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Encyclopedia > Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965

The Immigration and Naturalization Services Act amendments of 1965 (Hart-Celler Act, INS Act of 1965, Pub.L. 89-236) abolished the national-origin quotas that had been in place in the United States since the Immigration Act of 1924. It was proposed by Emanuel Celler, cosponsored by Philip Hart and heavily supported by Senator Ted Kennedy. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that National Origins Quota of 1924 be merged into this article or section. ... Emanuel Celler (May 6, 1888–January 15, 1981) was a politician from New York who served in the United States House of Representatives for almost 50 years, from March of 1923 to January of 1973. ... Philip Aloysius Hart (December 10, 1912–December 26, 1976) was a Democratic senator from Michigan. ... A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... For other persons named Ted Kennedy, see Ted Kennedy (disambiguation). ...

An annual limitation of 170,000 visas was established for immigrants from Eastern Hemisphere countries with no more than 20,000 per country. By 1968, the annual limitation from the Western Hemisphere was set at 120,000 immigrants, with visas available on a first-come, first-served basis. However, the number of family reunification visas was unlimited, and led to chain immigration. This contravened the intention of family reunification visas, which were designed to end the separation of U.S. citizens from their families. The eastern hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... First come, first served (sometimes first-come, first-served or simply FCFS) is a service policy whereby the requests of customers or clients are attended to in the order that they arrived, without other biases or preferences. ... Family reunification is a recognized reason for immigration in many countries. ... Chain migration refers to the mechanism by which foreign nationals are allowed to immigrate by virtue of the ability of previous adult immigrants who gain citizenship to send for their adult relatives. ...

In the Democratic-controlled Congress, the House of Representatives voted 326 to 69 in favor of the act while the Senate passed the bill by a vote of 76 to 18. Opposition mainly came from Southern delegates. In 1965, President Lyndon Johnson signed the legislation into law. The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ...

During debate on the Senate floor, Senator Kennedy, speaking of the effects of the act, said, "First, our cities will not be flooded with a million immigrants annually. Under the proposed bill, the present level of immigration remains substantially the same ... Secondly, the ethnic mix of this country will not be upset ... Contrary to the charges in some quarters, [the bill] will not inundate America with immigrants from any one country or area, or the most populated and deprived nations of Africa and Asia ... In the final analysis, the ethnic pattern of immigration under the proposed measure is not expected to change as sharply as the critics seem to think ... The bill will not flood our cities with immigrants. It will not upset the ethnic mix of our society. It will not relax the standards of admission. It will not cause American workers to lose their jobs." (U.S. Senate, Subcommittee on Immigration and Naturalization of the Committee on the Judiciary, Washington, D.C., Feb. 10, 1965. pp. 1-3.) The act's supporters not only claimed the law would not change America's ethnic makeup, but that such a change was not desirable. Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States...

In the end, this act dramatically changed the face of American society by making it a multicultural and multiethnic nation. In opinion of the author of this article, the main reason for the Immigration Act of 1965 was the Civil Rights Movement. The Civil Rights Movement was to rid America of racial/ethnic discrimination. Two other bills, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, Johnson signed for the same reason. The Immigration Act was therefore a corrective measure instituted to atone for past history of discrimination in immigration.

Two earlier laws reflecting this discrimination were the National Origins Act of the 1924 and the McCarran-Walter Act of 1952. Both of these granted residency on the basis of national origin, and were particularly discriminative towards Asians. For instance, under the McCarran-Walter Act, while the quota for European immigrants was 149,667, the quota for Asian immigrants was 2,990, and the African quota was 1,400.

The Immigration Act of 1965, therefore, shifted the focus to non-European countries, especially those of the third world. Both Johnson and President Kennedy wished that by reforming immigration law, they would not only gain auspicious international relations (especially with non-White nations), but they would also confirm Americas bedrock principles of America being a free country, where everyone is considered equal.

The preference in the law for skilled workers changed the traditional pathway to immigration which lead to difficulties for manual laborers from countries such as Mexico in obtaining legal permission to enter the United States.

Immigrants granted residency in America are now considered for admittance based on skill or for family reunification. More specifically, immigrants are accepted according to following preferences: fiance(e)s of American citizens who have promised to marry those American citizens (they receive K-1 visas); unmarried adults whose parents are American citizens, spouses and offspring of permanent residents, gifted professionals, scientists, and artists. The last preferences are the following: married offspring of American citizens, siblings of adult citizens, skilled/unskilled individuals of occupations lacking workers in America, and refugees from either communist (or communist-controlled) countries, or those from the Middle-East. The Immigration Act of 1965 became law on July 1, 1968. Even though the Immigration Act of 1965 was not implemented to bring an immediate end to discrimination, it was definitely seen as a major contributor in ending it.

According to recent Census data (see "U.S. Fertility Rate Hits 35-Year High, Stabilizing Population" in external links for details), the entire post-1970 population growth in the U.S. is due to foreign immigration. Since 1971, the fertility rate of the native population stayed below the replacement level of 2.1 children per woman during her lifetime, and only recently reached the replacement level due to high fertility rates of Hispanics.

See Also

Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 The Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) of 1952 (Also known as the McCarran-Walter Act) restricted immigration into the U.S. and is codified under Title 8 of the United States Code. ...

External links

Illegal immigration to the United States refers to the act of foreign nationals voluntarily resettling in the United States in violation of U.S. immigration and nationality law. ... For other uses, see Human trafficking (disambiguation). ... A Labor shortage is an economic condition in which there are insufficient qualified candidates (employees) to fill the market-place demands for employment at any price. ... The border between Mexico and the United States spans four U.S. states, six Mexican states, and has over twenty commercial railroad crossings. ... Those who find positive economic effects focus on added productivity and lower costs to consumers for certain goods and services. ... Immigration reduction refers to movements active within the United States that advocate a reduction in the amount of immigration allowed into the United States or other countries. ... The Guest worker program is a program that has been proposed many times in the past and now also by U.S. President George W. Bush as a way to permit U.S. employers to sponsor non-U.S. citizens as laborers for approximately three years, to be deported afterwards... Image File history File links US_Department_of_Homeland_Security_Seal. ... The Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors Act (also called The DREAM Act) is a piece of proposed federal legislation in the United States that would provide high school students who are long term illegal immigrants, and who wish to attend college or serve in the armed forces to... Radio Station advertisement in Spanish in East Los Angeles against the H.R.4437. ... Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act (McCain-Kennedy Bill, S. 1033) was a comprehensive immigration reform bill introduced in the United States Senate on May 12, 2005, which was the first of its kind since the early 2000s in incorporating legalization, guest worker programs, border enforcement components. ... S. 2691/ H. R. 5744, also known as the “Securing Knowledge Innovation and Leadership Act of 2006”, or the “SKIL Bill” from its acronym and rhyme, is targeted at increasing legal immigration of scientific, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workers into the United States by increasing the quotas on the... For the 2007 act, see Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007. ... The Security Through Regularized Immigration and a Vibrant Economy Act of 2007 or STRIVE Act of 2007 is proposed United States legislation designed to address the problem of illegal immigration, introduced into the United States House of Representatives (H.R. 1645). ... The Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007, or, in its full name, the Secure Borders, Economic Opportunity and Immigration Reform Act of 2007 (S. 1348) was a bill discussed in the 110th United States Congress that would have provided legal status and a path to legal citizenship for the approximately... Operation Wetback was a 1954 project of the United States Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) to remove about 1. ... The REAL ID Act of 2005 requires people entering federal buildings, boarding airplanes or opening bank accounts to present identification that has met certain security and authentication standards. ... President George W. Bush signs the Secure Fence Act of 2006, in the Roosevelt Room on October 26, 2006. ... In 2006, millions of people were involved in protests over a proposed reform to U.S. immigration policy. ... Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) is the largest and primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and is responsible for identifying, investigating, and dismantling vulnerabilities regarding the nations border, economic, transportation, and infrastructure security. ... The Coalition for Humane Immigrant Rights of Los Angeles (CHIRLA) is an American political advocacy organization. ... NAOC Logo The Coalition for Comprehensive Immigration Reform (CCIR), also known as CCIR/NAOC or New American Opportunity Campaign is a non-profit immigrant rights advocacy organization based in Washington, DC, established in 2003 to pass comprehensive immigration reform. ... The National Immigration Forum was established in 1982, dedicated to increasing public support for admitting larger numbers of immigrants and refugees into the United States. ... CCC Logo The Center for Community Change (CCC) is one of the larger community building organizations in the United States. ... The We Are Americe Alliance (WAAA) is a national alliance of immigrant rights organizations and allies in the United States that work towards social justice, including comprehensive immigration reform and immigrants civic participation. ... “NCLR” redirects here. ... The Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR) is a non-partisan, non-profit 501(c)(3) educational organization in the United States that advocates for reforms of U.S. immigration policies that would result in significant immigration reduction. ... The Minuteman Project is an activist organization started in April 2005 by a group of private United States individuals to monitor the United States–Mexico borders flow of illegal immigrants, although it has expanded to include the United States-Canada border as well. ... The Minuteman Civil Defense Corps, often confused with The Minuteman Project, Inc. ... California Coalition for Immigration Reform (CCIR) is a political advocacy group devoted to immigration reduction, based in Huntington Beach, California. ... Save Our State logo “Save Our State” redirects here. ... The Center for Immigration Studies (CIS) is a nonpartisan immigration reduction-oriented, non-profit research organization and was founded in 1985. ... NumbersUSA is an immigration reduction organization whose intent is to reduce United States annual immigration to pre-1965 levels, but without the country of origin quotas that were in place during this period. ... The Migration Policy Institute is a Washington, D.C.-based think tank established in 2001 by Kathleen Newland and Demetrios G. Papademetriou. ... The first naturalization law in the United States was the 1795 Naturalization Act which restricted citizenship to free white persons who had resided in the country for five years. ... Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), first intended to secure rights for former slaves. ... This article is about the former U.S. law. ... The Gentlemens Agreement of 1907 ) was an informal agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan regarding immigration and racial segregation. ... In the United States, the Emergency Quota Act (ch. ... It has been suggested that National Origins Quota of 1924 be merged into this article or section. ... The Bracero Program, (from the Spanish word brazo, meaning arm), was a temporary contract labor program initiated by an August 1942 exchange of diplomatic notes between the United States and Mexico. ... The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA), also Simpson-Mazzoli Act (Pub. ... The Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, Pub. ...

  Results from FactBites:
Immigration - Wex (558 words)
Immigration law serves as a gatekeeper for the nation's border: it determines who may enter, how long they may stay and when they must leave.
The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 (INA) with some major, and many minor, changes continues to be the basic immigration law of the country.
The Immigration Marriage Fraud Amendments (http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d099:HR03737:TOM:/bss/d099query.html) of 1986 sought to limit the practice of marrying to obtain citizenship.
  More results at FactBites »



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