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Encyclopedia > Immigration

Immigration is the movement of people into one place from another. While human migration has existed throughout human history, immigration implies long-term permanent or forced indefinite residence (and often eventual citizenship) by the immigrants: tourists and short-term visitors are not considered immigrants (see expatriates). However, seasonal labour migration (typically for periods of less than a year) is often treated as a form of immigration. The global volume of immigration is high in absolute terms, but low in relative terms. The International Integration and Refugee Association estimated 190 million international migrants in 2005, about 3 percent of global population. The other 97 percent still live in the state in which they were born, or its successor state. The Middle East, some parts of Europe, little areas of South East Asia, and a few spots in the West Indies have the highest numbers of immigration population recorded by the UN Census 2005. Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... “Citizen” redirects here. ... Tourist redirects here. ... An expatriate (in abbreviated form expat) is someone temporarily or permanently in a country and culture other than that of their upbringing and/or legal residence. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The modern idea of immigration is related to the development of nation-states and nationality law. Citizenship of a nation-state confers an inalienable right of residence in that state, but residence of immigrants is subject to conditions set by immigration law. The nation-state made immigration a political issue: by definition it is the homeland of a nation defined by shared ethnicity and/or culture, and in most cases immigrants have a different ethnicity and culture. This has led to social tensions, xenophobia, and conflicts about national identity, in many developed countries. Illegal immigration refers to immigration across national borders in a way that violates the immigration laws of the destination country. Under this definition, an illegal immigrant is a foreigner who either illegally crossed an international political border, be it by land, sea or air, or a foreigner who legally entered a country but nevertheless overstay their visa in order to live and/or work therein. Nationality law is the branch of a countrys legal system wherein legislation, custom and court precedent combine to define the ways in which that countrys nationality and citizenship are transmitted, acquired or lost. ... “Citizen” redirects here. ... Nationality law is the branch of a countrys legal system wherein legislation, custom and court precendent combine to define the ways in which that countrys nationality and citizenship are transmitted, acquired or lost. ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... Look up xenophobia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Illegal alien and Illegal aliens redirect here. ...

Contents

Immigration to America

America has often been called the “melting pot.” The name is delivered from America’s rich tradition of immigrants coming to the United States looking for something better. Most of them did not posses wealth or power in their home countries. Most were not highly educated. Other than these few commonalities of what they didn’t possess, their backgrounds were vastly different. The thread, however, that bound these immigrants together was their vision of improving their current situation. Emma Lazarus, in a poem entitled “The New Colossus,” which is inscribed on the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty tells of the invitation extended to those wanting to make America their home. “… Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breath free…” (Encyclopedia Americana, 1998, Vol. 25, 637)


The “Melting pot” concept can be better understood by the following quote. “I could point out to you a family whose grandfather was an Englishman, whose wife was Dutch, whose son married a French woman, and whose four sons have wives of different nations.” (Luedtke, 1992, 3)



While recent immigration patterns have changed; the reasons have not. Individuals and families still come to the United States with a vision of improving their lives. The backgrounds of today’s immigrants expanded beyond the European Borders. Today they come from all over the world. At a 1984 oath-taking ceremony in Los Angeles, there were nearly a thousand individuals from the Philippines, 890 from Mexico, 704 from Vietnam, 110 from Lebanon, 126 from the United Kingdom, and 62 from Israel. Although not as large a number, there were also individuals from Lithuania, Zimbabwe, and Tanzania. (Luedtke, 1992, 3)


Causes

Theories of immigration traditionally distinguish between push factors and pull factors.[1] Push factors refer primarily to the motive for emigration from the country of origin. In the case of economic migration (usually labour migration), differentials in wage rates are prominent. Poor individuals from less developed countries can have far higher standards of living in developed countries than in their originating countries. Escape from poverty (personal or for relatives staying behind) is a traditional push factor, the availability of jobs is the related pull factor. Natural disasters and overpopulation can amplify poverty-driven migration flows. This kind of migration may be illegal immigration in the destination country (emigration is also illegal in some countries, such as North Korea). Push factors or pull factors are factors in which would make one individual want to move out of certain areas (called push factors) and factors that would make one person attracted to another area (called pull factors). ... Push factors or pull factors are factors in which would make one individual want to move out of certain areas (called push factors) and factors that would make one person attracted to another area (called pull factors). ... A memorial statue in Hanko, Finland, commemorating the thousands of emigrants who left the country to start a new life in the United States Emigration is the act and the phenomenon of leaving ones native country to settle in another country. ... A wage is the amount of money paid for some specified quantity of labour. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... This article is about work. ... Natural Disasters is a young rap group made up of five young teens from the Chicago suburbs. ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ... Illegal alien and Illegal aliens redirect here. ...


Emigration and immigration are sometimes mandatory in a contract of employment: religious missionaries, and employees of transnational corporations, international non-governmental organisations and the diplomatic service can expect to work 'overseas'. They are often referred to as 'expatriates', and their conditions of employment are typically equal to or better than those applying in the host country (for similar work). For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ... A multinational corporation (MNC) is a corporation or enterprise that manages production establishments or delivers services in at least two countries. ... A non-governmental organization (NGO) is an organization which is not a part of a government. ... A diplomatic service is the body of diplomats and foreign policy officers maintained by the government of a country to communicate with the governments of other countries. ... An expatriate (in abbreviated form expat) is someone temporarily or permanently in a country and culture other than that of their upbringing and/or legal residence. ...


For some migrants, education is the primary pull factor (although most international students are not classified as immigrants, but may choose to do so if they refuse to return). Retirement migration from rich countries to lower-cost countries with better climate, is a new type of international migration. An example is immigration of retired British citizens to Spain or Italy. International students are students, usually in early adulthood, who study in foreign schools. ... Retirement is the point where a person stops employment completely. ...


[clarify] Some, although relatively few, immigrants justify their drive to be in a different country for cultural or health related reasons and very seldom, again in relative quantitative terms compared to the actual number of international migrants world-wide, choose to migrate as a form of self-expression towards the establishment or to satisfy their need to directly perceive other cultural environments because economics is almost always the primary motivator for constant, long-term, or permanent migration, but especially for that type of inter-regional or inter-continental migration; that holds true even for people from developed countries.


Non-economic push factors include persecution (religious and otherwise), frequent abuse, bullying, oppression, ethnic cleansing and even genocide, and risks to civilians during war. Political motives traditionally motivate refugee flows - to escape dictatorship for instance. Look up Persecution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Abuser redirects here. ... Bullying is the act of intentionally causing harm to others through verbal harassment, physical assault, or other more subtle methods of coercion such as manipulation. ... For other uses, see Oppression (disambiguation). ... Ethnic cleansing refers to various policies or practices aimed at the displacement of an ethnic group from a particular territory in order to create a supposedly ethnically pure society. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ...


Some migration is for personal reasons, based on a relationship (e.g. to be with family or a partner), such as in family reunification or transnational marriage. In a few cases, an individual may wish to emigrate to a new country in a form of transferred patriotism. Evasion of criminal justice (e.g. avoiding arrest) is a (mostly negative) personal motivation. This type of emigration and immigration is not normally legal, if a crime is internationally recognized, although criminals may disguise their identities or find other loopholes to evade detection. There have been cases, for example, of those who might be guilty of war crimes disguising themselves as victims of war or conflict and then pursuing asylum in a different country. In the contexts of sociology and of popular culture, the concept of interpersonal relationships involves social associations, connections, or affiliations between two or more people. ... Family reunification is a recognized reason for immigration in many countries. ... A transnational marriage is a marriage between two people from different countries. ... Defence of the fatherland is a commonplace of patriotism: The statue in the courtyard of École polytechnique, Paris, commemorating the students involvement in defending France against the 1814 invasion of the Coalition. ... United States criminal justice system flowchart. ... For other uses, see Arrest (disambiguation). ...


Barriers to immigration come not only in legal form; natural barriers to immigration can also be very powerful. Immigrants when leaving their country also leave everything familiar: their family, friends, support network, and culture. They also need to liquidate their assets often at a large cost, and incur the expense of moving. When they arrive in a new country this is often with many uncertainties including finding work, where to live, new laws, new cultural norms, language or accent issues, possible racism and other exclusionary behaviour towards them and their family. These barriers act to limit international migration: scenarios where populations move en masse to other continents, creating huge population surges, and their associated strain on infrastructure and services, ignore these inherent limits on migration. Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial...


Differing perspectives

Immigration is often highly politicized, and in some countries, a major political issue. Opposition to immigration is generally far more prominent than support for it, but that is to some extent countered by economic interests.


Supporting arguments

General arguments

The main arguments cited in support of immigration are economic arguments, such as a free labor market, and cultural arguments appealing to the value of cultural diversity. Some groups also support immigration as a device to boost small population numbers, like in New Zealand and Canada, or, like in Europe, to reverse demographic aging trends. There is a general consensus among mainstream anthropologists that humans first emerged in Africa about two million years ago. ...


Support for fully open borders is limited to a minority. Some free-market libertarians believe that a free global labour market with no restrictions on immigration would, in the long run, boost global prosperity. There are also groups which oppose border controls on idealistic and humanitarian grounds - believing that people from poor countries should be allowed to enter rich countries, to benefit from their higher standards of living. Others are advocates of world government and wish to eliminate or severely limit the power of nation-states. This includes the nation-state's ability to grant and deny individuals entry across borders, which advocates of world government generally view as arbitrary and unfair distinctions made on what should be one planet earth. A free market is a market where the prices of goods and services is arranged completely by the mutual non-coerced consent of sellers and buyers, determined generally by the supply and demand law with no government interference in the regulation of costs, supply and demand. ... See also Libertarianism and Libertarian Party Libertarian,is a term for person who has made a conscious and principled commitment, evidenced by a statement or Pledge, to forswear violating others rights and usually living in voluntary communities: thus in law no longer subject to government supervision. ... Free immigration or open immigration is the belief that people should be able to migrate to whatever country they chose, free of substantial barriers. ... Prosperity is best achieved when one creates wealth with wealth, be it ones own wealth (equity) or the wealth of another (debt). ... It has been suggested that World Federation be merged into this article or section. ... Max Barry set up Jennifer Government: NationStates, a game on the World Wide Web inspired by, and promoting, his novel Jennifer Government. ...


Economic arguments

Countries like New Zealand, which has experimented with both qualifications- and job-offer-based entry systems, have reported that under the latter system (where much weight is put on the immigrant already having a job offer), the immigrants actually show a much lower uptake of government benefits than the normal population. Under a mostly qualification-based system, many highly trained doctors and engineers had instead been reduced to driving taxis.


Opposing arguments

The main anti-immigration themes are economic issues (costs of immigration, and competition in the labor market), environmental issues (impact of population growth), the impact on the national identity, the nature of the nation-state itself and the possibility of engendering xenophobia. The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... Look up xenophobia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Health arguments

Immigration from areas of high incidence is thought to have fueled the resurgence of tuberculosis (TB), chagas, hepatitis, and leprosy in areas of low incidence. To reduce the risk of diseases in low-incidence areas, the main countermeasure has been the screening of immigrants on arrival.[2] According to CDC, TB cases among foreign-born individuals remain disproportionately high, at nearly nine times the rate of U.S.-born persons. In 2003, nearly 26 percent of foreign-born TB patients in the United States were from Mexico. Another third of the foreign-born cases were among those from the Philippines, Vietnam, India and China, the CDC report said.[3][4][5] Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Chagas disease (also called American trypanosomiasis) is a human tropical parasitic disease which occurs in the Americas, particularly in South America. ... Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ... For the malady found in the Hebrew Bible, see the article Tzaraath. ... In medicine, infectious disease or communicable disease is disease caused by a biological agent (e. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ...


The history of HIV/AIDS in the United States began in about 1969, when HIV likely entered the United States through a single infected immigrant from Haiti.[6][7] Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ...


Economic arguments

Economic needs-driven immigration is opposed by labor-market protectionists, often arguing from economic nationalism. The core of their arguments is that a nation's jobs are the ‘property’ of that nation, and that allowing foreigners to take them is equivalent to a loss of that property. They may also criticise immigration of this type as a form of corporate welfare, where business is indirectly subsidised by government expenditure to promote the immigration and the assimilation of the immigrants.[8] A more common criticism is that the immigrant employees are almost always paid less than a non-immigrant worker in the same job, and that the immigration depresses wages, especially as immigrants are usually not unionised. Other groups feel that the focus should be not on immigration control, but on equal rights for the immigrants, to avoid their exploitation. Protectionism is the economic policy of restraining trade between nations, through methods such as high tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, a variety of restrictive government regulations designed to discourage imports, and anti-dumping laws in an attempt to protect domestic industries in a particular nation from foreign take-over... Economic nationalism is a term used to describe policies which are guided by the idea of protecting domestic consumption, labor and capital formation, even if this requires the imposition of tariffs and other restrictions on the movement of labour, goods and capital. ... Corporate welfare is a pejorative term, first coined by Ralph Nader in 1956, describing a governments bestowal of grants and/or tax breaks on corporations or other special favorable treatment from the government. ... Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. ... Salting is the preparation of food with salt. ...


Arguments against the cost of immigration - for instance the provision of schools for the additional population - are prominent in the United States and Canada, see Economic impact of immigration to Canada, although much current research has pointed to the fact that the U.S. and Canada are actually dependent on immigrant labor, see The Center for U.S. - Mexico Immigration Analysis. The economic impact of immigration to Canada is a much-debated topic in Canada. ... Center for U.S. - Mexico Immigration Analysis The Center for U.S.-Mexico Immigration Analysis (CUSMIA) is a 501 (c) 3 nonprofit research institute that exists to pursue the deepening of knowledge and understanding in relation to immigration/migration flows between Mexico and the United States. ...


Scholars have come to various opinions about the economic effects of immigration. Those who find that immigrants produce a negative effect on the US economy often focus on the difference between taxes paid and government services received and wage-lowering effects among low-skilled native workers.[9][10] The economic impact of immigration differs by immigration category. For example, according to Statistics Canada, there are significant differences in the labour force participation rates. 2001 labour statistics by immigration category:[11] Statistics Canada (French: Statistique Canada) is the Canadian federal government department commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. ...

Labour force rates Family Skilled worker principal applicants Skilled worker dependants Other economic Refugees All immigrants
Participation rate 59% 91% 63% 48% 44% 70%
Employment rate 39% 60% 36% 29% 21% 44%
Unemployment rate 34% 34% 43% 40% 51% 37%
Rank of total number of immigrants in 2005[12] 2nd 3rd 1st 5th 4th
Data source: Statistics Canada, 2001, Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada.
For clarity: Employment Rate = Participation Rate * (1 - Unemployment Rate)

In 2001, the overall unemployment rate of immigrants was 37%. Combined with the overall participation rate of 70%, this means that only 44% of landed immigrants aged 15 years and higher were working in 2001 (i.e., a majority of 56% were not working). The 44% employment rate was significantly lower than the average 2001 employment rate in Canada of 61%.[13] Immigrant unemployment levels do not reduce to the Canadian average during at least the first 10 years of residing in Canada.[14]


Employment statistics also bring into question whether skilled worker immigrants, with a 34% unemployment rate,[11] are successfully meeting existing labour market needs in Canada, and Statistics Canada explains that although progress was made in reducing poverty with pre-1990 residents of Canada (as measured by the low-income rate), this progress was more than offset by the income profile of new immigrants, resulting in a net widening of the income inequality gap in Canada during the 1990s.[15] And a more recent 2007 Statistics Canada study shows that the income profile of recent immigrants deteriorated by yet another significant amount from 2000 to 2004.[16] Another Statistics Canada study also shows that immigration reduces overall wage levels in Canada.[17] Statistics Canada (French: Statistique Canada) is the Canadian federal government department commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. ... Income inequality metrics or income distribution metrics are techniques used by economists to measure the distribution of income among members of a society. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ...


Nationalistic arguments

Non-economic opposition to immigration is closely associated with nationalism, in Europe a ‘nationalist party’ is almost a synonym for ‘anti-immigration party’.[citation needed] Although traditionally, economic arguments dominated the United States immigration debate, it has become more polarized in recent years, as evidenced by nationalist demands to deploy the military to the US borders.[citation needed] The emergence of private border militias in the United States has attracted much media attention.[citation needed] Nevertheless, the southern border of the European Union in the Spanish exclaves of Ceuta and Melilla has at least as many military patrols as the US-Mexico border.[citation needed] Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Synonyms (in ancient Greek, συν (syn) = plus and όνομα (onoma) = name) are different words with similar or identical meanings. ... Militarism (military+-ism) is an ideology which claims that the military is the foundation of a societys security, and thereby claims to be its most important aspect. ... The Minuteman Project Civil Defense Corps was started in April 2005 by a group of American citizens to deter illegal crossings of the United States–Mexico border. ... D is Bs exclave, but is not an enclave. ... Capital Ceuta City Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked  28 km²   Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked  75,861    2,709. ... Capital Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked  20 km²   Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked  66,871    3,343. ...


Like their Korean neighbors, Japanese tend to equate nationality or citizenship with membership in a single, homogeneous ethnic group or race.[citation needed] A shared language and culture also are viewed as important elements in Japanese identity.[citation needed] The idea of multiracial or multiethnic nations, like Canada, Netherlands, or the United States, strikes many Japanese as odd or even contradictory.[citation needed] Both Japan and South Korea are among the world's most ethnically homogeneous nations. Those who were identified as different might be considered "polluted" —- the category applied historically to the outcasts of Japan, particularly the hisabetsu buraku, "discriminated communities," often called burakumin, a term some find offensive —- and thus not suitable as marriage partners or employees.[citation needed] Men or women of mixed ancestry, those with family histories of certain diseases, and foreigners, and members of minority groups faced discrimination in a variety of forms.[citation needed] In 2005, a United Nations report expressed concerns about racism in Japan and that government recognition of the depth of the problem was not total.[18][19] The author of the report, Doudou Diène (Special Rapporteur of the UN Commission on Human Rights), concluded after a nine-day investigation that racial discrimination and xenophobia in Japan primarily affects three groups: national minorities, Latin American immigrants of Japanese descent, mainly Japanese Brazilians, and foreigners from "poor" countries.[20] In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... “Citizen” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... The word Caste is derived from the Portuguese word casta, meaning lineage, breed or race. ... Burakumin (: buraku, community or hamlet + min, people), or hisabetsu buraku ( discriminated communities / discriminated hamlets) are a Japanese social minority group. ... Actress Halle Berry was born to a white mother of British extraction and a black father of American extraction. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... In sociology and in voting theory, a minority is a sub-group that is outnumbered by persons who do not belong to it. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Doudou Diène is a Special Rapporteur (to the United Nations) on Racism. ... Special Rapporteur is a title given to individuals working on behalf of the United Nations who bear a specific mandate from the former UN Commission on Human Rights to investigate, monitor and recommend solutions to human rights problems. ... The United Nations Commission on Human Rights, a commission supervised by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, is composed of representatives from 53 member states, and meets each year in regular session in March/April for six weeks in Geneva. ... In 2005, a United Nations report expressed concerns about racism in Japan and that government recognition of the depth of the problem was not total. ... Dekasegi (also spelt as Dekasegui or Dekassegui) is a term used in Latin American cultures to refer to people of Japanese descent who have migrated to Japan, having taken advantage of Japanese citizenship and immigration laws. ... A Japanese-Brazilian is an ethnically Japanese person born in Brazil. ...


The primary argument of some nationalist opponents in Europe and Asia is that immigrants simply do not belong in a nation-state which is by definition intended for another ethnic group.[citation needed] France, therefore, is for the French, Germany is for the Germans, Japan is for the Japanese, and so on. Immigration is seen as altering the ethnic and cultural composition of the national population, and consequently the national character.[citation needed] From a nationalist perspective, high-volume immigration potentially distorts or dilutes their national culture more than is desired or even necessary.[citation needed] Germany, for example, was indeed intended as a state for Germans: the state's policy of mass immigration was not foreseen by the 19th-century nationalist movements.[citation needed] Immigration has forced Germany and other western European states to re-examine their national identity: part of the population is not prepared to redefine it to include immigrants.[citation needed] It is this type of opposition to immigration which generated support for anti-immigration parties such as Vlaams Belang in Belgium, the British National Party in Britain, the Lega Nord in Italy, the Front National in France, and the Lijst Pim Fortuyn in the Netherlands.[citation needed] Vlaams Belang (English: Flemish Interest) is a political party in Belgium that supports Flemish independence and strict limits on non-European and non-Christian immigration, whereby immigrants need to adopt to the Western culture. ... The British National Party (BNP) is a white nationalist political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Lega Nord (Northern League, LN), whose complete name is Lega Nord for the Independence of Padania, is an Italian political party founded in 1991 as a federation of several regional parties in northern Italy, most of which had arisen, and all of which had expanded their share of the... Front National can mean: Front National, a right-wing French political party. ... Lijst Pim Fortuyn (List Pim Fortuyn) is a political party in the Netherlands. ...


One of the responses of nation-states to mass immigration is to promote the cultural assimilation of immigrants into the national community, and their integration into the political, social, and economic structures.[citation needed] In the United States, cultural assimilation is traditionally seen as a process taking place among minorities themselves, the ‘melting pot’.[citation needed] In Europe, where nation-states have a tradition of national unification by cultural and linguistic policies, variants of these policies have been proposed to accelerate the assimilation of immigrants.[citation needed] The introduction of citizenship tests for immigrants is the most visible form of state-promoted assimilation.[citation needed] The test usually include some form of language exam, and some countries have reintroduced forms of language prohibition.[citation needed] Cultural assimilation (often called merely assimilation) is an intense process of consistent integration whereby members of an ethno-cultural group, typically immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into an established, generally larger community. ... Alternate meaning: crucible (science) The melting pot is a metaphor for the way in which heterogenous societies develop, in which the ingredients in the pot (iron, tin; people of different backgrounds and religions, etc. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... The term Prohibition, also known as A Dry Law, refers to a law in a certain country by which the manufacture, transportation, import, export, and sale of alcoholic beverages is restricted or illegal. ...


Environmentalist arguments

Environmentalist opposition to immigration is prominent in Canada, which has the largest absolute numbers of immigrants. Responses to immigration are a controversial topic among environmental activists, especially within the Sierra Club. Some oppose the immigration-driven population growth in the United States as unsustainable, and advocate immigration reduction. Other environmentalists see overpopulation and environmental degradation as global problems, that should be addressed by other methods. Most European countries do not have the high population growth of the United States, and some experience population decline. In such circumstances, the effect of immigration is to reduce decline, or delay its onset, rather than substantially increase the population. The Republic of Ireland is one of the only EU countries comparable to the United States in this respect, since large-scale immigration contributed to substantial population growth.[21] Spain has also witnessed a recent boost in population due to high immigration.[22] Bold textHello ... The Sierra Club is an American environmental organization founded on May 28, 1892 in San Francisco, California by the well-known preservationist John Muir, who became its first president. ... The Earth Day flag includes a NASA photo. ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ... Population decline is the reduction over time in a regions census. ...


Some members of the Australian environmental movement, notably the organisation Sustainable Population Australia, believe that as the driest inhabited continent, Australia cannot continue to sustain its current rate of population growth without becoming overpopulated.[23] The UK-based Optimum Population Trust supports the view that Australia is overpopulated, and believes that to maintain the current standard of living in Australia, the optimum population is 10 million (rather than the present 20.86 million), or 21 million with a reduced standard of living.[24] The environmental movement (a term that sometimes includes the conservation and green movements) is a diverse scientific, social, and political movement. ... Sustainable Population Australia (SPA) (formerly Australians for an Ecologically Sustainable Population) is an Australian special interest group, founded in Canberra in 1988, which seeks to establish a ecologically sustainable human population (Australias population recently passed 21 million). ... Immigration to Australia began at least 40,000 years ago, when the ancestors of Australian Aborigines arrived on the continent via the islands of the Malay Archipelago and New Guinea. ... The Optimum Population Trust is a registered charity, small think tank and campaign group concerned with the impact of population growth on the natural environment. ... The standard of living refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people and the way these services and goods are distributed within a population. ...


Americans constitute approximately 5% of the world's population, but they produce roughly 25% of the world’s CO2,[25] consume about 25% of world’s resources,[26] including approximately 26% of the world's energy,[27] although having only around 3% of the world’s known oil reserves,[28] and generate approximately 30% of world’s waste.[29] [30] The average American's impact on the environment is approximately 250 times greater than the average Sub-Saharan African's.[31] [32] In other words, with current consumption patterns, population growth in the United States is more of a threat to the Earth's environment than population growth in any other part of the world (currently, at least 1.8 million legal and illegal immigrants settle in the United States each year; with the average Hispanic woman giving birth to 3 children in her lifetime).[33][34] Map of countries by population — China and India, the only two countries to have a population greater than one billion, together possess more than a third of the worlds population. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Rainforest on Fatu-Hiva, Marquesas Islands Natural resources are naturally occurring substances that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified (natural) form. ... The United States is the worlds largest energy consumer in terms of total use, and ranks 7th on a per-capita basis. ... Waste inside a wheelie bin Waste in a bin bag Waste, rubbish, trash, garbage, or junk is unwanted or undesired material. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Theoretical Human population increase from 10,000 BC – 2000 AD. Population growth is the change in population over time, and can be quantified as the change in the number of individuals in a population per unit time. ... Hispanics in the United States, or Hispanic Americans, are American citizens or residents of Hispanic ethnicity who identify themselves as having Hispanic Cultural heritage. ... Map of countries and territories by fertility rate The total fertility rate (TFR, also called fertility rate or total period fertility rate) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if she were to experience the current age-specific...


California population continues to grow by more than a half million a year and is expected to reach 48 million in 2030. According to the California Department of Water Resources, if more supplies aren’t found by 2020, residents will face a water shortfall nearly as great as the amount consumed today.[35] Los Angeles is a coastal desert able to support at most 1 million people on its own water; the Los Angeles basin now is the core of a megacity that spans 220 miles from Santa Barbara to the Mexican border. The region’s population is expected to reach 22 million by 2020, and 28 million in 2035. The population of California continues to grow by more than a half million a year and is expected to reach 48 million in 2030. Water shortage issues are likely to arise well before then.[36] California is considering using energy-expensive desalination to solve this problem.[37] Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... The California Department of Water Resources is responsible for the management of water resources in California. ... Deforestation of the Madagascar Highland Plateau has led to extensive siltation and unstable flows of western rivers. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... This article is about megacities in general. ... Nickname: Location in Santa Barbara County and the state of California Coordinates: , County Government  - Mayor Marty Blum Area  - City 111. ... Mexico shares international borders with three nations: To the north, the United States–Mexico border, which extends for a length of 3141 km through the states of Baja California, Sonora, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León and Tamaulipas. ... Water shortage may refer either to natural or social topics, or both: Drought Water crisis Category: ... Shevchenko BN350 desalination unit situated on the shore of the Caspian Sea. ...


U.S. Census Bureau figures show the U.S. population grew by 2.8 million between July 1, 2004, and July 1, 2005. If current birth rate and immigration|immigration rates were to remain unchanged for another 60 to 70 years, US population would double to approximately 600 million people.[38] The Census Bureau's latest estimates actually go as high as predicting that there will be 1 billion Americans in 2100.[39] United States had approximately one million people in 1700, and approximately five million in 1800.[40] The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... The United States Census of year 2000, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ...


Dale Allen Pfeiffer claims that to achieve a sustainable economy and avert disaster, the United States must reduce its population by at least one-third, and world population will have to be reduced by two-thirds.[41] Current U.S. population of more than 300 million and world population exceeding 6.6 billion is, according to Pfeiffer, unsustainable. Fast-shrinking supplies of oil and gas are essential to modern agriculture,[42] so coming decades could see spiraling food prices without relief and massive starvation on a global level such as never experienced before by the humans.[43][44] ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... The Earth Day flag includes a NASA photo. ... Map of countries by population — China and India, the only two countries to have a population greater than one billion, together possess more than a third of the worlds population. ... The United States Census of year 2000, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ... The Earth Day flag includes a NASA photo. ... For other uses, see Peak oil (disambiguation). ... Gas can also refer to gasoline and natural gas and also hydrogen. ... This article is about extreme malnutrition. ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ...


As political issue

The political debate about immigration is now a feature of most developed countries. Some, such as Japan, traditionally had very little immigration, and it was not a major political issue. Some countries such as Italy, and especially the Republic of Ireland and Spain, have shifted within a generation, from traditional labor emigration, to mass immigration, and this has become a political issue. Some European countries, such as the United Kingdom and Germany, have seen major immigration since the 1960’s and immigration has already been a political issue for decades. Political debates about immigration typically focus on statistics, the immigration law and policy, and the implementation of existing restrictions. In some European countries the debate in the 1990’s was focused on asylum seekers, but restrictive policies within the European Union have sharply reduced asylum seekers. In Western Europe the debate focuses on immigration from the Enlargement of the European Union and new member states of the EU, especially from Poland. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...


The politics of immigration have become increasingly associated with others issues, such as national security, terrorism, and in western Europe especially, with the presence of Islam as a new major religion. Some right-wing parties see an unassimilated, economically deprived, and generally hostile immigrant population as a threat to national stability. They fear new events such as the 2005 civil unrest in France that point to the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy as an example of the value conflicts arising from immigration of Muslims in Western Europe. Because of all these associations, immigration has become an emotional political issue in many European countries. Security measures taken to protect the Houses of Parliament in London, England. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... A torched car in Strasbourg, 5 November. ... The Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy began after twelve editorial cartoons, most of which depicted the Islamic prophet Muhammad, were published in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten on 30 September 2005. ... Minimum estimates of Muslim populations in Western Europe (EU15 plus Norway and Switzerland) as a percentage of total country population: (Source: The Economist, April 3, 2003) (Second Source: BBC ) The figures are minimum estimates, and not necessarily exactly comparable, due to differences in method of data collection and data presentation...


Ethics

Although freedom of movement is often recognized as a civil right, the freedom only applies to movement within national borders: it may be guaranteed by the constitution or by human rights legislation. Additionally, this freedom is often limited to citizens and excludes others. No state currently allows full freedom of movement across its borders, and international human rights treaties do not confer a general right to enter another state. According to Article 13 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, citizens may not be forbidden to leave their country. There is no similar provision regarding entry of non-citizens. Those who reject this distinction on ethical grounds, argue that the freedom of movement both within and between countries is a basic human right, and that the restrictive immigration policies, typical of nation-states, violate this human right of freedom of movement. Such arguments are common among anti-state ideologies like anarchism and libertarianism. Note that a right to freedom of entry would not, in itself, guarantee immigrants a job, housing, health care, or citizenship. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Title page of a European Union member state passport. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... The word citizen may refer to: A person with a citizenship Citizen Watch Co. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (abbreviated UDHR) is an advisory declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/217, 10 December 1948 at Palais de Chaillot, Paris). ... Anarchist redirects here. ... For other uses, see Libertarianism (disambiguation). ...


Where immigration is permitted, it is typically selective. Ethnic selection, such as the White Australia policy, has generally disappeared, but priority is usually given to the educated, skilled, and wealthy. Less privileged individuals, including the mass of poor people in low-income countries, cannot avail of these immigration opportunities. This inequality has also been criticised as conflicting with the principle of equal opportunities, which apply (at least in theory) within democratic nation-states. The fact that the door is closed for the unskilled, while at the same time many developed countries have a huge demand for unskilled labour, is a major factor in illegal immigration. The contradictory nature of this policy - which specifically disadvantages the unskilled immigrants while exploiting their labour - has also been criticised on ethical grounds. This badge from 1906 shows the use of the expression White Australia at that time The White Australia policy is a generic term used to describe a collection of historical legislation and policies, intended to restrict non-white immigration to Australia, and to promote European immigration, from 1901 to 1973. ... Equal opportunity is a descriptive term for an approach intended to give equal access to an environment or benefits, such as education, employment, health care, or social welfare to members of various social groups, some of which might otherwise suffer from discrimination. ... Illegal alien and Illegal aliens redirect here. ...


Immigration polices which selectively grant freedom of movement to targeted individuals are intended to produce a net economic gain for the host country. They can also mean net loss for a poor donor country through the loss of the educated minority - the brain drain. This can exacerbate the global inequality in standards of living that provided the motivation for the individual to migrate in the first place. An example of the ‘competition for skilled labour’ is active recruitment of health workers by First World countries, from the Third World. This article is about the emigration term. ... Global justice is a concept in political philosophy denoting justice between societies or between individuals in different societies, as opposed to within a specific society. ... The Standard of living refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people. ... The terms First World, Second World, and Third World were used to divide the nations of Earth into three broad categories. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ...


See also

Non-native population in Argentina, 1869–1991 The original inhabitants of Argentina were descendants of Asian peoples that crossed the Bering Land Bridge into North America and then, over thousands of years, reached the southern end of South America. ... Immigration to Australia began at least 40,000 years ago, when the ancestors of Australian Aborigines arrived on the continent via the islands of the Malay Archipelago and New Guinea. ... Bolivia comparatively has experience far less immigration than its South American neighbors. ... Immigration has been a very important demographic factor in the composition, structure and history of human population in Brazil, with all its attending factors and consequences, such as culture, economy, education, racial issues, etc. ... Immigration to Canada is the process by which people migrate to Canada and become nationals of the country. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Greece is largely an ethnically homogenous state, and throughout the early period of its modern History it experienced emmigration far more than immigration, particularly throughout the mid 20th century owing to the Greek Civil War and The Second World War (around 12% of the Greek population emmigrated from 1881... The affairs of immigration in Hong Kong is basically undertaking by the Immigration Department of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). ... Germanys foreign-born population by country of origin On 1 January 2005, a new Immigration Law came into effect that altered the legal method of immigration to Germany. ... With the increase in prosperity and the expansion of the economy in Macau, there is a growing demand from all over the world for residency in the Special Administrative Region. ... Illegal immigrants in Malaysia comprise a substantial portion of the Malaysian population, numbering as many as two million by some estimates. ... Over the centuries, Mexico has received immigrants from the Americas, Europe, and Asia but not to the extent of other countries in the Americas such as the United States, Brazil, or Canada. ... To date, five periods of Immigration to New Zealand may be identified. ... The population of Spain doubled during the twentieth century, due to the spectacular demographic boom by the 60s and early 70s. ... Turkey is a country shaped and defined by immigration. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Highly Skilled Migrant Programme. ... 2000 Census Population Ancestry Map Immigration to the United States of America is the movement of non-residents to the United States, and has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of the American history even though the foreign born have never been more than... An immigration policy is any policy of a state that affects the transit of persons across its borders, but especially those that intend to work and to remain in the country. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... The economic impact of immigration to Canada is a much-debated topic in Canada. ... Illegal alien and Illegal aliens redirect here. ... First generation immigrants are the first generation of a family to be born in a particular country. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Center for U.S. - Mexico Immigration Analysis The Center for U.S.-Mexico Immigration Analysis (CUSMIA) is a 501 (c) 3 nonprofit research institute that exists to pursue the deepening of knowledge and understanding in relation to immigration/migration flows between Mexico and the United States. ...

References

  1. ^ See the NIDI/Eurostat push and pull study for details and examples: [1]
  2. ^ Tuberculosis among US Immigrants
  3. ^ Is CDC covering up skyrocketing TB rate?
  4. ^ CDC - Persistent High Incidence of Tuberculosis in Immigrants in a Low-Incidence Country
  5. ^ Leprosy, Hepatitis and Tuberculosis Rising Fast in United States
  6. ^ Bowdler, Neil. "Key HIV strain 'came from Haiti'", BBC, 2007-10-30. 
  7. ^ The virus from Africa reached the U.S. by way of Haiti, a genetic study shows
  8. ^ Burns, Randall (2005-01-27). A Progressive Indictment: Immigration Policy and Corporate Welfare. VDARE.
  9. ^ National Poverty Center - The University of Michigan
  10. ^ The Seattle Times: Some blacks say Latino immigrants taking their jobs
  11. ^ a b Immigrants' labour force rates, by immigration category, 2001, Statistics Canada, URL accessed 2 July 2006
  12. ^ Annual Immigration by Category, Citizenship and Immigration Canada, URL accessed 2 July 2006
  13. ^ Employment Rate Government of Canada, Employment Concepts, URL accessed 19 May 2007
  14. ^ The Transition Penalty: Unemployment Among Recent Immigrants to Canada, CLBC Commentary, Canadian Labour and Business Centre, July 2003, URL Accessed 13 September 2006
  15. ^ The rise in low-income rates among immigrants in Canada, Analytical Studies Branch research paper series, Statistics Canada, June 2003, URL accessed 20 September 2006
  16. ^ Chronic Low Income and Low-income Dynamics Among Recent Immigrants, Statistics Canada, January 2007, URL accessed 30 January 2007
  17. ^ The Impact of Immigration on Labour Markets in Canada, Mexico, and the United States, Statistics Canada, Update on Family and Labour Studies, May 2007, URL Accessed 26 May 2007
  18. ^ Press Conference by Mr Doudou Diène, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights. Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
  19. ^ "Japan racism 'deep and profound". BBC News (2005-07-11). Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
  20. ^ 'Overcoming "Marginalization" and "Invisibility"', International Movement against all forms of Discrimination and Racism. Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
  21. ^ 2006 Censuis, [2]
  22. ^ Huddled against the masses The Economist, Retrieved November 17, 2006
  23. ^ population.org.au :: Sustainable Population Australia
  24. ^ Optimum Population Trust
  25. ^ Global Warming
  26. ^ Illinois Recycling Association Recycling Facts
  27. ^ SEI: Energy Consumption
  28. ^ NRDC: Reducing U.S. Oil Dependence
  29. ^ Waste WatcherPDF (62.9 KiB)
  30. ^ Alarm sounds on US population boom - The Boston Globe
  31. ^ Consumption Industrialized, Commercialized, Dehumanized, and Deadly
  32. ^ October 4, 2006: U.S. Population Reaches 300 Million, Heading for 400 Million: No Cause for Celebration
  33. ^ Women Are Having More Children - MedicalNewsService.com
  34. ^ Welcome to United States Hispanic Business Association! -USHispanics
  35. ^ A World Without Water -Global Policy Forum- NGOs
  36. ^ Immigration & U.S. Water Supply
  37. ^ State looks to the sea for drinkable water
  38. ^ US population to pass 300 million milestone
  39. ^ 1 billion Americans
  40. ^ Balancing ACT - population growth E: The Environmental Magazine
  41. ^ Eating Fossil Fuels
  42. ^ How peak oil could lead to starvation
  43. ^ Peak Oil: the threat to our food security
  44. ^ Agriculture Meets Peak Oil

Empowerment & Migration : This site is the interface between the {Empowerment & Migration} project and all those who take an interest in the role played by migrants in today's world. It offers visitors an opportunity to discover events and materials on migration and to contribute their ideas and their stories to the debate on migrants' interaction with the host country and with their homeland. The Statistical Office of the European Communities (Eurostat) is the statistical arm of the European Commission, producing data for the European Union and promoting harmonisation of statistical methods across the member states. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The VDARE logo with the white does head. ... Statistics Canada (French: Statistique Canada) is the Canadian federal government department commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. ... The Department of Citizenship and Immigration Canada is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for issues dealing with immigration and citizenship. ... The Government of Canada is the federal government of Canada. ... Statistics Canada (French: Statistique Canada) is the Canadian federal government department commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. ... Statistics Canada (French: Statistique Canada) is the Canadian federal government department commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. ... Statistics Canada (French: Statistique Canada) is the Canadian federal government department commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...


Further reading

  • Peter C. Meilander (2001),Towards a Theory of Immigration, Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 978-0312240349
  • Philippe Legrain Immigrants: Your Country Needs Them, ISBN 0316732486
  • Joe Freeman (2007), Living and Working in the European Union for Non-EU Nationals, ISBN 0-9786254-0-4.
  • Isabel Valle. Fields of Toil: A Migrant Family's Journey, ISBN 978-0-87422-101-5
  • Lorane A. West. Color: Latino Voices in the Pacific Northwest, ISBN 978-0-87422-274-6
  • Massey, Douglas S., Arango, Joaquín, Graeme, Hugo, Kouaouci, Ali, Pellegrino, Adela and Taylor, J. Edward (2005), Worlds in Motion: Understanding International Migration at the End of the Millennium, New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-928276-5.
  • Dowell Myers (2007), Immigrants and Boomers: Forging a New Social Contract for the Future of America, Russell Sage Foundation, ISBN 978-0-87154-636-4.
  • Aristide Zolberg, A Nation by Design: Immigration Policy in the Fashioning of America, Harvard University Press 2006, ISBN 0674022181
  • Philippe Legrain, Immigrants: Your Country Needs Them, Little Brown 2007, ISBN 0316732486
  • Ruben Rumbaut and Walter Ewing, "The Myth of Immigrant Criminality and the Paradox of Assimilation: Incarceration Rates among Native and Foreign-Born Men," The Immigration Policy Center (Spring 2007). http://www.ailf.org/ipc/special_report/sr_feb07_resources.shtml
  • Douglas S. Massey, Beyond the Border Buildup: Towards a New Approach to Mexico-U.S. Migration, Immigration Policy Center, the American Immigration Law Foundation [September 2005] http://www.ailf.org/ipc/policy_reports_2005_beyondborder.shtml
  • Immigration Policy Center, Economic Growth & Immigration: Bridging the Demographic Divide, Immigration Policy Center, the American Immigration Law Foundation [November 2005] http://www.ailf.org/ipc/special_report/special_report2005_bridging.shtml
  • Walter A. Ewing, Border Insecurity: U.S. Border-Enforcement Policies and National Security, Immigration Policy Center, the American Immigration Law Foundation [Spring 2006] http://www.ailf.org/ipc/border_insecurity_spring06.shtml
  • Susan C. Pearce, Immigrant Women in the United States: A Demographic Portrait, Immigration Policy Center, the American Immigration Law Foundation [Summer 2006] http://www.ailf.org/ipc/im_women_summer06.shtml
  • Ruben G. Rumbaut, and Walter A. Ewing, The Myth of Immigrant Criminality and the Paradox of Assimilation: Incarceration Rates Among Native and Foreign-Born Men, Immigration Policy Center, the American Immigration Law Foundation [Spring 2007] http://www.ailf.org/ipc/special_report/sr_feb07.shtml
  • Jill Esbenshade, Division and Dislocation: Regulating Immigration through Local Housing Ordinances, Immigration Policy Center, the American Immigration Law Foundation [Summer 2007] http://www.ailf.org/ipc/special_report/sr_sept07.shtml
  • Jeffrey S. Passel and Roberto Suro; Rise, Peak and Decline: Trends in U.S. Immigration; Pew Hispanic Center (Sep. 2005) http://pewhispanic.org/reports/report.php?ReportID=53
  • Jeffrey S. Passel, Senior Research Associate; Estimates of the Size and Characteristics of the Undocumented Population; Pew Hispanic Center (March 2005) http://pewhispanic.org/reports/report.php?ReportID=44
  • Jeffrey S. Passel; Growing Share of Immigrants Choosing Naturalization; Pew Hispanic Center (March 2007) http://pewhispanic.org/reports/report.php?ReportID=74

Philippe Legrain is a British economist, journalist and writer. ... Dowell Myers is a professor of urban planning and demography in the School of Policy, Planning, and Development, at the University of Southern California (USC). ... Philippe Legrain is a British economist, journalist and writer. ...

External links

Look up immigration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Immigration
See individual "Immigration to..." articles for country-specific links.
  • - 1County1Language.com. Online social debate on the subject of immigration and language.
  • Stalker's Guide to International Migration - Comprehensive interactive website on migration
  • Casahistoria - European emigration since 1800 - links to 19th & 20th century global European emigration
  • The Center for U.S. - Mexico Immigration Analysis [http://www.cusmia.org}
  • Migration Information Source
  • December 18 vzwInternational advocacy and resource centre on the human rights of migrants.
  • The History of Immigration, by Jorge Majfud
  • Eurasylum Many relevant documents on immigration, asylum and refugee policy, and human trafficking/smuggling internationally
  • International Organisation for Migration
  • UNESCO Programme on International Migration and Multicultural Policies
  • OECD Migration Data
  • EU told to accept 20m migrant workers
  • Mexican immigration
  • BBC News Factfile: Global migration
  • The Foreigner and the Right to Justice in the Aftermath of September 11th François Crépeau, Canada Research Chair in International Migration Law University of Montreal
  • Immigration Newspaper Archive A collection of more than 50,000 searchable newspaper articles on Immigration.
  • Migration on the Diplomacy Monitor
  • A world map with territory sizes adjusted to the number of immigrants living in those countries
  • Information on Immigration to the U.S.
  • US Comprehensive Immigration Debate US Comprehensive immigration reform.
  • Observatorio de la Inmigración Marroquí en España - TEIM Taller de Estudios Internacionales Mediterráneos - Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
  • NationMigration Forum A user-oriented forum built to help people travel or relocate to a foreign country with ease. It provides valuable information and helpful tips by locals for overseas students, travelers, businessmen and new immigrants.
  • German Oversee Migration in the Online-Databank HISTAT (toll-free, registration necessary, in German)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Comprehensive Immigration Reform (0 words)
Arrests by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement for criminal violations have increased from 24 in FY 1999 to a record 716 in FY 2006.
There have been 742 criminal arrests since the beginning of FY 2007 (through July 31), and there is anecdotal evidence that companies are taking notice and adjusting their business practices to follow the law.
The Administration is investing substantial new funds to address the backlog, and the FBI and USCIS are working together on a variety of projects designed to streamline existing processes so as to reduce waiting times without sacrificing security.
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Immigration policy is a paradigmatic example of conflict of interest between ethnic groups because immigration policy influences the future demographic composition of the nation.
By prescribing that immigration be restricted to 3% of the foreign born as of the 1890 census, the 1924 law prescribed an ethnic status quo approximating the 1920 census.
The opposition to needed skills as the basis of immigration was consistent with the prolonged Jewish attempt to delay the passage of a literacy test as a criterion for immigration beginning in the late nineteenth century until a literacy test was finally passed in 1917.
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