Head of State Queen Elizabeth II  -  Queens Representative Sir Frederick Goodwin  -  Prime Minister Jim Marurai Associated state  -  Self-government in free association with New Zealand 4 August 1965... The Society Islands (French: ÃŽles de la Société or offically Archipel de la Société) are a group of islands in the south Pacific, administratively part of French Polynesia. ...

Migration from 1840

European colonialism sent out a number of waves of migrants to New Zealand that left a deep legacy on the social and political structures of the Maori. Between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries, there was a huge outflow of migrants from Europe to many parts of the world today. Early visitors to New Zealand included whalers, sealers, missionaries, mariners and merchants, attracted to natural resources in abundance. They came from Great Britain, Ireland, Germany (forming the next biggest immigrant group after the British and Irish)[1], France, Portugal, the Netherlands, Denmark, America, and Canada. However, it was not until the end of the nineteenth century that New Zealand was seen by colonialists as a desirable place. Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...

There were three things that prompted the British, the largest imperial power of the time, to proclaim sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840. First, there were plans for a French colony at Akaroa. Another was petitioning from the New Zealand Company. Finally the spread of lawlessness.[citation needed] Following the formalising of sovereignty, the organised and structured flow of migrants from England and Ireland began, and by 1860 more than 100,000 English, Scottish, Irish and Welsh settlers were living throughout New Zealand. Others settlers came from Germany, Scandinavia, other parts of Europe as well as China and India, but British settlers made up the vast majority, and did so for the next 150 years. Between 1888 and the 1920s, legislation was passed that intended to limit Asiatic migration to New Zealand, and prevented them from naturalising. In particular, a poll tax was levied on Chinese immigrants up until the 1930s, when Japan began invading China, and finally abolished in 1944. “Sovereign” redirects here. ... A view of the Akaroa harbour. ... The New Zealand Company formed in 1839 to promote the colonisation of New Zealand. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...

Post World War II migration

With the various agencies of the United Nations dealing with humanitarian efforts following the second world war, New Zealand accepted about 5,000 refugees and displaced persons from Europe, and more than 1,100 Hungarians between 1956 and 1959 (see Refugee migration into New Zealand). The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... This article describes the stance of New Zealand towards migration of refugees in the past, present and the future. ...

Immigration was limited to those who would meet a labour shortage in New Zealand. To encourage those to come, free and assisted passage was introduced in 1947 and expanded by the National Party in 1950. However, when it became clear that not enough skilled migrants could be found, recruitment began in Northern European countries. There was a bilateral agreement for skilled migrants with The Netherlands, and a large number of Dutch immigrants arrived in New Zealand. Other came in the 1950s from Denmark, Germany, Switzerland and Austria to meet specialised occupations.

By the 1960s, the policy of excluding people based on race yielded a population that was mostly either Maori or European. By the mid 1960s, a desire for cheap unskilled labour lead to ethnic diversification. In the 1950s and 1960s, migrants were encouraged from the South Pacific. There was a large demand for unskilled labour in the manufacturing sector. As long as this demand continued, migrants were encouraged to come from the South Pacific, and many overstayed. However, when the boom times stopped, they were blamed for the economic downturn affecting the country, and many of those people were subjected to Dawn Raid from 1974. Dawn Raid Entertainment is a record label, based in Papatoetoe in Auckland, New Zealand and has signed many New Zealand hip-hop and RnB artists such as Savage, Ill Semantics and The Deceptikonz. ...

A record number of migrants arrived in during the 1970s; 70,000, for example, during 1973-1974. While many ethnicities are represented in those numbers, there was an underlying preference for migrants from "traditional sources", namely Britain, Europe and Northern America.

Introduction of points-based system

Along with the introduction a radical direction of economic theory, a new Immigration Act was passed into law in 1987. This was to end the preference for migrants from Britain, Europe or Northern America based on their race, and instead classify migrants on their skills, personal qualities, and potential contribution to New Zealand economy and society. The introduction of the points-based system came under the National government who pursed this policy change even more than the previous Labour one. This system was very similar to Canada’s, and came into effect in 1991. Effectively the qualities that are sought in the migrants are ranked and given a priority using a points scale. This is the current framework still governing immigration, however the results of an immigration review were announced in December 2006.[2]

New migrant groups

This policy resulted in a wide variety of ethnicities, over 120 countries, being represented in New Zealand. Between 1991 and 1995 those given approval grew rapidly: 26,000 in 1992; 35,000 in 1994; 54,811 in 1995. The minimum target for residency approval was set at 25,000. The number approved was almost twice what was targeted. Since 1999, under the Labour-led governments, no change to the Immigration Act 1987 has been made, although some changes were made to the 1991 policy. In particular, the minimum IELTS level for skilled migrants was raised from 5.5 to 6.5 in 2002, following concerns that immigrants who spoke English as a second language were encountering difficulty getting jobs in their chosen fields.[3] Since then, migration from Britain and South Africa has increased, at the expense of immigration from Asia. However this has been mitigated somewhat by a study-for-residency programme for foreign university students. International English Language Testing System (IELTS, pronounced ) is a test of English language proficiency. ... International English Language Testing System (IELTS, pronounced ) is a test of English language proficiency. ... International English Language Testing System (IELTS, pronounced ) is a test of English language proficiency. ...

By 2005, 60% of the applicants were accepted under the Skilled/Business category that awarded points for qualifications and work experience, or business experience and funds they had available. From 1 Aug 2007, NZD$2.5 million is the minimum for the Active Investor Migrant Category .

Changes to the point system have also given more weight to job offers as compared to educational degrees. Previously, it had been noted (half-jokingly, half-cynically), that most taxi drivers in Auckland tended to be highly qualified engineers or doctors - who were unable to then find jobs in their fields once in the country.[4]

Recent years

In 2004-2005, a target of 45,000 was set by the Immigration New Zealand and represented 1.5% of the total population. However, the net effect was a population decline, since more left than arrived. 48,815 arrived, and overall the population was 10,000 or 0.25% less than the previous year. Overall though, New Zealand has one of the highest populations of foreign born citizens. In 2005, almost 20% of New Zealanders were born overseas, one of the highest percentages of any country in the world. The Department of Labour’s sixth annual Migration Trends report shows a 21 per cent rise in work permits issued in the 2005/06 year compared with the previous year. Nearly 100,000 people were issued work permits to work in sectors ranging from IT to horticulture in the 2005/06 year. This compares with around 35,000 work permits issued in 1999-2000. Around 52,000 people were approved for permanent New Zealand residence in 2005/06. Over 60 per cent were approved under the skilled or business categories. Immigration New Zealand or INZ is a part of the Workforce group of the New Zealand Department of Labour. ...

Other migrant quotas

New Zealand accepts 750 refugees per year mandated by the United Nations. As part of the Pacific Access Category, 650 citizens come from Fiji, Tuvalu, Kiribati, and Tonga. 1,100 Samoan citizens come under the Samoan Quota scheme. Once resident, these people can apply to bring other family members to New Zealand under the Family Sponsored stream. Any migrant accepted under these schemes is granted permanent residency in New Zealand. The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ...

Government views today

There is a continuing emphasis on the economic benefit that migration plays, which has characterised the flow of migrants since 1840. Recent statements on immigration by the government have emphasised that New Zealand must compete for its share of skilled and talented migrants, and Hon. David Cunliffe, the minister has argued that New Zealand was "in a global race for talent and we must win our share".[5]. With this in mind, a bill has been prepared that was sent to parliament in April 2007. It follows a review of the immigration act. A contentious proposal is that migrants would be liable of deportation within five years of residence where information relating to their character comes to light, such that they would not have been granted residence should the information have been available at the time. It is claimed that this proposal has arisen from interagency consultation subsequent to the public consultation process, but the agencies have not been identified. David Cunliffe closing the 2005 Auckland BioBlitz David Richard Cunliffe is a New Zealand politician. ...

See also

// Demographics of New Zealand, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... This article describes the stance of New Zealand towards migration of refugees in the past, present and the future. ... Immigration New Zealand or INZ is a part of the Workforce group of the New Zealand Department of Labour. ... This article is about the migration of Chinese people to New Zealand. ...


  1. ^ Germans: First Arrivals (from the Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand)
  2. ^ December 2006
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ Migrants firm's secret weapon - New Zealand Herald, Tuesday 24 April 2007
  5. ^ [2]
  • King, M, 2003, The Penguin History of New Zealand, Penguin, Auckland
  • Immigration New Zealand
  • McMillan, K, 2006, Immigration Policy, pg 639 – 650 in New Zealand Government and Politics, ed. R. Miller, AUP
  • History of Immigration



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