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Encyclopedia > Immaculate Conception
Mary, mother of Jesus as the Immaculate Conception. Bartolomé Esteban Murillo. Museo del Prado.
Mary, mother of Jesus as the Immaculate Conception. Bartolomé Esteban Murillo. Museo del Prado.

The Immaculate Conception is, according to Roman Catholic dogma, the conception of Mary, the mother of Jesus without any stain of original sin, in her mother's womb: the dogma thus says that, from the first moment of her existence, she was preserved by God from the lack of sanctifying grace that afflicts mankind, and that she was instead filled with divine grace. It is further believed that she lived a life completely free from sin. Her immaculate conception in the womb of her mother, by sexual intercourse, should not be confused with the doctrine of the virginal conception of her son Jesus. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2940, 498 KB) Description:  Title: de: Maria Immaculata Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 206 × 144 cm Country of origin: de: Spanien Current location (city): de: Madrid Current location (gallery): de: Museo del Prado Other notes: Source: The Yorck Project... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2940, 498 KB) Description:  Title: de: Maria Immaculata Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 206 × 144 cm Country of origin: de: Spanien Current location (city): de: Madrid Current location (gallery): de: Museo del Prado Other notes: Source: The Yorck Project... Murillo Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (Seville, December 31, 1617 - Cádiz, April 3, 1682) was a Spanish painter, one of the most important figures in Baroque painting in Spain. ... Bold text The Museo del Prado is a famous museum and art gallery located in Madrid; the capital of Spain. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... For other senses of this word, see dogma (disambiguation). ... Saint Mary and Saint Mary the Virgin both redirect here. ... “Original Sin” redirects here. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In Christianity... For other uses, see Sin (disambiguation). ... For the biological phenomenon of female-only reproduction, see Parthenogenesis. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...


The feast of the Immaculate Conception, celebrated on December 8, was established in 1476 by Pope Sixtus IV. He did not define the doctrine as a dogma, thus leaving Roman Catholics freedom to believe in it or not without being accused of heresy; this freedom was reiterated by the Council of Trent. The existence of the feast was a strong indication of the Church's belief in the Immaculate Conception, even before its 19th century definition as a dogma. The Feast of the Immaculate Conception Originally called the Conception of Mary; under the name of Immaculate Conception, the observance in the West celebrates the Roman Catholic dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sixtus IV, born Francesco della Rovere (July 21, 1414 - August 12, 1484) was Pope from 1471 to 1484, essentially a Renaissance prince, the Sixtus of the Sistine Chapel where the team of artists he brought together introduced the Early Renaissance to Rome with a masterpiece. ... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


The Immaculate Conception was solemnly defined as a dogma by Pope Pius IX in his constitution Ineffabilis Deus, on December 8, 1854. In Roman Catholicism, a dogmatic definition is an infallible statement published by a pope or an ecumenical council concerning a matter of faith or morals, the belief in which the Catholic Church requires of all Christians (but Christians who are not Catholics do not recognize the Catholic Churchs authority... Pope Pius IX (May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878), born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from his election in June 16, 1846, until his death more than 31 years later in 1878. ... Ineffabilis Deus (Latin for Ineffable God) is the name of an Apostolic constitution written by Pope Pius IX. It defines ex cathedra the dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


The Roman Catholic Church believes the dogma is supported by Scripture (e.g. Mary's being greeted by Angel Gabriel as "full of grace" or "highly favoured"), as well as either directly or indirectly by the writings of many of the Church Fathers, and often calls Mary the Blessed Virgin (Luke 1:48). Catholic theology maintains that, since Jesus became incarnate of the Virgin Mary, it was fitting that she be completely free of sin for expressing her fiat. (Ott, Fund., Bk 3, Pt. 3, Ch. 2, §3.1.e). Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers... Our Lady redirects here. ... The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ... Christ en majesté, Matthias Grünewald, 16th c. ...


For the Roman Catholic Church the dogma of the Immaculate Conception gained additional significance from the apparitions of Our Lady of Lourdes in 1858. In Lourdes a 14-year-old girl, Bernadette Soubirous, claimed a beautiful lady appeared to her. The lady identified herself as "the Immaculate Conception" and the faithful believe her to be the Blessed Virgin Mary. The apparitions of Our Lady of Lourdes began when Bernadette Soubirous, a 14-year old peasant girl from Lourdes, when questioned by her mother, admitted that she had seen a lady in the cave of Massabielle, about a mile from the town, on 11 February 1858, while she was gathering... Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the French pilgrimage location. ... Bernadette Soubirous Statue of Our Lady of Lourdes in Lourdes, France. ... Our Lady redirects here. ...


In the Roman Catholic Church, the Solemnity of the Immaculate Conception is a Holy Day of Obligation, except where conferences of bishops have decided, with the approval of the Holy See, not to maintain it as such. It is a public holiday in some countries where Roman Catholicism is predominant e.g. Italy. In the Philippines, although this is not a public holiday, the predominance of Catholic Schools make it almost a holiday. In the Roman Catholic Church, the Holy Days of Obligation are the days, other than Sundays, on which the faithful are required to attend Mass. ...

Contents

History of the dogma

The Conception of Mary was celebrated as a liturgical feast in England from the ninth century, and the doctrine of her "holy" or "immaculate" conception was first formulated in a tract by Eadmer, companion and biographer of the better-known St. Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury (1033-1109), and later popularized by the archbishop's nephew, Anselm the Younger. The Normans had suppressed the celebration, but it lived on in the popular mind. It was rejected by St. Bernard of Clairvaux, Alexander of Hales, and St. Bonaventure (who, teaching at Paris, called it "this foreign doctrine," indicating its association with England), and by St. Thomas Aquinas who expressed questions about the subject, but said that he would accept the determination of the Church. Aquinas and Bonaventure, for example, believed that Mary was completely free from sin, but that she was not given this grace at the instant of her conception.[1] For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Eadmer, or Edmer (c. ... Saint Anselm of Canterbury (1033 or 1034 – April 21, 1109) was an Italian medieval philosopher and theologian, who held the office of Archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. ... Canterbury is a cathedral city in east Kent in South East England and is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Primate of All England, head of the Church of England and of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Norman conquests in red. ... Saint Bernard of Clairvaux (1090–August 21, 1153) was a French abbot and the primary builder of the reforming Cistercian monastic order. ... Alexander Hales (also Halensis, Alensis, Halesius, Alesius; called Doctor Irrefragabilis and Theologorum Monarcha) was a scholastic theologian. ... Saint Bonaventure of Bagnoregio (Italian: San Bonaventura) (1221 – 15 July 1274), born John of Fidanza (Italian: Giovanni di Fidanza), was the eighth Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor, commonly called the Franciscans. ... The Eiffel Tower has become the symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas, O.P.(also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ...


Despite this formidable array of tradition and scholarly opinion, the Oxford Franciscans William of Ware and especially Blessed John Duns Scotus defended the doctrine. Scotus proposed a solution to the theological problem involved of being able to reconcile the doctrine with that of universal redemption in Christ, by arguing that Mary's immaculate conception did not remove her from redemption by Christ; rather was the result of a more perfect redemption given to her on account of her special role in history. Furthermore, Scotus said that Mary was redeemed in anticipation of Christ's death on the cross. This was similar to the way that the Church explained the Last Supper (since Roman Catholic theology teaches that the Mass is the sacrifice of Calvary made present on the altar, and Christ did not die before the Last Supper). Scotus' defense of the immaculist thesis was summed up by one of his followers as potuit, decuit ergo fecit (God could do it, it was fitting that he did it, and so he did it). Following his defence of the thesis, students at Paris swore to defend the position, and the tradition grew of swearing to defend the doctrine with one's blood. The University of Paris supported the decision of the (schismatic) Council of Basel in this matter. Duns' arguments remained controversial, however, particularly among the Dominicans, who were willing enough to celebrate Mary's sanctificatio (being made free from sin), but, following the Dominican Thomas Aquinas' arguments, continued to insist that her sanctification could not have occurred at the instant of her conception. The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... William of Ware (called the Doctor Fundatus; flourished 1290–1305) was a Franciscan friar and theologian, born at Ware in Hertfordshire. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... John Duns Scotus (c. ... The schisma, also spelled skhisma, is the ratio between a Pythagorean comma and a syntonic comma and equals 32805/32768, which is 1. ... The Council of Basel was a council of bishops and other ecclesiastics of the Roman Catholic Church that was held at Basel, Switzerland. ...


Popular opinion remained firmly behind the celebration of Mary's conception. The doctrine itself had been endorsed by the Council of Basel (1431-1449), and by the end of the 15th century was widely professed and taught in many theological faculties. However, the Council of Basel was later held not to have been a true General (or Ecumenical) Council with authority to proclaim dogma; and such was the influence of the Dominicans, and the weight of the arguments of Thomas Aquinas (who had been canonized in 1323, and declared "Doctor Angelicus" of the Church in 1567) that the Council of Trent (1545-63) - which might have been expected to affirm the doctrine - instead declined to take a position; it simply reaffirmed the constitutions of Sixtus VI, which had threatened with excommunication anyone on either side of the controversy who accused the others of heresy. It was not until 1854 that Pius IX, with the support of the overwhelming majority of Roman Catholic Bishops, whom he had consulted during between 1851–1853, proclaimed the doctrine in accordance with the conditions of papal infallibility that would be defined in 1870 by the First Vatican Council. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... In Catholic theology, papal infallibility is the dogma that, by action of the Holy Spirit, the Pope is preserved from even the possibility of error[1] when he solemnly declares or promulgates to the Church a dogmatic teaching on faith or morals as being contained in divine revelation, or at... The First Vatican Council was summoned by Pope Pius IX by the bull Aeterni Patris of June 29, 1868. ...


Protestantism

The doctrine is generally not shared by either Eastern Orthodoxy or by Christians of Reformed or Protestant traditions. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ...


Protestants reject the doctrine because they do not consider the development of dogmatic theology to be authoritative apart from Biblical exegesis, and that Mariology in general, including the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception, is not taught explicitly in their interpretation of the Bible. It is accepted by some Anglo-Catholics, but is rejected by most in the Anglican Communion (and also by the Old Catholic Churches). In the Book of Common Prayer, December 8 — the "Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary" — is a "lesser commemoration", whose observance is optional. However, members of the Society of Mary are required to attend Mass that day. For other senses of this word, see dogma (disambiguation). ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Exegesis (from the Greek to lead out) involves an extensive and critical interpretation of an authoritative text, especially of a holy scripture, such as of the Old and New Testaments of the Bible, the Talmud, the Midrash, the Quran, etc. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... The terms Anglo-Catholic and Anglo-Catholicism describe people, groups, ideas, customs and practices within Anglicanism that emphasise continuity with Catholic tradition. ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... The Old Catholic Church is a community of Christian churches. ... For the novel, see A Book of Common Prayer. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Blessed Virgin Mary A traditional catholic image of Mary, entitled the Immaculate Heart of Mary The Society of Mary is an Anglican devotional society dedicated to and under the patronage of the Blessed Virgin Mary. ... For other uses of Mass, see Mass (disambiguation). ...


Protestants argue that God would also need to have intervened in the conception of Mary's mother, and her mother, and so on down the ages. Catholicism's response to this would be that only Mary had to be kept free from sin, since she directly was going to bear Christ; her ancestors were not.


A further argument put forward by Protestants is from Mark 10:18 and the parallel Luke 18:9. When Jesus is addressed as "Good teacher" (NIV Mk 10:17), Jesus is quoted as replying "No one is good - except God alone". It is posited that in doing so he clearly teaches that no one is without sin, whilst also leaving room for the conclusion that he is in fact God incarnate. However, it is meant in the general sense.


Some Protestants also teach that sinful nature is inherited from the father. Since Jesus of Nazareth did not have an earthly father, he did not inherit a sinful nature; hence, Mary did not need to be immaculately conceived. These Protestants base this view on Romans 5:12 which states that sin entered the world through a man, Adam (even though Eve sinned before Adam) and 1 Corinthians 11:3 which says that the head of every woman is the man. In response, however, the sin of Adam and Eve stains a person's soul, and both parents only contribute to the body, meaning God allows this to happen, and can certainly preserve someone.


Some Protestant groups of more recent origin, such as the Restoration Movement, do not believe in original sin. Consequently, they believe in the immaculate conception of everyone, not only of Mary. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about the Stone...


For a response to these arguments, see below.


Eastern Orthodox

Orthodox Christians do believe that Mary was without sin for her entire life, but they generally do not share the Augustinian and Medieval Roman Catholic Church's views on original sin.[citation needed] They note that St. Augustine (d. 430), whose works were not well known in Eastern Christianity until after the 17th century, has exerted considerable influence over the theology of sin that has generally taken root in the Latin Rite. However, Augustine's theory that original sin is propagated by the concupiscence of reproduction and that it can be expressed in terms of stain and quasi-personal guilt is not shared by Eastern Orthodoxy. Some Eastern Orthodox theologians also suggest that the references among the Greek and Syrian Fathers to Mary's purity and sinlessness may refer not to an a priori state, but to her conduct after birth. Although this is not a dogma in the Orthodox Church, there is a widespread conviction that there was a pre-sanctification of Mary at the time of her conception, similar to what occurred for Saint John the Baptist in his mother's womb. However, Eastern Christianity tends to focus on the fact that the main consequence of original sin is the distortion of the nature of man. Augustinus redirects here. ... Events Saint Patrick reaches Ireland on his missionary expedition. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... The Latin Rite is one of the 23 sui iuris particular Churches within the Catholic Church. ... The terms a priori and a posteriori are used in philosophy to distinguish between two different types of propositional knowledge. ... For other senses of this word, see dogma (disambiguation). ... St. ...


Scriptural sources

In his Apostolic Constitution Ineffabilis Deus (8 December 1854), which officially defined the Immaculate Conception as dogma for the Roman Catholic Church, Pope Pius IX primarily appealed to the text of Genesis 3:15, where the serpent was told by God, "I will put enmity between you and the woman, between your seed and her seed." According to the Roman Catholic understanding, this was a prophecy that foretold of a "woman" who would always be at enmity with the serpent — that is, a woman who would never be under the power of sin, nor in bondage to the serpent. Ineffabilis Deus (Latin for Ineffable God) is the name of an Apostolic constitution written by Pope Pius IX. It defines ex cathedra the dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Pope Pius IX (May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878), born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from his election in June 16, 1846, until his death more than 31 years later in 1878. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ...


Some Roman Catholic theologians have also found Scriptural evidence for the Immaculate Conception in the angel Gabriel's greeting to Mary at the Annunciation, (Luke 1:28). The English translation, "Hail, Full of Grace," or "Hail, Favored One," is based on the Greek of Luke 1:28, "Χαίρε, Κεχαριτωμένη", Chaire kecharitomene, a phrase which can most literally be translated: "Rejoice, you who have been graced". The latter word, kecharitomene, is the Passive voice, Present Perfect participle of the verb "to grace" in the feminine gender, vocative case; therefore the Greek syntax indicates that the action of the verb has been fully completed in the past, with results continuing into the future. Put another way, it means that the subject (Mary) was graced fully and completely at some time in the past, and continued in that fully graced state. The angel's salutation does not refer to the incarnation of Christ in Mary's womb, as he proceeds to say: "thou shalt conceive in thy womb…" (Luke 1:31). For other uses, see Annunciation (disambiguation). ... The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ... The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ... In grammar, voice is the relationship between the action or state expressed by a verb, and its arguments (subject, object, etc. ... The perfect aspect is a grammatical aspect that refers to a state resulting from a previous action (also described as a previous action with relevance to a particular time, or a previous action viewed from the perspective of a later time). ... In linguistics, a participle is a non-finite verb form that can be used in compound tenses or voices, or it can be used as a modifier. ... In linguistics, grammatical genders, also called noun classes, are classes of nouns reflected in the behavior of associated words; every noun must belong to one of the classes and there should be very few which belong to several classes at once. ... The vocative case (also called the fifth case) is the case used for a noun identifying the person (animal, object, etc. ... Christ en majesté, Matthias Grünewald, 16th c. ...


The Church Fathers, almost from the beginning of Church History, found further Scriptural evidence by comparing the figure of Eve to the figure of Mary. St. Justin Martyr said that Mary was a kind of New Eve, "in order that the disobedience which proceeded from the serpent might receive its destruction in the same manner in which it derived its origin." (Dialogue with Trypho, 100) Tertullian argued in the same manner, saying, "As Eve had believed the serpent, so Mary believed the angel. The delinquency which the one occasioned by believing, the other by believing effaced." (On the Flesh of Christ, 17) St. Irenaeus declared that Mary became "the cause of salvation, both to herself and the whole human race," because "what the virgin Eve had bound fast through unbelief, this did the virgin Mary set free through faith." (Against Heresies, Book III, cap. 22, 4) St. Jerome coined the phrase, "Death came through Eve, but life has come through Mary," (Letter XXII, To Eustochium, 21). In addition "Blessed shall be the fruit of thy womb" is a reward for obedience to God by keeping the commandments.[2] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers... Justin Martyr (also Justin the Martyr, Justin of Caesarea, Justin the Philosopher) (100–165) was an early Christian apologist and saint. ... Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicised as Tertullian, (ca. ... Irenaeus (Greek: Εἰρηναῖος), (b. ... On the Detection and Overthrow of the So-Called Gnosis, commonly called Against Heresies (Latin: Adversus haereses), is a five volume work written by St. ... For other uses, see Jerome (disambiguation). ...


The Catholic Encyclopedia of 1914, however, states that these scriptures merely serve as corroborative evidence assuming that the dogma is already well established, and that there is insufficient evidence to prove the dogma to someone basing their beliefs solely on biblical interpretation: This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...

No direct or categorical and stringent proof of the dogma can be brought forward from Scripture. …The salutation of the angel Gabriel — chaire kecharitomene, Hail, full of grace (Luke 1:28) indicates a unique abundance of grace… but the term kecharitomene (full of grace) serves only as an illustration, not as a proof of the dogma. ― Catholic Encyclopedia — Immaculate Conception:Proof from Scripture

Scripture verses sometimes used to show her Immaculate Conception (other than Luke 1:28) are

"And thou shalt make the ark of testimony of incorruptible wood And thou shalt gild it with pure gold, thou shalt gild it within and without; and thou shalt make for it golden wreaths twisted round about." (Exodus 25:10-11 Brenton LXX)

"So I made an ark of boards of incorruptible wood, and I hewed tables of stone like the first, and I went up to the mountain, and the two tables were in my hand." (Deuteronomy 10:3 Brenton LXX)

Other translations use the words "setim," "acacia," "indestructible," and "hard" to describe the wood used. In any case, Moses used this wood because it was regarded as very durable and "incorruptible." Mary is regarded by Catholic and Orthodox Christians as being the Ark of the Covenant in the New Testament and therefore it would seem fitting that the New Ark likewise be made "incorruptible" or "immaculate." The basis for called the Virgin Mary the Ark of the Covenant is based partly on the parallels of the Ark in Second Samuel 6 with the Nativity narrative of the Gospel of Luke. The Early Church Fathers have called Christ, the Church, and the Virgin Mary each at one point as being symbolized by the Ark. [3] Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... The Ark of the Covenant (ארון הברית in Hebrew: aron habrit) is described in the Hebrew Bible as a sacred container, wherein rested the stone tablets containing the Ten Commandments as well as other sacred Israelite objects. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The term Virgin Mary has several different meanings: Mary, the mother of Jesus, the historical and multi-denominational concept of Mary Blessed Virgin Mary, the Roman Catholic theological and doctrinal concept of Mary Marian apparitions shrines to the Virgin Mary Virgin Mary in Islam, the Islamic theological and doctrinal concept... The Ark of the Covenant (ארון הברית in Hebrew: aron habrit) is described in the Hebrew Bible as a sacred container, wherein rested the stone tablets containing the Ten Commandments as well as other sacred Israelite objects. ... The Books of Samuel, also referred to as [The Book of] Samuel (Hebrew: שְׁמוּאֵל), are (two) books in the Hebrew Bible (Judaisms Tanakh and originally written in Hebrew) and the Old Testament of Christianity. ... For the Nativity of Jesus, see Nativity of Jesus. ... The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... The term Virgin Mary has several different meanings: Mary, the mother of Jesus, the historical and multi-denominational concept of Mary Blessed Virgin Mary, the Roman Catholic theological and doctrinal concept of Mary Marian apparitions shrines to the Virgin Mary Virgin Mary in Islam, the Islamic theological and doctrinal concept...


Common misinterpretations

There is a widespread misunderstanding of the term immaculate conception: many believe it refers to the conception of Jesus by Mary, a confusion met also in the mass media. In the sense in which the phrase "Immaculate Conception" is used in the Roman Catholic doctrine, it is not directly connected to the concept of Mary's "virginal conception" and the Incarnation of Christ. The Church celebrates the Immaculate Conception on 8 December, exactly nine months before celebrating Mary's birthday. The feast of the Incarnation of Christ, also known as The Annunciation, is celebrated on 25 March, nine months before Christmas Day. For the biological phenomenon of female-only reproduction, see Parthenogenesis. ... Look up incarnation, incarnate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Annunciation (disambiguation). ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Joseph and Mary with baby Jesus, at the first Christmas Christmas (literally, the Mass of Christ) is a holiday in the Christian calendar, usually observed on December 25, which celebrates the birth of Jesus. ...


Another misunderstanding is that with her immaculate conception, Mary did not need a saviour. On the contrary, when defining the dogma in Ineffabilis Deus, Pope Pius IX affirmed that Mary was redeemed in a manner more sublime. He stated that Mary, rather than being cleansed after sin, was completely prevented from contracting original sin in view of the foreseen merits of Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the human race. In Luke 1:47, Mary proclaims: "My spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour." This is referred to as Mary's pre-redemption by Christ. Pope Pius IX (May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878), born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from his election in June 16, 1846, until his death more than 31 years later in 1878. ...


Dogmatic definition

Pope Pius IX defined ex cathedra the Dogma of the Immaculate Conception on 8 December 1854. The Pontiff stressed that Mary's sinlessness was not due to her own merits, but truly, by the merits of her son, Jesus. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Papal infallibility. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...

"We declare, pronounce and define that the doctrine which holds that the Blessed Virgin Mary, at the first instant of her conception, by a singular privilege and grace of the Omnipotent God, in virtue of the merits of Jesus Christ, the Savior of mankind, was preserved immaculate from all stain of original sin, has been revealed by God, and therefore should firmly and constantly be believed by all the faithful."

Simply stated, Mary possessed sanctifying grace from the first instant of her existence and was free of the lack of grace caused by the "original or first sin" at the beginning of human history.


References

See also

The Feast of the Immaculate Conception Originally called the Conception of Mary; under the name of Immaculate Conception, the observance in the West celebrates the Roman Catholic dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary. ... The Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception in Syracuse, New York is the seat of the catholic Diocese of Syracuse. ... The perpetual virginity of Mary is a doctrine of faith of Roman and Eastern Orthodox Catholic Christianity, as well of Islam, stating that Mary, the mother of Jesus, remained an actual virgin, implying both virginal disposition and physical integrity, before, during, and after the birth of Jesus, and thus is... “Original Sin” redirects here. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Immaculate Conception (7315 words)
The feast of the Immaculate Conception is observed on Dec. 8.
The Immaculate Conception is a Roman Catholic dogma holding that from the first instant of its creation, the soul of the Virgin Mary was free from original sin; this doctrine is not to be confused with that of the Virgin Birth, which holds that Jesus Christ was born of a virgin mother.
Immaculate Conception is the idea that the Mother of God did not have original sin at her conception nor did she acquire elements of original sin in the development of her life, whereas all other human beings have original sin from their conception due to the fall of Adam.
Immaculate Conception - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1803 words)
The Immaculate Conception is a Catholic dogma that asserts that Mary, the mother of Jesus, was preserved by God from the stain of original sin at the time of her own conception.
The Immaculate Conception was solemnly defined as a dogma by Pope Pius IX in his constitution Ineffabilis Deus, published December 8, 1854 (the Feast of the Immaculate Conception), and consecrated by Pope Pius XII in 1942.
The phrase "Immaculate Conception," by Catholic interpretation, is not directly connected to the concept of the "Virgin Birth." The Catholic Church celebrates the Immaculate Conception on 8 December, exactly nine months before the official birthday of Mary.
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