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Encyclopedia > Imjin War
Imjin War
Korean Name
Hangul: 임진왜란
Hanja: 壬辰倭亂
Revised Romanization: Imjin Waeran
McCune-Reischauer: Imchin Waeran
Japanese Name
Japanese: 文禄・慶長の役
Hepburn Romaji: Bunroku Keicho no Eki
Chinese Name
Traditional Chinese: 壬辰衛國戰爭
Simplified Chinese: 壬辰卫国战争
Hanyu Pinyin: rénchén wèi guó zhànzhēng
Imjin War
Date: 1592 - 1598
Location: Korea
Result: Korean victory
Combatants
Joseon Dynasty Korea
Ming Dynasty China
Japan under Toyotomi Hideyoshi
Commanders
Adm. Yi Sun-sin
Gen. Kwon Yul
Adm. Won Kyun
Gen. Kim Myung Won
Gen. Yi Il
Gen. Shin Lip
Kwak Jae woo
Gen. Kim Shi-min
Gen. Li Rusong
Gen. Yan Hao
Kato Kiyomasa
Konishi Yukinaga
Kuroda Nagamasa
Todo Takatora
Kato Yoshiaki
Mori Terumoto
Ukita Hideie
Kuki Yoshitaka
Strength
40,000 Korean Army
(at the beginning)
200,000 Chinese support total
unknown numbers of Korean volunteers and insurgents
200,000
(at the first invasion) 160,000 (at the second invasion)
Casualties
Almost 3,000,000 including civilians unknown
Imjin War
Busan - Battle of Tadaejin - Tongnae - Sangju - Ch'ungju - Okpo - Sacheon (1592) - Imjin River - Dangpo Battle - Danghangpo Battle (1592) - Hansando - Pyongyang (1592) - Chonju - Haejongchang - Battle of Busan (1592) - Jinju (1592) - Siege of Pyeongyang (1593) - Battle of Uiryong - Byokchekwan - Haengju - Jinju (1593) - Pusan (1597) - Chilchonryang - Namwon - Myeongnyang - Ulsan - Sacheon (1598) - Noryang Point

The Imjin War (1592 – 1598) consisted of two successive failed Japanese invasions of Korea, with the professed aim of conquering China, the "Imjin Waeran" (임진왜란) (壬辰倭亂) or "Bunrokun Campaign" (文禄の役) between 1592 and 1593, and the "Jung-yu Jaeran" (정유재란) (丁酉再亂) or "Keicho Campaign" (慶長の役) between 1597 and 1598. In both campaigns, the invasions were repelled by the allied forces of Korea and China. Although victorious against the invading Japanese, Korea suffered great loss of life, looting of cultural artifacts, and significant damage to its economy. Hangul also refers to a word processing application widely used in Korea. ... It has been suggested that Sino-Korean be merged into this article or section. ... The Revised Romanization of Korean (Korean: 국어의 로마자 표기법; 國語의 로마字 表記法) is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea. ... McCune-Reischauer romanization is one of the two most widely used Korean language romanization systems, along with the Revised Romanization of Korean, which replaced (a modified) McCune-Reischauer as the official romanization system in South Korea in 2000. ... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Romaji ローマ字 For other meanings, see Hepburn (disambiguation). ... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Romaji ローマ字 The title given to this article lacks diacritics because of certain technical limitations. ... Traditional Chinese characters are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... Simplified Chinese characters (Simplified Chinese: 简体字; Traditional Chinese: 簡體字; pinyin: jiǎntǐzì; also called 简化字/簡化字, jiǎnhuàzì) are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin (拼音, Pīnyīn) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to Hànyǔ Pīnyīn (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration to roman script) for Standard Mandarin used in the... Korea (Korean: (ì¡°ì„  or 한국, see below) is a geographical area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia, bordering China to the northwest and Russia to the northeast, with Japan situated to the southeast across the Korea Strait. ... The Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910), sometimes known as the Yi Dynasty, was a dynasty founded by General Yi Seonggye of the Jeonju clan of Yi in the aftermath of the overthrow of the Goryeo Dynasty at what is today the city of Gaeseong. ... Korea (Korean: (ì¡°ì„  or 한국, see below) is a geographical area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia, bordering China to the northwest and Russia to the northeast, with Japan situated to the southeast across the Korea Strait. ... The Míng Dynasty (Chinese: 明朝; Pinyin: Míng Cháo) was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644. ... Hideyoshi in old age. ... Yi Sun-sin (March 8, 1545 – November 19, 1598), was a Korean naval leader best known for his victories against the Japanese navy during the Imjin War, during the Joseon Dynasty. ... Kwon Yúl (권율, 權慄, 1537-1599) was a Korean Army General during the Joseon Dynasty, who led his forces in the Battle of Haengju. ... Won Kyun (1540 - 1597) was a Korean general and admiral during the Joseon Dynasty]. He is best known for his campaigns against Japanese during the Korea-Japan Seven Year War. ... Sin-Lip lived from 1546 to 1592, and was a Korean general during the Seven-Year War (임진왜란) (壬辰倭亂). He passed the Korean national military exam at the age of 22. ... Kwak Jae Woo was a Korean patriot. ... Li Ru-song (Chinese: ; pinyin: Lǐ Rúsòng) (1549-1598) was the Commander-in-chief of the Chinese Ming Empires salvage force to defend Korea at the Korean King Seonjos request in the Imjin War against the Japanese invasion headed by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. ... Statue of Kato Kiyomasa in front of Kumamoto Castle Katō Kiyomasa (加藤清正, Katō Kiyomasa, July 25, 1562-August 2, 1611) was a daimyō during the Azuchi-Momoyama and Edo periods of Japanese history. ... Konishi Yukinaga (小西 行長 Konishi Yukinaga, born 1555 and died November 6, 1600) was a Japanese Kirishitan (Christian) daimyo under Toyotomi Hideyoshi. ... Kuroda Nagamasa (1568-1623) Kuroda Nagamasa, the son of Kuroda Kanbei. ... Katō Yoshiaki (1563-1631)(加藤義明) was one of Toyotomi Hideyoshis top generals, and commanded elements of Hideyoshis fleet in his invasions of Korea and campaigns in Kyushu. ... Mōri Terumoto (毛利 輝元) (January 22, 1553 – April 27, 1625) was the son of Mori Takamoto, fought against Toyotomi Hideyoshi but was eventually overcome, participated in the Kyushu campaign (1587) on Hideyoshis side and built Hiroshima Castle. ... Ukita Hideie (宇喜多秀家, 1573-1655) was the daimyo of Bizen and Mimasaka provinces (modern Okayama Prefecture), and one of the council of five regents appointed by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. ... Kuki Yoshitaka (九鬼 嘉隆; 1542 - November 17, 1600) was a naval commander during Japans Sengoku Period, under Oda Nobunaga, and later, Toyotomi Hideyoshi. ... Combatants Japanese Army Korean Garrison Commanders So Yoshitoshi Chŏng Pal† Hangul: ì •ë°œ, Hanja :é„­æ’¥) Lee Jung Hun (Hangul: 이정헌, Hanja :李庭憲)]] Strength at least 15,000 men at least 8,000 soldiers Casualties Unknown between 8,500 - 30,000 (depending on various accounts) The Siege of Busan was a battle fought at Busan... Combatants Japanese Army Korean Garrison Commanders Konishi Yukinaga Yun Heung-sin† Strength at least 5,000 3,000 (est. ... Combatants Japanese Army Korean Garrison Commanders Konishi Yukinaga Mag. ... The battle of Sangju was one of the primary Korean attempts to stop the Japanese invasion and prevent the siege of Chungju Castle. ... Combatants Japanese army Korean cavalry division Commanders Konishi Yukinaga So Yoshitoshi Matsuura Shigenobu Arima Harunobu Omura Yoshiaki Gen. ... The Battle of Okpo was a battle of the first phase of the Seven Year War between Japan and Chosun (Korea). ... The Battle of Sacheon was a naval battle in the first phase of the Seven-Year War between Korea and Japan. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The day after the Battle of Sacheon, Admiral Yi Sun-shin had his fleet rested in the open sea off Saryang where they would have tactical advantage were the Japanese to execute a counterattack. ... Combatants Fleet of Toyotomi Hideyoshi Korean navy Commanders unknown Yi Sun-sin, Yi Ok-ki Strength 26 51 Casualties all the warships and soldiers none Prelude The Battle of Danghangpo was a naval battle during the Imjin War (1592-1597) between Korean and Japanese naval forces. ... The Battle of Hansan (or Battle of Hansan-do) is regarded as one of the four greatest sea battles of world history. ... In 1592,after orders from King Seonjo to attack Pyongnyang,Admiral Yi Sun Shin bombarded Pyongnyang. ... The Battle of Busan was a naval battle of the first phase of the Seven Year War between Korea and Japan. ... Combatants Japanese army Korean army,citizens Commanders Hosokawa Tadaoki Kim Shi-Min†, Kwak Jae woo Strength 30,000 soldiers 3,800 soldiers,and citizens Casualties Unknown Unknown Jinju castle (진주성; 晋州城) was the site of two battles during the Imjin War; the first in 1592, and the second in 1593. ... Combatants Japanese army Ming army and Korean allies Commanders Konishi Yukinaga Li Rusong Hyujŏng Yi Il Strength Unknown 65,000 Casualties 16,000 Approximately 800 deaths The siege of Pyongyang was a battle fought between the Ming-Korea alliance and Japanese forces during the seven-year war. ... Combatants Korean army Japanese army under Toyotomi Hideyoshi Commanders Gwon Yul Cho Geyong Cheo Young Yi Bin Ukita Hideie Kato Kiyomasa Konishi Yukinaga Kuroda Nagamasa Ishida Mitsunari Yoshikawa Hiroie Kobayakawa Takakage Kobayakawa Hideaki Strength 2,000 regular army, 1,000 local monks 30,000 Casualties unknown at least 10,000... The Second Siege of Jinju was a battle during 1593 in the Seven-Year War at Jinju Fort, Korea, between Japan and Korea. ... The Battle of Chilchonryang was a naval conflict in the Seven-Year War. ... // Background The Forces : Chinese-Korean forces Ming-Chinese forces 3,000 men: Yang Yuan Korean forces 1,300 (?) men: Yi Pok-nam Yi Chun-won Shin Ho Kim Kyung-no Miscellaneous : Jung Kwi-won Oh Ung-jung Im Hyun Yi Duk-hwae Japanese besiegers forces Southern sector : Ukita... In the Battle of Myeongnyang, on October, 26 1597, the Korean admiral Yi Sun-sin fought the Japanese navy at sea in Myeongnyang Strait, near modern-day Jindo Island. ... // Background Ulsan Japanese Castle under Chinese-Korean allied troops attacks First Siege of Ulsan (1598 1st month 4th day of Chinese Calendar) Chinese-Korean besiegers forces Korean forces : Gwon Yul (Hangul : 권율 Hanja : 權慄) Chinese forces : Yang Hao (Hangul : 양호 Hanja : 楊鎬) Japanese forces Aftermath Second Siege of Ulsan (1598 9th month 25th... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Combatants Fleet of Toyotomi Hideyoshi Korean navy Commanders Shimazu Yoshihiro Wakizaka Yasuharu Konishi Yukinaga Yi Sun-sin† Chen Lin Strength 600 ships 80 Korean ships & 63 Chinese ships Casualties 550 ships completely destroyed Unknown, but a significantly smaller number of casualties, including Admiral Yi Sun-Sin The Battle of Noryang... Korea (Korean: (ì¡°ì„  or 한국, see below) is a geographical area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia, bordering China to the northwest and Russia to the northeast, with Japan situated to the southeast across the Korea Strait. ... Events January 30 - The death of Pope Innocent IX during the previous year had left the Papal throne vacant. ... Events May 18 - Playwright Thomas Kyds accusations of heresy lead to an arrest warrant for Christopher Marlowe. ... Events 17 January - A court case in Guildford recorded evidence that a certain plot of land was used for playing “kreckett” (i. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ...

Contents


Before the War

Korea

Prior to the war, the Joseon Dynasty (조선왕조) of Korea had presided over a considerably harmonious reign of 200 years ever since the coup that overthrew its predecessor, the Goryeo Dynasty (918 - 1392). However, there were occasions of armed conflict during this period; many Jurchen raids had occurred on the northern border of Korea (ended by the extension of the Korean border to the Tumen River), and Koreans were also wary of attacks by the Japanese Wokou on Korea's ports and coastal villages (a particularly severe incident in 1418 resulted in devastating Korean retaliation brought about during the rule of King Sejong the Great through the invasion of Tsushima Island and the rout of the Japanese pirate fleet there). Despite these attacks and subsequent counterattacks, Korea was a relatively peaceful country. The Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910), sometimes known as the Yi Dynasty, was a dynasty founded by General Yi Seonggye of the Jeonju clan of Yi in the aftermath of the overthrow of the Goryeo Dynasty at what is today the city of Gaeseong. ... The state of Goryeo ruled Korea from the fall of Silla in 935 until the founding of Joseon in 1392. ... The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ... 16th century Japanese pirate raids. ... Sejong the Great (May 6, 1397 – May 18, 1450, r. ... Tsushima Island (対馬 Tsushima) is an island situated wholly in the Korea Strait, lying at 34°00N and 129°00E. It is part of Nagasaki Prefecture of Japan and is its largest island. ...


Preceding the Japanese invasion, Korea had also maintained a powerful and mutually beneficial alliance with the Ming Dynasty of China. Although the various entities on the continent had been main enemies during the existence of the Yuan and Liao dynasties during the Goryeo period and the reign of the Sui and Tang dynasties during the Three Kingdoms period, the Ming Dynasty during the early Joseon period looked to peaceful relations with Korea. Sharing Confucian ideals, a common enemy (the Jurchens), and mutually profitable commerce between the countries led to the alliance. Although Korea and Japan were key partners in terms of commercial trade, and Korea was a main conduit through which Chinese culture reached Japan, Koreans were wary of Japanese on the main islands. Koreans were rather more trusting toward the Ryukyu Kingdom in the southwest of the Japanese Archipelago. The Míng Dynasty (Chinese: 明朝; Pinyin: Míng Cháo) was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644. ... The Yuan Dynasty (Chinese: 元朝; pinyin: Yuáncháo; Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus) lasting officially from 1271 to 1368, occasionally known as the Mongol Dynasty. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The state of Goryeo ruled Korea from the fall of Silla in 935 until the founding of Joseon in 1392. ... SUI can be the IOC country code or the FIFA country code for Switzerland SUI can be an acronym for sonic user interface (similar to GUI for graphical user interface). ... Tang could refer to: Tang Dynasty of China Tang (Shang dynasty ruler) Transliteration of Chinese family names such as 唐,湯,鄧,é‚“,滕 Tang Clan of Hong Kong, the first inhabitants to leave China and settle in Hong Kong. ... The Three Kingdoms of Korea were Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula and parts of Manchuria for much of the 1st millennium CE. The Three Kingdoms period in Korea is usually considered to run from the 1st century BCE until Sillas triumph over Goguryeo in 668... Confucianism (儒家 Pinyin: rújiā The School of the Scholars), sometimes translated as the School of Literati, is an East Asian ethical, religious and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of Confucius. ... The Jurchens (Traditional Chinese: 女眞; Simplified Chinese: 女真; pinyin: nÇšzhÄ“n) were a Tungus people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the 17th century, when they became the Manchus. ... The main building of Shuri Castle The Ryukyu Kingdom was an independent kingdom which ruled most of the Ryukyu Islands from the 14th century to the 19th century. ... The Japanese Archipelago which forms the country of Japan extends from north to south along the eastern coast of the Eurasian Continent, the western shore of the Pacific Ocean. ...

History of Korea

Gojoseon, Jin
Proto-Three Kingdoms:
 Buyeo, Okjeo, Dongye
 Samhan
Three Kingdoms:
 Goguryeo
 Baekje
 Silla, Gaya
Unified Silla, Balhae
 Later Three Kingdoms
Goryeo
  Khitan wars
  Mongol invasions
Joseon
 Seven Year War
 Korean Empire
Japanese rule
 Provisional Gov't
Divided Korea
 Korean War
North, South Korea Image File history File links Korea_unified_vertical. ... Joseon dynasty court architecture This article is about the history of Korea, through the division of Korea before the Korean War. ... Gojoseon (ancient Joseon, to distinguish the later Joseon Dynasty) was the first Korean kingdom. ... Jin was an early Iron Age state which occupied some portion of the southern Korean peninsula during the 2nd and 3rd centuries BCE, bordering the Korean kingdom Gojoseon to the north. ... Proto-Three Kingdoms of Korea (원삼국시대, 原三國時代) refers to the period after the fall of Gojoseon and before the maturation of Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla into full-fledged kingdoms. ... Buyeo (Fuyu in Chinese) was a kingdom established in Northern Manchuria, from about 2nd century BC to 494. ... Okjeo was a small tribal state which arose in northern Korean peninsula from perhaps 2nd century BC to 5th century AD. Dong-okjeo (East Okjeo) occupied roughly the area of the Hamgyŏng provinces of North Korea, and Buk-okjeo (North Okjeo) occupied the Duman River region. ... Dongye was a state which occupied portions of the northeastern Korean peninsula from roughly 150 BCE to around 400 CE. It bordered Goguryeo and Okjeo to the north, Jinhan to the south, and Chinas Lelang Commandery to the west. ... During the Samhan period, the three confederacies of Mahan, Jinhan, and Byeonhan dominated the southern portion of the Korean peninsula. ... The Three Kingdoms of Korea were Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula and parts of Manchuria for much of the 1st millennium CE. The Three Kingdoms period in Korea is usually considered to run from the 1st century BCE until Sillas triumph over Goguryeo in 668... Goguryeo (traditional dates 37 B.C. – A.D. 668) was a kingdom in northern Korea and a large part of Manchuria. ... Baekje was a kingdom that existed in southwestern Korea from 18 BCE to 660 CE. Together with Goguryeo and Silla, Baekje is known as one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... Silla (also spelled Shilla, traditional dates 57 BCE - 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... Gaya was a confederacy of chiefdoms in the Nakdong River valley of southern Korea, growing out of the Byeonhan confederacy and later annexed by Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... Unified Silla is the name often applied to the Korean kingdom of Silla after 668. ... Alternate meaning: Bohai Sea Balhae (Korean) or Bohai (Chinese) was a kingdom in northeast Asia from AD 698 to 926, occupying parts of Manchuria, northern Korea, and Russian Far East. ... The Later Three Kingdoms of Korea (892-936) consisted of Silla, Hubaekje (later Baekje), and Taebong (also known as Hugoguryeo, or Later Goguryeo). ... The state of Goryeo ruled Korea from the fall of Silla in 935 until the founding of Joseon in 1392. ... The Goryeo-Khitan Wars were a series of 10th- and 11th-century conflicts between the kingdom of Goryeo and Khitan forces near what is now the border between China and North Korea. ... The Mongol invasions of Korea consisted of a series of campaigns by the Mongol Empire against Korea, then known as Koryo, from 1231 to 1259. ... The Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910), sometimes known as the Yi Dynasty, was a dynasty founded by General Yi Seonggye of the Jeonju clan of Yi in the aftermath of the overthrow of the Goryeo Dynasty at what is today the city of Gaeseong. ... For the 1756–1763 war, see Seven Years War. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Korea under Japanese rule refers to the period of Japans physical occupation of the Korean peninsula in the early 20th century. ... The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was a government in exile based in Shanghai, China and later in Chongqing. ... The Korean peninsula, first divided along the 38th parallel, later along the demarcation line The division of Korea into North Korea and South Korea stems from the 1945 Allied victory in World War II, ending Japans 35-year occupation of Korea. ... Combatants Western Allied/UN combatants: South Korea, United States, United Kingdom Communist combatants: North Korea, Peoples Republic of China, Soviet Union Commanders Douglas MacArthur Kim Il-sung, (Peng Dehuai de facto) Strength Note: All figures may vary according to source. ... History of North Korea: Following World War II, Korea, which had been a colonial possession of Japan since 1910, was occupied by the Soviet Union (in the north) and the United States (in the south). ...

Timeline
Military history
List of Monarchs This is a timeline of Korean history. ... Korea has a long military history going back several thousand years, with an extensive series of wars that involved invasions, civil discord, counter-piracy actions against medieval Japan, the first use of armoured battleships in seabattles, and the devastation of rebellions against the Joseon era Japanese invasions, the forced peace... Korean dynasties are listed in the order of their fall. ...

Korea Portal


Yi I (이율곡) (1536-1584), then a scholar and influential philosopher, advised that Korea should train a well equipped army of at least 100,000 soldiers. A weak Korean performance in 1582 against the Jurchens showed that the Korean army was not trained properly. Unfortunately, King Seonjo and most of his advisers heeded no attention. Yi I (26 December 1536-1584) was one of the two most prominent Korean Confucian scholars of the Joseon Dynasty, the other being his older contemporary, Yi Hwang (Toegye). ...


Ryu Sung-Ryong (류성룡), who would become Prime Minister, voiced cogently the need to strengthen the military, for he feared an invasion by Japan. He believed that all men, regardless of their social status (including slaves), should be coerced to take part in the military training that was compulsory for most commoners. Yu also argued for the repair of castles and fortresses that were either abandoned or likely to be of little use during a crisis. Unfortunately, nearly all the advisers of the court opposed the building projects because it required forced labor and money.


Yu also wanted to reorganize the military because he believed that there were too many unknowledgeable generals, and felt the need for strong leadership. He exhorted the need to adopt more advanced arquebuses, and implementing better armour even in the infantry. In the end, his arguments were dismissed by King Seonjo. Japanese arquebus of the Edo era (teppo) The Arquebus (sometimes spelled harquebus or hackbut) was a primitive firearm used in the 15th to 17th centuries. ... King Seonjo ruled in Korea between 1567 and 1608. ...


Japan

Toyotomi Hideyoshi established his hegemony over the warring states in Japan in the latter part of the 16th century. Hideyoshi united all the states and brought Japan to a brief period of peace. Motivated in part by a need to satisfy the perpetual hunger for territory by his vassals and find employment for restive samurai, he began to plan for the conquest of Ming Dynasty China. He revealed his plan first to Mori Terumoto in 1586, and pursued the plan after he defeated the clans of Shimazu and Hojo. Thousands of troops were mobilized and trained; weapons, and supplies were gathered; and hundreds of arquebuses were imported from Portugal. Hideyoshi failed to hire two Portuguese galleons to join the invasion; [citation needed] therefore, hundreds of ships were built to carry the entire Japanese army across the sea. Hideyoshi in old age. ... Japanese samurai in armour, 1860s. ... The Míng Dynasty (Chinese: 明朝; Pinyin: Míng Cháo) was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644. ... Mōri Terumoto (毛利 輝元) (January 22, 1553 – April 27, 1625) was the son of Mori Takamoto, fought against Toyotomi Hideyoshi but was eventually overcome, participated in the Kyushu campaign (1587) on Hideyoshis side and built Hiroshima Castle. ... Grave of Satsuma clan at Mount Koya. ... The Hojo clan (北条氏) in History of Japan is a family of regents of the Kamakura Shogunate. ...


Several times, Hideyoshi sent ambassadors to request the Joseon court to allow his troops to move through the Korean peninsula to China. His first request was ignored, and the second request was snubbed after King Seonjo sent envoys to Hideyoshi's government and determined from their observations that Hideyoshi posed no threat. After the denial of his second request, Hideyoshi launched his armies against Korea in 1592. There were those who opposed Hideyoshi's plan, such as Tokugawa Ieyasu, and Konishi Yukinaga and So Yoshitoshi were among those who tried to arbitrate between Hideyoshi and the Joseon court. King Seonjo ruled in Korea between 1567 and 1608. ... Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu Tokugawa Ieyasu (previously spelled Iyeyasu); 徳川 家康 (January 31, 1543 – June 1, 1616) was the founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan which ruled from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until the Meiji Restoration in 1868. ... Konishi Yukinaga (小西 行長 Konishi Yukinaga, born 1555 and died November 6, 1600) was a Japanese Kirishitan (Christian) daimyo under Toyotomi Hideyoshi. ... So Yoshitoshi ) (1568-1615) was the Japanese Lord of Tsushima Island. ...


Comparison of Korean and Japanese Armies

Japanese arquebus of the Edo era. Theses types of guns were used by Japanese soldiers during the Imjin War.
Enlarge
Japanese arquebus of the Edo era. Theses types of guns were used by Japanese soldiers during the Imjin War.

The Korean military in general was in need of many reforms due to the unnecessarily large command bureaucracy. The armies were poorly equipped with rusted weaponry, and most of the officers were incompetent in building strategies due to inexperience and ‘table-warfare’ ideologies. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 732 KB) fr: tempo (arquebuses de fabrication japonaise) de lère Edo. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 732 KB) fr: tempo (arquebuses de fabrication japonaise) de lère Edo. ...


Presumably the main reason why the Koreans were so unsuccessful in the early stage of the war was the Japanese implementation of arquebuses from Portugal. Japan had opened her market for a time to the West to adopt European science and technology. When Japan first acquired the arquebuses, they were fascinated and immediately began manufacturing them. On the other hand, Korea disassociated herself from foreigners with the exception of Ming China. The Koreans did use fire arrows launched from hand guns, but generals and captains put the emphasis on archery. In fact, Korean bows were highly advanced compared to those of others: the range of the Korean arrows was 460 meters compared to the Japanese range of 320 meters.[citation needed] Japanese arquebus of the Edo era (teppo) The Arquebus (sometimes spelled harquebus or hackbut) was a primitive firearm used in the 15th to 17th centuries. ... Fire Arrows may refer to: A weapon used in The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time weapons and items The Chinese Fire Arrow ...


Korean archers lost against Japanese arquebuses primarily because the range of the arquebus was longer. Although the reload time with bows was faster, training soldiers to become skilled archers was arduous and repetitive. Arquebuses were also less inaccurate, but Japanese commanders believed that a heavy volley would be accurate enough. Another reason was that the Koreans were not aware of arquebuses and most of them never experienced guns nor were trained to combat them. In the opening battles of the Imjin War, Koreans were shocked at the sudden, loud noises of the guns. Generals, on their part, were not accustomed to guns and could not strategize their battle plans to counter the arquebuses.

A Korean archer from the central main branch that serves to protect the king and the capital city. Only these elite soldiers and the higher ranking military officers wore full armour. Usage of armour was neglected by the rest of the Korean military.
A Korean archer from the central main branch that serves to protect the king and the capital city. Only these elite soldiers and the higher ranking military officers wore full armour. Usage of armour was neglected by the rest of the Korean military.

Another huge disadvantage for the Korean soldiers was their lack of armour. Although Korean troops were equipped with iron and lamellar armour during the Goryeo Dynasty, its usage declined by the mid-16th century. Koreans saw no need for the armour because of their considerable quantity and sophistication in projectile weapons, which they thought made face-to-face combat less likely, and hence armor less necessary. Although the government made wearing armour mandatory for all ranks, only the officers and generals complied. Most soldiers hesitated in wearing armour because it was too heavy and proved inconvenient. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x650, 12 KB) Summary Depiction of a Korean archer from the central branch in full armor. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x650, 12 KB) Summary Depiction of a Korean archer from the central branch in full armor. ... The Goryeo kingdom ruled Korea from the fall of Silla in 935 until the founding of Joseon in 1392. ... A projectile is any object sent through space by the application of a force. ...


The navy was the main military division in which Korea excelled. The Korean navy was made up of Panokseons that were much stronger than the Japanese ships, which were hastily mobilized solely for the purpose of transportation. Unlike the armour, the navy was not neglected, due to a constant need to protect the sea from Japanese pirates. Each Panokseon had 32 large cannons and multiple Hwachas, and had superior firepower and range to the Japanese ships. These two advantages were used in addition to the manipulation of the environment by Admiral Yi in the Battle of Noryang Point, and other battles, to destroy much of the Japanese fleet before engaging in mêlée combat. Panokseon (board roofed or superstructured ships) was the main type of warship used by the Korean Joseon Dynasty during the late 16th century, and was first constructed in 1555. ... 16th century Japanese pirate raids. ... A Hwacha in the grounds of Deoksu Palace. ... Yi Sun-sin (March 8, 1545 – November 19, 1598), was a Korean naval leader best known for his victories against the Japanese navy during the Seven Year War, during the Joseon Dynasty. ... Combatants Fleet of Toyotomi Hideyoshi Korean navy Commanders Shimazu Yoshihiro Wakizaka Yasuharu Konishi Yukinaga Yi Sun-sin† Chen Lin Strength 600 ships 80 Korean ships & 63 Chinese ships Casualties 550 ships completely destroyed Unknown, but a significantly smaller number of casualties, including Admiral Yi Sun-Sin The Battle of Noryang... Mêlée generally refers to disorganized hand-to-hand combat involving a group of fighters. ...


Korean ships were overall very sturdy and, although somewhat slower than Japanese attack vessels, had great power in their cannon. Japanese ships, on the other hand, were too weak to support the recoil of cannon. Also, Korean ships were built with wooden pegs while Japanese ships were built with iron nails. Unfortunately, iron nails rusted and made Japanese ships' hulls weak.


Also, Korean cannon surpassed those of the Japanese in firepower and range. Ironically, while Korea had nearly no arquebuses, Korean soldiers had a wide selection of cannons at their disposal. Cannons were largely deployed in the 1400s under King Sejong (1418-1450). Cannon were mainly used on battleships and castles but weren't very mobile and were unwieldy to use on the battlefield. Koreans used grenades and mortars from cannon as well, which were most effective in tight areas. Mortars were usually lobbed onto enemy ships. King Sejong the Great (May 6, 1397 - May 18, 1450), born I Do, was the fourth ruler of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1418 to 1450. ...


It is quite likely that the only Korean general who had predicted the inevitable Japanese invasion and prepared for the war was Yi Sun-sin. Yi had become the Commander of Jeolla Left Naval Station in Yeosu. Yi began to build more warships and designed the Turtle Ship, which would become critical in securing important naval victories. Yi Sun-sin (March 8, 1545 – November 19, 1598), was a Korean naval leader best known for his victories against the Japanese navy during the Imjin War, during the Joseon Dynasty. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Turtle Ship (also known as Geobukson or Kobukson by its Korean name) was a large ironclad warship belonging to Panokseon class in Korea under the Joseon Dynasty between the 15th century and 18th century . ...


The Japanese military was carefully organized and the soldiers of different professions were well distributed among the armies. The Korean military, on the other hand, was not only disorganized, but inexperienced as well. It was Yu Song-nyong who pointed out that Korean armies tended to move forward in one body while Japanese armies moved in complex patterns of companies.


The First Invasion

Japanese force attacking ports of Busan, 1709 woodblock print.
Japanese force attacking ports of Busan, 1709 woodblock print.

Image File history File linksMetadata Siege_of_Busan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Siege_of_Busan. ...

Initial Landing

The invasion began when Japanese forces of the First and Second Divisions, under Konishi Yukinaga and Kato Kiyomasa landed on Busan (부산) and Tadaejin (다대진) concurrently on May 23, 1592 with 150,000 soldiers.[1] Chong Pal, the general leading the Koreans in the Busan castle, repelled the Japanese heroically, but the morale crumbled when he died of a bullet and Busan fell. Konishi Yukinaga (小西 行長 Konishi Yukinaga, born 1555 and died November 6, 1600) was a Japanese Kirishitan (Christian) daimyo under Toyotomi Hideyoshi. ... Statue of Kato Kiyomasa in front of Kumamoto Castle Katō Kiyomasa (加藤清正, Katō Kiyomasa, July 25, 1562-August 2, 1611) was a daimyō during the Azuchi-Momoyama and Edo periods of Japanese history. ... Busan tower by night Haeundae beach at dawn, February 2005 Busan Metropolitan City, also commonly referred to as Pusan, is the largest harbor city in Korea. ...


Tadaejin, another port, was attacked by the Second Division. The overall strength of the castle walls was too weak to resist the Japanese and Tadaejin fell in a couple of hours.


It is interesting to note that the attacks on Busan and Tadaejin began nearly at the same time.


Battle of Sangju

Main article: Battle of Sangju The battle of Sangju was one of the primary Korean attempts to stop the Japanese invasion and prevent the siege of Chungju Castle. ...


From there the First Division (under Konishi Yukinaga) with 25,000 men marched quickly north to Sangju where they claimed a quick victory. Then they crossed Choryang Pass, which was a major strategic point that the Koreans neglected to guard. The failure to defend Choryang Pass would lead to the capture of Hanyang (present-day Seoul). Konishi Yukinaga (小西 行長 Konishi Yukinaga, born 1555 and died November 6, 1600) was a Japanese Kirishitan (Christian) daimyo under Toyotomi Hideyoshi. ... The battle of Sangju was one of the primary Korean attempts to stop the Japanese invasion and prevent the siege of Chungju Castle. ... Hanyang is also a former name of Seoul, South Korea. ...


Battle of Chungju

Main article: Battle of Chungju Combatants Japanese army Korean cavalry division Commanders Konishi Yukinaga So Yoshitoshi Matsuura Shigenobu Arima Harunobu Omura Yoshiaki Gen. ...


Konishi soon reached Chungju defended by a cavalry division under the command of Sin Lip (신립). The newly recruited cavalry division of 8,000, having been outnumbered and limited to melee weapons, was overwhelmed by 19,000 Japanese soldiers equipped with arquebuses. The Battle of Chungju marked the last defense line to Hanyang, and the Japanese forces journeyed north without much complication. Sin-Lip (신립) (申砬) lived from 1546 to 1592, and was a Korean general during the Seven-Year War (임진왜란) (壬辰倭亂). He passed the Korean national military exam at the age of 22. ... Combatants Japanese army Korean cavalry division Commanders Konishi Yukinaga So Yoshitoshi Matsuura Shigenobu Arima Harunobu Omura Yoshiaki Gen. ...


Upon hearing of General Sin Lip's defeat, the Yi court took flight toward Pyongyang (평양). In Kaesong, the Korean commoners mourned bitterly because they believed that their king was abandoning them. The Yi court would eventually travel as far as the very northern states of Korea, and the prince would be sent with other ambassadors to ask the Ming Emperor for military aid. Sin-Lip (신립) (申砬) lived from 1546 to 1592, and was a Korean general during the Seven-Year War (임진왜란) (壬辰倭亂). He passed the Korean national military exam at the age of 22. ... Pyongyang (평양 / 平壤) is the capital city of North Korea, located in the bottom third (almost direct center) of the country, situated on the Taedong River. ... Kaesong city centre Kaesŏng (Gaeseong) is a city in North Hwanghae Province, North Korea, a former Directly Governed City, and the capital of Korea during the Koryo Dynasty. ... The Ming Dynasty (Chinese: 明朝; Pinyin: míng cháo) was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, though claims to the Ming throne (now collectively called the Southern Ming) survived until 1662. ...


Meanwhile, the Second Divison of 23,000 men under Kato Kiyomasa captured Gyeongju (경주), the former capital of Korea during the Silla Dynasty, and massive looting and burning took place. A series of minor battles between the Koreans and Japanese led Kato to Chuksan, and eventually Seoul in a month. Statue of Kato Kiyomasa in front of Kumamoto Castle Katō Kiyomasa (加藤清正, Katō Kiyomasa, July 25, 1562-August 2, 1611) was a daimyō during the Azuchi-Momoyama and Edo periods of Japanese history. ... Gyeongju is a city (see Subdivisions of South Korea) and prominent tourist destination in eastern South Korea. ... Silla (also spelled Shilla, traditional dates 57 BCE - 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... Seoul (Sŏul|서울) ) is the capital and largest city of South Korea (Republic of Korea). ...


Capture of Hanseong

Chungju was the last line of defense for the Koreans and the road to Hanseong (present-day Seoul) was open to the Japanese. Both Generals Kato and Konishi vied to earn the honor of reaching Hanseong first, and the Third Division under Kuroda Nagasama was not far behind. In the end, Konishi managed to arrive near Hanseong first, and planned to attack the East Gate. Seoul (Sŏul|서울) ) is the capital and largest city of South Korea (Republic of Korea). ...


To their surprise, the city was left undefended and was found burned and destroyed. King Seonjo had already fled to Pyongyang. The Korean soldiers burned the city as ordered.


Siege of Jinju

Kim Shi-min was the Korean commander who fought during the Siege of Jinju, and was killed.
Kim Shi-min was the Korean commander who fought during the Siege of Jinju, and was killed.

Main article Siege of Jinju (1592) Image File history File links Kimshimin. ... Image File history File links Kimshimin. ... Combatants Japanese army Korean army,citizens Commanders Hosokawa Tadaoki Kim Shi-Min†, Kwak Jae woo Strength 30,000 soldiers 3,800 soldiers,and citizens Casualties Unknown Unknown Jinju castle (진주성; 晋州城) was the site of two battles during the Imjin War; the first in 1592, and the second in 1593. ...


Jinju (진주) was a large castle that defended Jeolla Province. The Japanese commanders knew that control of Jinju would mean the fall of Jeolla. Therefore, a large army under Hosokawa Tadaoki gleefully approached Jinju. Jinju was defended by Kim Shi-min (김시민), one of the better generals in Korea, commanded a Korean garrison of 3,000 men. Kim had recently acquired about 200 new arquebuses that were equal in strength to the Japanese guns. With the help of arquebuses, cannon, and mortars, Kim and the Koreans were able to drive back the Japanese from Jeolla Province. Hosokawa lost over 30,000 men. The battle at Jinju is considered one of the greatest victories of Korea because it prevented the Japanese from entering Jeolla. Jeolla (Jeolla-do) was one of the eight provinces of Korea during the Joseon Dynasty. ... Hosokawa Fujitakas eldest son, born in 1563, Tadaoki fought his first battle at the age of 15 in the service of Oda Nobunaga. ...


In 1593, Jinju would fall to the Japanese.


Japanese Northern Campaign

(See also Kato Kiyomasa's campaign in the North-Eastern part of Korea) Statue of Kato Kiyomasa in front of Kumamoto Castle Katō Kiyomasa (加藤清正, Katō Kiyomasa, July 25, 1562-August 2, 1611) was a daimyō during the Azuchi-Momoyama and Edo periods of Japanese history. ... Definition Kato Kiyomasas campaign in the North-Eastern part of Korea, during the Imjin Waeran occured mainly in the former Hamgyong Province but included his fight with the Jurchen in the South-eastern part of Mandchuria in the actual Jilin Province. ...


Japanese troops ravaged and looted many key towns in the southern part of Korea, took Pyongyang and advanced as far north as the Yalu and Tumen rivers. By 1593, Konishi was already planning to invade China. Pyongyang (평양 / 平壤) is the capital city of North Korea, located in the bottom third (almost direct center) of the country, situated on the Taedong River. ... The Tumen River, also known as the Duman River (in Korean), is a river in northeast Asia, on the border between China and North Korea in its upper reaches, and between North Korea and Russia in its lower stretches. ...


Of the Second Division, Kato Kiyomasa was still unhappy because of Konishi's glory from the capture of Seoul. Kato planned to invade Hamgyong province in northern Korea and begin his China campaign. With an army of 20,000 men, Kato advanced north, capturing every single castle he arrived at. This included all the castles along Korea's eastern border.


Kato's first real resistance was at Haejungchang. Kato met Northern Korean Contingents, who were renowned as elites among the Korean army. Korean cavalry charged the field and smashed Kato's army as a whole. Surprised, Kato fell back to Haejungchang, a rice storage, built cover from rice pouches and waited for the attack to stop. Feeling confident about the first victory, the Korean commander ordered the cavalry to charge and harass the enemy under cover. Kato replied by heavy arquebus fire behind a 'rice wall' and forced the Koreans back to a nearby hill. After nightfall, Kato silently led his troops to the foot of the hill. He then ordered an attack from three sides and destroyed the Korean army as a whole.


This would be the last Korean resistance to his advance into northeastern China.


Kato then marched toward northeastern China, leaving the coast, and after the Battle of Songjin, captured two Korean princes who were sent down south with an escort of 1,000 Japanese soldiers as a negotiation condition. After crossing the Tumen River, Kato arrived in northeastern China, where Chinese authority did not reach and Jurchens ruled. Here Kato attacked a Jurchen fortress and took it by heavy arquebus fire. The next day Jurchens retaliated against the Japanese with 10,000 strong troops. The Japanese were practically surrounded by the Jurchen cavalry and while managing to pull out of Jurchen attacks, Kato quickly retreated back across the Tumen river. This would be the first and last time Kato and the Japanese ever stepped outside Korea during the war. It is interesting to note that Japan never reached China - their political goal - after this. The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ...


The Naval Victories of Yi Sun-Shin

Battles are listed at the end of the article The naval campaigns conducted by Korean Admiral Yi Sun-sin during the Imjin War against the Japanese forces of Toyotomi Hideyoshi. ...

The Panokseon. These made up the majority of Admiral Yi's naval fleet.
The Panokseon. These made up the majority of Admiral Yi's naval fleet.

While the Koreans were struggling on land, Admiral Yi was preparing for battle against the Japanese ships docked in Busan. Image File history File links Panokseon. ... Image File history File links Panokseon. ... Panokseon (board roofed or superstructured ships) was the main type of warship used by the Korean Joseon Dynasty during the late 16th century, and was first constructed in 1555. ... Busan tower by night Haeundae beach at dawn, February 2005 Busan Metropolitan City, also commonly referred to as Pusan, is the largest harbor city in Korea. ...


While the Japanese army were greatly successful on land, in June, 1592, a small Korean fleet commanded by Yi Sun-shin destroyed several Japanese flotillas and wrought havoc on Japanese logistics in the Battle of Okpo, Dangpo Battle, and Battle of Sacheon (1592). During the Battle of Sacheon, the Korean iron-roofed Geobukseon, or turtle ships, were introduced. After another Korean victory at the Battle of Tanghangpo, Japanese generals at Busan began to panic, fearing that their supply lines would be destroyed, so therefore the Japanese naval generals decided to kill Admiral Yi before his threat to Japanese supply ships would grow bigger. Therefore, the Japanese commanders sent Wakizaka Yasuharu, a prominent general, to destroy Admiral Yi's fleet. // Joseon maritime defence during the Japanese invasions In 1592, the responsibility for the maritime defence was shared between four Commanders who covered the two Joseons southern provinces coresponding to the actual Gyeongsang and Jeolla. ... Yi Sun-sin (April 18, 1545 — December 16, 1598), was a famous Korean naval leader. ... The Battle of Okpo was a battle of the first phase of the Seven Year War between Japan and Chosun (Korea). ... The day after the Battle of Sacheon, Admiral Yi Sun-shin had his fleet rested in the open sea off Saryang where they would have tactical advantage were the Japanese to execute a counterattack. ... The Battle of Sacheon was a naval battle in the first phase of the Seven-Year War between Korea and Japan. ... The Turtle Ship (also known as Geobukson or Kobukson by its Korean name) was a large ironclad warship belonging to Panokseon class in Korea under the Joseon Dynasty between the 15th century and 18th century . ... Wakisaka Yasuharu (脇坂 安治; 1554 – September 26, 1626), sometimes referred to as Wakizaka Yasuharu, was a daimyo (feudal lord) of Awaji Island who fought under a number of warlords over the course of Japans Sengoku period. ...


At the Battle of Hansando, 1592, Admiral Yi proved again to be an awesome strategist. Wakizaka Yasuharu was reported to be seen with a very large Japanese fleet sailing down the Straits of Kyonnaeryang by local fishermen and scouts. Admiral Yi was reluctant to attack the Japanese in the narrow strait, for fear of his Panoksons performing badly in a tight spot. He also did not want the Japanese to escape onto land, where there would be a high chance of a revenge raid on a Korean village. The Battle of Hansan (or Battle of Hansan-do) is regarded as one of the four greatest sea battles of world history. ... Yi Sun-sin (March 8, 1545 – November 19, 1598), was a Korean naval leader best known for his victories against the Japanese navy during the Seven Year War, during the Joseon Dynasty. ... Wakisaka Yasuharu (脇坂 安治; 1554 – September 26, 1626), sometimes referred to as Wakizaka Yasuharu, was a daimyo (feudal lord) of Awaji Island who fought under a number of warlords over the course of Japans Sengoku period. ... Developed during the 5th year of King Jungjongs reign in the Joseon Dynasty of Korea, the Panokson became the main ship of the Joseon navy. ...


Therefore, Admiral Yi sent a few ships to lure the Japanese out of the strait into the Bay of Hansando. He had rehearsed this kind of operation many times before and soon, a burst of Japanese ships swarmed into the bay, Admiral Yi was waiting, and used his famous crane-wing formation to envelop the Japanese ships and massacre them. Not leaving any chance for the Japanese to board the Korean ships, Admiral Yi ordered the continuous fire of cannons. Not only at the Battle of Hansando, Admiral Yi won battles again and again.


In September, 1592, Admiral Yi dared to attack Busan, where the Japanese placed their navy headquarters. Yi managed to leave with all of his ships intact, while inflicting damage on several hundred enemy ships still in their docks. Busan tower by night Haeundae beach at dawn, February 2005 Busan Metropolitan City, also commonly referred to as Pusan, is the largest harbor city in Korea. ...


Needless to say, the Japanese lost control of the Korea strait after these naval defeats, and their activities were largely limited around Busan until the Battle of Chilchonryang in 1597. Without the continuous supplies coming from Busan, the Japanese army lost their initial advantage and could not proceed any further from Pyongyang. The Korea Strait is a sea passage between South Korea and Japan, connecting the East China Sea and the Sea of Japan (East Sea) in northwest Pacific Ocean. ... The Battle of Chilchonryang was a naval conflict in the Seven-Year War. ... Pyongyang (평양 / 平壤) is the capital city of North Korea, located in the bottom third (almost direct center) of the country, situated on the Taedong River. ...


It is to Admiral Yi's credit that his operations prevented the occupation of Korea by Japanese forces, and concluded the war with a Korean victory.


Korean Irregular Army

Korean civilians and Buddhist monks soon gathered to form irregular armies. The irregulars' main jobs were to harass Japanese communication lines, ambush armies, kill Japanese commanders, and provide reinforcements. Korean irregulars operated during the entire duration of the war.


An interesting thing to note is the participation of Buddhist monks who were only seen in mountains since the overthrow of the Koryo (고려) dynasty. Buddhist monks proved to be great leaders and excelled at fighting. Insurgency resistance was especially strong in the southern provinces of Chungcheong, Jeolla and Gyeongsang. Gwak Jae woo (곽재우 郭再祐), Jo Heon (조헌), Kim Cheon-il (김전일), Go Kyung Myung (고경명), and Jeong In-hong (정인홍) were among the notable insurgency leaders. The Goryeo kingdom ruled Korea from the fall of Silla in 935 until the founding of Joseon in 1392. ... Chungcheong (Chungcheong-do) was one of the eight provinces of Korea during the Joseon Dynasty. ... Jeolla (Jeolla-do) was one of the eight provinces of Korea during the Joseon Dynasty. ... Gyeongsang (Gyeongsang-do) was one of the eight provinces of Korea during the Joseon Dynasty. ...


Gwak Jae woo is one of the most celebrated heroes of the Seven Year War. He was originally a landowner in Kyongsang province, but the urgency of the war caused him to begin gathering volunteers to fight the Japanese. Gwak Jae Woo's first attack was on Japanese supply boats that transported supplies up and down on the Nam River. In popular depiction, Gwak Jae woo is wearing an all red tunic, claiming that the tunic was stained with the blood of Korean innocents slaughtered by the Japanese.


In the north, insurgency leader Jeong Mun-bu (정문부) fought against Kato Kiyomasa, and defeated the Japanese at the northernmost point in Korea. One of his most decisive victories was the battle of Gilju, which forced Kato's army into retreat. The whole of his campaign was carved into a stone memorial after the war. Many Buddhist monks also rose up against the Japanese. While the official army was being easily overrun by the Japanese army, the hit-and-run tactics of the irregular army was actually the biggest threat for the invaders.


Battle of Haengju

Main article Battle of Haengju Combatants Korean army Japanese army under Toyotomi Hideyoshi Commanders Gwon Yul Cho Geyong Cheo Young Yi Bin Ukita Hideie Kato Kiyomasa Konishi Yukinaga Kuroda Nagamasa Ishida Mitsunari Yoshikawa Hiroie Kobayakawa Takakage Kobayakawa Hideaki Strength 2,000 regular army, 1,000 local monks 30,000 Casualties unknown at least 10,000...


The Japanese invasion into Jeolla province was broken down and pushed back by Kwon Yul, a respected general at the hills of Ichiryeong, where outnumbered Koreans fought overwhelming Japanese troops and gained victory. Kwon Yul quickly advanced Northwards, re-taking Suwon and then swung south toward Heangju where he would wait for the Chinese reenforcements. After he got the message that the Koreans were destroyed at Pyokje, Kwon Yul decided to fortify Haengju. Kwon Yúl (권율, 權慄, 1537-1599) was a Korean Army General during the Joseon Dynasty, who led his forces in the Battle of Haengju. ... Kwon Yúl (권율, 權慄, 1537-1599) was a Korean Army General during the Joseon Dynasty, who led his forces in the Battle of Haengju. ...

The Battle of Haengju. Three thousand Korean troops under Kwon Yul destroyed a 30,000 strong Japanese army. This battle was one of the most important victories for Korea.
The Battle of Haengju. Three thousand Korean troops under Kwon Yul destroyed a 30,000 strong Japanese army. This battle was one of the most important victories for Korea.

Bolstered by the victory at Pyokje, Kato and his army of 30,000 men south of Seoul to attack Haengju fortress, an impressive mountain fortress that overlooked the surrounding area. An army of 3,800 led by Kwon Yul was garrisoned at the fortress waiting for the Japanese. Kato believed his overwhelming army would destroy the Koreans and therefore ordered the Japanese soldiers to advance upon the steep slopes of Haengju with little apparent plan. Kwon Yul replied the Japanese with fierce fire from the fortification using Hwa-cha, rocks, handguns, bows, and even quicklimes were thrown at the Japanese. But Kato stubbornly ordered his men up. The Japanese eventually forced the Koreans to the second line of defence, but they pushed no further. After nine massive assaults and 10,000 casualties, Kato burned his dead and finally pulled his troops back. Image File history File links Haengju_Mountain_Fortress. ... Image File history File links Haengju_Mountain_Fortress. ... Combatants Korean army Japanese army under Toyotomi Hideyoshi Commanders Gwon Yul Cho Geyong Cheo Young Yi Bin Ukita Hideie Kato Kiyomasa Konishi Yukinaga Kuroda Nagamasa Ishida Mitsunari Yoshikawa Hiroie Kobayakawa Takakage Kobayakawa Hideaki Strength 2,000 regular army, 1,000 local monks 30,000 Casualties unknown at least 10,000... Kwon Yúl (권율, 權慄, 1537-1599) was a Korean Army General during the Joseon Dynasty, who led his forces in the Battle of Haengju. ... Kwon Yúl (권율, 權慄, 1537-1599) was a Korean Army General during the Joseon Dynasty, who led his forces in the Battle of Haengju. ...


The Battle of Haengju was an important victory for the Koreans, and celebrated as one of the three most decisive Korean victories; Battle of Haengju, Siege of Jinju (1592), and Battle of Hansando. Combatants Korean army Japanese army under Toyotomi Hideyoshi Commanders Gwon Yul Cho Geyong Cheo Young Yi Bin Ukita Hideie Kato Kiyomasa Konishi Yukinaga Kuroda Nagamasa Ishida Mitsunari Yoshikawa Hiroie Kobayakawa Takakage Kobayakawa Hideaki Strength 2,000 regular army, 1,000 local monks 30,000 Casualties unknown at least 10,000... Combatants Korean army Japanese army under Toyotomi Hideyoshi Commanders Gwon Yul Cho Geyong Cheo Young Yi Bin Ukita Hideie Kato Kiyomasa Konishi Yukinaga Kuroda Nagamasa Ishida Mitsunari Yoshikawa Hiroie Kobayakawa Takakage Kobayakawa Hideaki Strength 2,000 regular army, 1,000 local monks 30,000 Casualties unknown at least 10,000... Combatants Japanese army Korean army,citizens Commanders Hosokawa Tadaoki Kim Shi-Min†, Kwak Jae woo Strength 30,000 soldiers 3,800 soldiers,and citizens Casualties Unknown Unknown Jinju castle (진주성; 晋州城) was the site of two battles during the Imjin War; the first in 1592, and the second in 1593. ... The Battle of Hansan (or Battle of Hansan-do) is regarded as one of the four greatest sea battles of world history. ...


Today, the site of Haengju fortress has a memorial built to honor Kwon Yul. Kwon Yúl (권율, 權慄, 1537-1599) was a Korean Army General during the Joseon Dynasty, who led his forces in the Battle of Haengju. ...


Intervention of Ming China

After the fall of Pyongyang, King Seonjo retreated to Ming China. In July, the Ming Dynasty Emperor Wanli and his advisers took the threat of the Japanese lightly, responding to Korean King Seonjo's request for aid with a mere 5,000 soldiers to help. The Míng Dynasty (Chinese: 明朝; Pinyin: Míng Cháo) was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644. ... Wanli Emperor Birth and death: Sept. ... King Seonjo ruled in Korea between 1567 and 1608. ...


Having seen the initial forces they had sent to Korea wiped out, the Ming Emperor sent a much larger force in January 1593 under the two famous Generals Song Yingchang and Li Rusong. The salvage army had a prescribed strength of 100,000, made up of 42,000 from five northern military districts and a contingent of 3,000 soldiers proficient in the use of firearms from South China. The Ming army was also well armed with artillery pieces. Li Ru-song (Chinese: ; pinyin: Lǐ Rúsòng) (1549-1598) was the Commander-in-chief of the Chinese Ming Empires salvage force to defend Korea at the Korean King Seonjos request in the Imjin War against the Japanese invasion headed by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. ...


In February 1593 a large combined force of Chinese and Korean soldiers attacked Pyongyang and drove the Japanese into eastward retreat. Li Rusong personally led a pursuit with over 20,000 strong troops, along with a small force of Koreans, but was halted near Pyokje by the sally of a large Japanese formation. Pyongyang (평양 / 平壤) is the capital city of North Korea, located in the bottom third (almost direct center) of the country, situated on the Taedong River. ...

Li Rusong's raid on Japanese military rice supply resulted in the retreat of the Japanese from the Korea in the first phase of the Imjin War.
Li Rusong's raid on Japanese military rice supply resulted in the retreat of the Japanese from the Korea in the first phase of the Imjin War.

In late February, Li ordered a raid into the Japanese rear and burned several hundred thousand koku of military rice supply, forcing the Japanese invading army to retreat from Seoul due to the prospect of food shortage. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1181x719, 278 KB)http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1181x719, 278 KB)http://www. ... Li Ru-song (Chinese: ; pinyin: Lǐ Rúsòng) (1549-1598) was the Commander-in-chief of the Chinese Ming Empires salvage force to defend Korea at the Korean King Seonjos request in the Imjin War against the Japanese invasion headed by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. ...


These engagements ended the first phase of the war, and peace negotiations followed. The Japanese evacuated Hanseong in May and retreated to fortifications around Busan. Some Japanese soldiers left the army and settled down in Korea, even marrying Korean women. The ensuing truce was to last for close to four years.


Treaty negotiations

By May 18, 1593, all the Japanese soldiers retreated back to Japan. In the summer of 1593, a Chinese delegation visited Japan and stayed at the court of Hideyoshi for more than a month. The Ming government withdrew most of its expeditionary force, but kept 16,000 men on the Korean peninsula to guard the truce.


Hideyoshi, having suffering numerous setbacks, including logistical problems caused by Korean saboteurs and major naval defeats at the hands of the Korean navy, proposed to China the division of Korea: the north as a self-governing Chinese satellite, and the south to remain in Japanese hands. The peace talks were mostly carried out by Konishi Yukinaga, who did most of the fighting against the Chinese. The offer was promptly rejected. This negotiation was, of course, done out of sight of the Korean Royal Court.


An envoy from Hideyoshi reached Beijing in 1594. Most of the Japanese army had left Korea by autumn 1596; a small garrison was nevertheless left in Busan. Satisfied with the Japanese overtures, the imperial court in Beijing dispatched an embassy to allow retired Regent (Taikō (太閤)) Hideyoshi to have the title of "King of Japan" on condition of complete withdrawal of Japanese forces from Korea. Beijing (Chinese: 北京; Pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; ; IPA: ), a city in northern China (formerly spelled in English as Peking or Peiking), is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ...


The Ming ambassador met Hideyoshi in October 1596 but there was a great deal of misunderstanding about the context of the meeting. Hideyoshi was enraged to learn that China insulted the Emperor of Japan by presuming to cancel the Emperor's divine right to the throne, offering to recognize Hideyoshi instead. To insult the Chinese, he demanded among other things, a royal marriage with the Wanli Emperor's daughter, the delivery of a Korean prince as hostage, and four of Korea's southern provinces.


Peace negotiations soon broke down and the war entered its second phase when Hideyoshi sent another invasion force. Early in 1597, both sides resumed hostilities.


The Second Invasion

Hideyoshi was unsatisfied with the first campaign, and decided to push his luck with another surprisal -only this time, China was out of his reach. Soon after the Chinese embassadors returned safely to China, in 1597, Hideyoshi sent 200 ships with 141,500 troops[2] under the command of Todo Takadora and Kato Yoshiaki[citation needed]. Upon hearing this news, the imperial court in Beijing appointed Yan Hao (楊鎬) as the supreme commander of an initial mobilization of 55,000 troops[2] from various provinces across China, such as Sichuan, Zhejiang, Huguang, Fujian, and Guangdong[citation needed]. A naval force of 21,000 was included in the effort[citation needed]. Rei Huang, a Chinese historian, estimated that the combined strength of the Chinese army and navy at the height of the second campaign was around 75,000[citation needed]. Korean forces totaled 30,000 with General Kwon Yul's (권율) army in Gong mountain (공산) (公山) in Taegu, General Kwon Eung's (권응) troops in Kyeongju (경주), General Kwak Jaewoo's (곽재우) soldiers in Changnyung (창녕), army under Yi Boknam (이복남) in Naju, and Yi Siyun's troops in Choong Poong-ryung.[2] Katō Yoshiaki (1563-1631)(加藤義明) was one of Toyotomi Hideyoshis top generals, and commanded elements of Hideyoshis fleet in his invasions of Korea and campaigns in Kyushu. ... (Chinese: 四川; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ssu-ch`uan; Postal Pinyin: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... Zhejiang (Chinese: 浙江; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Che-chiang; Postal System Pinyin: Chehkiang or Chekiang) is an eastern coastal province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Huguang (Simplified Chinese: 湖广; Traditional Chinese: 湖廣; Hanyu Pinyin: ) was a province of China during the Ming Dynasty. ... Fujian (Chinese: 福建; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal System Pinyin: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of China. ... Guangdong (Simplified Chinese: 广东; Traditional Chinese: 廣東; Pinyin: GuÇŽngdōng; Wade-Giles: Kuang-tung; Postal System Pinyin: Kwangtung or Canton Province, Jyutping: gwong2 dung1), is a province on the south coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Ray Huang (Simplified Chinese: 黄仁宇; June 25, 1918–2000) was a Chinese historian. ... Kwon Yúl (권율, 權慄, 1537-1599) was a Korean Army General during the Joseon Dynasty, who led his forces in the Battle of Haengju. ... Daegu Metropolitan City is the third largest city in South Korea. ... Naju (Naju-si) is a city in South Jeolla Province, South Korea. ...


Initial Offensive

The Japanese planned to attack the Cholla Province in the southwestern part of the peninsula, and eventually occupy Chonju, the provincial capital. Korean success in Siege of Jinju (1592) had saved this area from further devastation during the first invasion. But this time, Japanese commanders wanted to capture this area. Two Japanese armies, under Mori Hidemoto and Ukita Hideie, began the assault in Busan and marched towards Chonju, taking Sacheon and Changpyong along the way. Jeollanam-do (South Jeolla) is a province in the southwest of South Korea. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Second Siege of Jinju was a battle during 1593 in the Seven-Year War at Jinju Fort, Korea, between Japan and Korea. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Ukita Hideie (宇喜多秀家, 1573-1655) was the daimyo of Bizen and Mimasaka provinces (modern Okayama Prefecture), and one of the council of five regents appointed by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. ...


The overall objective of the Japanese changed as well: annexing Korea was their only objective.


Siege of Namwon

Main article Siege of Namwon // Background The Forces : Chinese-Korean forces Ming-Chinese forces 3,000 men: Yang Yuan Korean forces 1,300 (?) men: Yi Pok-nam Yi Chun-won Shin Ho Kim Kyung-no Miscellaneous : Jung Kwi-won Oh Ung-jung Im Hyun Yi Duk-hwae Japanese besiegers forces Southern sector : Ukita...


Namwon was located 30 miles southeast from Chonju. It was the largest fortress[citation needed] in the Cholla Province, and a coalition force of 6,000 soldiers (including 3,000 Chinese)[citation needed] and civilian volunteers were readied to fight the approaching Japanese forces. The Japanese laid siege to the walls of the fortress with ladders and siege towers[citation needed]. The two sides exchanged volleys of arquebuses and bows. Eventually the Japanese forces scaled the walls and sacked the fotress. The Siege of Namwon resulted in 4,000 casualties[citation needed] to the Korean and Chinese forces. The entire Jeolla Province fell under the Japanese control. Namwon (Namwon-si) is a city in North Jeolla Province, South Korea. ... // Background The Forces : Chinese-Korean forces Ming-Chinese forces 3,000 men: Yang Yuan Korean forces 1,300 (?) men: Yi Pok-nam Yi Chun-won Shin Ho Kim Kyung-no Miscellaneous : Jung Kwi-won Oh Ung-jung Im Hyun Yi Duk-hwae Japanese besiegers forces Southern sector : Ukita...


Battle of Hwangsoksan

Main article Battle of Hwangsoksan


Hwangsoksan fotress consisted of extensive walls that circumscribed the Hwangsok mountain, and garrisoned thousands of soldiers led by a guerilla leader Kwak Chae-u. When Kato Kiyomasa laid siege on the mountain with a colossal army, the Koreans lost morale and retreated with 350 casualties. Statue of Kato Kiyomasa in front of Kumamoto Castle Katō Kiyomasa (加藤清正, Katō Kiyomasa, July 25, 1562-August 2, 1611) was a daimyō during the Azuchi-Momoyama and Edo periods of Japanese history. ...


Korean Naval Operations in 1597

The Korean navy played a crucial part in the second invasion, as well as the first. The Japanese advances were halted due to the lack of reinforcements and supplies[citation needed], as the frequent naval victories by the Korean naval fleet prevented the Japanese from reinforcing their miliary in the western side of the Korean peninsula[citation needed]. Also, China sent a large number of Chinese fleets to aid the Koreans. This made the Korean navy an even bigger threat to the Japanese, since they had to fight a larger enemy fleet.


The war at sea initially took off on a bad start when Won Gyun took Admiral Yi's place as commander. a jackass ...


Because Admiral Yi, the commander of the Korean navy, was so able in naval warfare, the Japanese plotted to demote him by making use of the laws that governed the Korean military. A Japanese double agent working for the Koreans falsely reported that Japanese General Kato Kiyomasa would be coming on a certain date with great Japanese fleet on another attack on Korean shores, and insisted that Admiral Yi be sent to lay an ambush[citation needed]. Statue of Kato Kiyomasa in front of Kumamoto Castle Katō Kiyomasa (加藤清正, Katō Kiyomasa, July 25, 1562-August 2, 1611) was a daimyō during the Azuchi-Momoyama and Edo periods of Japanese history. ...


Knowing that the area had sunken rocks detrimental for the ships, Admiral Yi refused, and for refusing instruction from higher command he was demoted and jailed by King Seonjo. Added to that, Admiral Won Gyun accused Admiral Yi for drinking and idling. Won Gyun was quickly put in Admiral Yi's place. Won Gyun's place of Admiral Yi would soon bring the destruction of the Korean navy at Chilchonryang. King Seonjo ruled in Korea between 1567 and 1608. ...


Battle of Chilchonryang

On August 28, 1597, a Japanese fleet engaged the entire Korean navy at Chilchonryang strait, and the battle resulted in 157 sunken Korean ships and 20,000 casualties[citation needed]. Won Gyun and his remaining army were killed after he struggled ashore to a Japanese fort. Only 13 Korean warships survived the battle and retreated to Yosu. The area around the Korea Strait was then under the Japanese control. August 28 is the 240th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (241st in leap years), with 125 days remaining. ... Events 17 January - A court case in Guildford recorded evidence that a certain plot of land was used for playing “kreckett” (i. ... The Battle of Chilchonryang was a naval conflict in the Seven-Year War. ... The Korea Strait is a sea passage between South Korea and Japan, connecting the East China Sea and the Sea of Japan (East Sea) in northwest Pacific Ocean. ...


Battle of Myeongnyang

Main article Battle of Myeongnyang In the Battle of Myeongnyang, on October, 26 1597, the Korean admiral Yi Sun-sin fought the Japanese navy at sea in Myeongnyang Strait, near modern-day Jindo Island. ...


After the debacle in Chilchonryang, King Seonjo reinstated Admiral Yi. Yi quickly re-organized the navy now reduced to 13 ships and 200 men[citation needed], and, on September 16, 1597, he led the Korean fleet against a Japanese fleet of 333[citation needed] in the Myeongnyang Strait. The naval Battle of Myeongnyang resulted in Korean victory with at least 123 Japanese vessels sunk, and the Japanese were forced to return to Pusan[citation needed]. Admiral Yi won back the control of the Korean shores. King Seonjo ruled in Korea between 1567 and 1608. ... September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... Events 17 January - A court case in Guildford recorded evidence that a certain plot of land was used for playing “kreckett” (i. ... The Myeongnyang Strait, just off the southwest corner of South Korea, separates Jindo Island from the mainland. ... In the Battle of Myeongnyang, on October, 26 1597, the Korean admiral Yi Sun-sin fought the Japanese navy at sea in Myeongnyang Strait, near modern-day Jindo Island. ... Pūsan is also a Vedic Hindu god. ...


Siege of Ulsan

Main article: Siege of Ulsan // Background Ulsan Japanese Castle under Chinese-Korean allied troops attacks First Siege of Ulsan (1598 1st month 4th day of Chinese Calendar) Chinese-Korean besiegers forces Korean forces : Gwon Yul (Hangul : 권율 Hanja : 權慄) Chinese forces : Yang Hao (Hangul : 양호 Hanja : 楊鎬) Japanese forces Aftermath Second Siege of Ulsan (1598 9th month 25th...


By late 1597, Japanese forces were very near Hansung (present-day Seoul), and behind them was a trail of devastation. They defeated the Korean forces at Chiksan and Sangju, and laid siege on Kyongju. After the news of the loss at Myeongnyang, Japanese commanders decided to destroy Kyongju completely. Already having been sacked and looted in the first invasion, the city was burnt down by the Japanese soldiers in a revengeful raid. The Japanese retreated south to Ulsan[citation needed].


Yet Admiral Yi's control of the areas over the Korea strait permitted no supply ships to reach the western side of the Korean peninsula. Without provisions and reinforcements, the Japanese forces had to remain in the coastal fortresses that they still controlled. To gain advantage of the situation, the Chinese and Korean coalition forces attacked Ulsan, a major Japanese stronghold. This siege was the first major offensive from the Chinese and Korean forces in the second phase of the war.


A river around the fortress in Ulsan prevented the allied forces from laying siege on the fortress from all sides[citation needed]. A total of around 36,000 with the help of singijeons and hwachas nearly succeeded in sacking the fortress, but reinforcements under Kato Kiyomasa came across the river to aid their allies[citation needed] and prolonged the siege. Later, Japanese were running out of food and the victory was imminent for the Korean and Chinese forces. Singijeon is a Korean gunpowder artillery weapon, first built in 1448 A.D. and used during the Joseon period. ... A Hwacha in the grounds of Deoksu Palace. ... Statue of Kato Kiyomasa in front of Kumamoto Castle Katō Kiyomasa (加藤清正, Katō Kiyomasa, July 25, 1562-August 2, 1611) was a daimyō during the Azuchi-Momoyama and Edo periods of Japanese history. ...


Battle of Sacheon

Main article Battle of Sacheon (1598) To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


During the winter of 1597, the Chinese and Korean allies repelled the Japanese forces from reaching Hansung (present-day Seoul). Now there was no hope for the Japanese to conquer the Korean peninsula; therefore, Japanese forces began to prepare to retreat. From the beginning of spring in 1598, the Korean forces and 100,000 Chinese soldier prepared to retake castles on the coastal areas. The Wanli Emperor of China sent a fleet under the artillery expert Chen Lin in May 1598; this naval force saw action in joint exercises with the Koreans against the Japanese navy. And in June 1598, under Commander Konishi Yukinage's warning of the dire situations in the campaign, withdreww 70,000 troops and left 60,000 -mostly Satsuma warriors under Shimazu clan commanders[citation needed]. The remaining Japanese forces fought desperately, turning back Chinese attacks on Suncheon and Sacheon as the Ming army amassed more troops to prepare for a final assault. Wanli Emperor (September 4, 1563 - August 18, 1620) was emperor of China (Ming dynasty) between 1572 and 1620. ... Chen Lin a minister during the Three Kingdoms Period of China. ... Satsuma (薩摩国; -no Kuni) was an old province of Japan that is now the western half of Kagoshima prefecture on the island of Kyushu. ... Grave of Satsuma clan at Mount Koya. ...


Death of Hideyoshi

On 18 September 1598, Hideyoshi died, and the council of five regents immediately decided to withdraw the remaining Japanese army from imminent destruction. The council was clandestine about Hideyoshi's death because they feared that, upon hearing the news, the Japanese soldiers' morale would plummet even more and panick. The decree for withdrawal was sent to the Japanese commanders late in October. The council of five regents, also known as the five Tairō (五大老 go-tairō), was formed by Toyotomi Hideyoshi to rule Japan in the place of his son, Hideyori, until such time as he came of age. ...


Battle of Noryang Point

The battle at Noryang was the fateful day when Admiral Yi was shot and killed. In the picture, Admiral Yi can be seen on the ground while the Koreans are fighting.
The battle at Noryang was the fateful day when Admiral Yi was shot and killed. In the picture, Admiral Yi can be seen on the ground while the Koreans are fighting.

Main article Battle of Noryang Point Image File history File links Noryang. ... Image File history File links Noryang. ... Combatants Fleet of Toyotomi Hideyoshi Korean navy Commanders Shimazu Yoshihiro Wakizaka Yasuharu Konishi Yukinaga Yi Sun-sin† Chen Lin Strength 600 ships 80 Korean ships & 63 Chinese ships Casualties 550 ships completely destroyed Unknown, but a significantly smaller number of casualties, including Admiral Yi Sun-Sin The Battle of Noryang...


Noryang Point was the final naval battle in the war. The Korean navy under Admiral Yi had recovered from its losses and was aided by the Chinese navy under Chen Lin. Intelligence revealed that 500[citation needed] Japanese ships were anchored in the narrow straits of Noryang in order to withdraw the remaining Japanese troops. Noting the narrow geography of the area, Admiral Yi and the Chen Lin led a surprise attack against the Japanese fleet at dawn on December 16, 1598. Chen Lin a minister during the Three Kingdoms Period of China. ... December 16 is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ...


The allied fleet fired volleys of cannons and fire arrows against the resting Japanese fleet. The Japanese fleet hurriedly prepared and sailed toward the allied fleet through the strait. It suffered much devastation from the bombardments as the ships became concentrated into bundles, due to narrowness of the strait. As mentioned above, Japanese cannon technology was far more inferior to that of the Korean and Chinese; therefore, they could not return any fire. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


As the Japanese ships became nearer, Chen Lin ordered the Chinese fleet to engage in melee combat. Fierce battle ensued and the Japanese began to suffer when Admiral Yi's fleet began to send mortars into their ships. When General Chen Lin's flagship was threatened, Admiral Yi came to aid with his ship. By dawn, nearly half of Japanese battle ships were destroyed; as the Japanese began to retreat, Admiral Yi ordered the final charge to destroy the remaining few. Admiral Yi's flagship sped foward. It was then when Admiral Yi was shot. Only 3 nearby captains, including his cousin, saw his death. Admiral Yi told his captains to keep his death secret and to continue the battle so that the morale of the soldiers would not drop.


The battle ended with Korean and Chinese victorious over the Japanese who lost more than 200 ships. Only after the battle did the soldiers learn of Admiral Yi's death, and it is said that Chen Lin lamented that Admiral Yi died in place of him[3].


Aftermath

The Imjin War left deep scars in Korea. Farmlands were devastated, irrigation dikes were destroyed, villages and towns were burned down, the population was first plundered and then dispersed, and many skilled workers (celadonware makers, craftsmen, artisans, etc) were kidnapped and brought to Japan to help develop and expand Japan's crafts during the war. Alternate meaning: Celadon (color) Celadon funerary jar from the Three Kingdoms period Celadon is a type of pottery having a pale green glaze. ...


In 1598 alone, the Japanese took some 38,000 ears as gruesome trophies. The long war reduced the productive capacity of farmlands from 1,708,000 kyol to 541,000 kyol.[citation needed] Many of captured Korean children were eventually sold as slaves to Portuguese traders, and sold to various European colonies over the world.[citation needed]


With its tremendous military losses, Japan was discouraged from waging wars abroad again for the next three centuries. Hideyoshi's much weakened military machine also led to the country's takeover by Tokugawa Ieyasu after his death. Ming Dynasty had to put in an enormous amount of human and material resources in this bloody war in Korea, which contributed to empty the State Treasury and aggravated its difficulties in defending its northeastern border against the emerging power of Manchu.


Following the war, relations between Korea and Japan were completely suspended. After the death of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, however, negotiations between the Korean court and the Tokugawa shogunate were carried out via the Japanese lord on Tsushima Island, So Yoshitoshi. The So clan needed to restore commercial relations with Korea. Tokugawa Ieyasu also hoped to make peace with Korea. The Tokugawa shogunate or Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) (also known as the Edo bakufu) was a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. ... Tsushima Island (対馬 Tsushima) is an island situated wholly in the Korea Strait, lying at 34°00N and 129°00E. It is part of Nagasaki Prefecture of Japan and is its largest island. ... So Yoshitoshi ) (1568-1615) was the Japanese Lord of Tsushima Island. ... Sō (宗氏 Sō shi) was a Japanese clan that ruled the Tsushima Islands from the Kamakura period to the end of the Edo period. ... Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu Tokugawa Ieyasu (previously spelled Iyeyasu); 徳川 家康 (January 31, 1543 – June 1, 1616) was the founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan which ruled from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until the Meiji Restoration in 1868. ...


In 1604, Tokugawa Ieyasu met Korea's demands and released some 3,000 captives.[citation needed] As a result, in 1607, a Korean mission visited Edo and diplomatic and trade relations were restored on a limited basis. Edo (Japanese: 江戸, literally: bay-door, estuary, pronounced //), once also spelled Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of the Japanese capital Tokyo. ...


References

  1. ^ The University Record, February 22, 1999. Imjin War diaries are memorial of invasions for Koreans
  2. ^ a b c 브리태니커백과사전. 정유재란 (丁酉再亂)
  3. ^ pg. 111 Woongjinweewinjungi #14 Yi Sun-shin by Baek Sukgi. (C) Woongjin Publishing Co., Ltd.

See also

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... There were many battles during the Imjin War. ... Joseon dynasty court architecture This article is about the history of Korea, through the division of Korea before the Korean War. ... This is a list of Wikipedia articles on Korea-related people, places, things, and concepts. ... Korea has a long military history going back several thousand years, with an extensive series of wars that involved invasions, civil discord, counter-piracy actions against medieval Japan, the first use of armoured battleships in seabattles, and the devastation of rebellions against the Joseon era Japanese invasions, the forced peace... The military history of Japan is characterized by a long period of feudal wars, followed by domestic stability, and then foreign conquest. ... Li Ru-song (Chinese: ; pinyin: Lǐ Rúsòng) (1549-1598) was the Commander-in-chief of the Chinese Ming Empires salvage force to defend Korea at the Korean King Seonjos request in the Imjin War against the Japanese invasion headed by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. ... Hideyoshi in old age. ... Yi Sun-sin (April 18, 1545 — December 16, 1598), was a famous Korean naval leader. ... This is a list of lists of wars, sorted by country, date, region, and type of conflict. ... The Bukgwan Victory Monument (북관대첩비, Bukgwandaecheopbi in Korean: ) is a stone stela commemorating a series of Korean military victories between 1592 and 1594 against the invading army of Japan during the Seven-Year War. ... The Ming Dynasty (Chinese: 明朝; Pinyin: míng cháo) was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, though claims to the Ming throne (now collectively called the Southern Ming) survived until 1662. ...

External links


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