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Encyclopedia > Imam Shamil
Imam Shamil

Imam Shamil (1797 – March 1871) was an Avar political and religious leader of the Muslim tribes of the Northern Caucasus. He was a leader of anti-Russian resistance in the Caucasian War and was the third Imam of Dagestan and Chechnya (1834-1859). Imam Shamil of Chechnya Used with permission from [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Imam Shamil of Chechnya Used with permission from [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Avars or Caucasian Avars are a modern people of Caucasus, mainly of Dagestan, in which they are the predominant group. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Southern Federal District (Northern Caucasus) is one of the seven federal districts of Russia. ... Construction of the Georgian Military Road through disputed territories was a key factor in the eventual Russian success A Scene from the Caucasian War, by Franz Roubaud Russian Invasion of the Caucasus, better known in Russia as the Caucasian War of 1817-1864, was a series of military actions of... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Republic of Dagestan IPA: (Russian: ; Avar: , ), older spelling Daghestan, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... The Chechen Republic (IPA: ; Russian: , Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: , Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (; Russian: ; Chechen: , Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Noxçiyn, is a federal subject of Russia. ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Contents

Life

Capture of Shamil, by Franz Roubaud.

Imam Shamil was born in 1797 in the small village of Gimry which is in current-day Dagestan, Russia. His father was a free landlord, and this position allowed Shamil and close friends Ghazi Mullah to study many subjects including Arabic and logic. Shamil also joined the Naqshbandi Mujaddidy Khalidiya Sufi order, and established himself as a well-respected and educated man among other Muslims of the Caucasus. Image File history File links Rubo_shamil. ... Image File history File links Rubo_shamil. ... Franz Alekseevitch Roubaud was a Russian painter. ... Gimri is a small village in the mountains of Dagestan, a republic within the Russian federation. ... The Republic of Dagestan IPA: (Russian: ; Avar: , ), older spelling Daghestan, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Ghazi Mullah (Russian: Кази-Мулла, Kazi-Mulla, 1795 - 1832) was an Avarian Islamic scholar who was the first Imam of Dagestan (from 1829 to 1832). ... “Arabic” redirects here. ... Naqshbandi (Naqshbandiyya) is one of the major Sufi orders (tariqa) of Islam. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ...


Shamil was born at a time when the Russian Empire was expanding into the territories of the Ottoman Empire and Persia (see Russo-Persian War (1804-1813) and Russo-Turkish War). Following the Russian invasion, many Caucasian nations united in resistance to harsh Tsarist rule in what became known as the Caucasian War. Some of the earlier leaders of Caucasian resistance were Sheikh Mansur, and Ghazi Mollah. Shamil was actually childhood friends with Mollah, and would become his disciple. The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Persia redirects here. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... The Russo-Turkish Wars were a series of ten wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Turkish-ruled Ottoman Empire during the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. ... Construction of the Georgian Military Road through disputed territories was a key factor in the eventual Russian success A Scene from the Caucasian War, by Franz Roubaud Russian Invasion of the Caucasus, better known in Russia as the Caucasian War of 1817-1864, was a series of military actions of... The Ethnolinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map This article concerns the geographic region. ... Sheikh Al Mansur (The Leader) was a Chechen leader who lead the resistance against Catherine the Greats imperialist expansion into the Caucasus during the late 18th century. ... Ghazi Mollah, also known as Ghazi Mohammed (Кази-Мулла, Гази-Магомед in Russian) (1795-1832) was the first imam of Dagestan and Chechnya (1828). ...


In 1834, Ghazi Mollah died at the battle of Ghimri, and Shamil took his place as the premier leader of the Caucasian resistance and the Imam of the Naqshbandi Mujadidyi Khalidiya Tariqat. In 1839 (June-August), Shamil and his followers, numbering about 4000 men, women and children found themselves under siege in their mountain stronghold of Akhoulgo, nestled in the bend of the Andee Koisou River, about ten miles east of Gimry. This epic siege of the war lasted eighty days, resulting finally in a Russian victory. The Russians suffered about 3000 casualties in taking the stronghold, while the rebels were almost entirely slaughtered after extremely bitter fighting where typical of the war, no quarter was either asked or given. Shamil and a small party of his closest followers, including some family miraculously managed to escape down the cliffs and through the Russian siege lines during the final days at Akhoulgo. Following his escape he once again set about regaining his following and resisting the Russian occupation. Shamil was effective at uniting the many, frequently quarreling, Caucasian tribes to fight against the Russians. He made effective use of guerrilla warfare tactics and the resistance continued under his leadership until 1859. On August 25, 1859 Shamil and his family surrendered to Russian forces and were jailed in the Dagestan aoul of Gunib. Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Ghazi Mollah, also known as Ghazi Mohammed (Кази-Мулла, Гази-Магомед in Russian) (1795-1832) was the first imam of Dagestan and Chechnya (1828). ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups, dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country or the government of a sovereign nation through either the use of physical force, or nonviolence. ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... An aoul (derived from Tatar language awıl) is a type of fortified village found throughout the Caucasus mountains, especially in Dagestan. ... Gunib Gunib (also spelled as Ghunib), village in Daghestan. ...

The commemorative plaque to Imam Shamil marking the former location of the mansion afforded to him in Kiev.

After his capture, Shamil was sent to Saint Petersburg to meet the Emperor Alexander II. Afterwards he was exiled to Kaluga, then a small town near Moscow. After several years in Kaluga he complained to the authorities about the climate and in December, 1868 Shamil received the permission to move to Kiev, a commercial center of the Empire's southwest. In Kiev he was afforded a mansion at the Aleksandrovskaya Street. The Imperial authorities ordered the Kievan superintendent to keep Shamil under "strict but not overly burdensome surveillance" and allotted the city a significant sum for the needs of the exilee. Shamil seemed to have liked his luxurious detainment as well as the city as confirmed the letters he sent from Kiev.[1] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (768 × 1024 pixel, file size: 151 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)The commemorative plaque to Imam Shamil marking the location of the house allotted to him at Aleksandrovskaya Street (now Hrushevsky Street) in Kiev. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (768 × 1024 pixel, file size: 151 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)The commemorative plaque to Imam Shamil marking the location of the house allotted to him at Aleksandrovskaya Street (now Hrushevsky Street) in Kiev. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St. ... Konstantin Tsiolkovsky State Museum of the History of Cosmonautics in Kaluga, built in 1967 Kaluga (Калу́га in Russian) is a city in central Russia on the Oka River 188 km southwest of Moscow, administrative center of Kaluga Oblast. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ...


In 1869 he was given a permission to take Hajj to the holy city of Mecca. He traveled there by ship from Kiev through Odessa and Istanbul. He died in Medina in 1871 while visiting the city, and was buried in the Jannatul Baqi which is also the site where many important personalities from Islamic history are buried. His two sons (Cemaleddin and Muhammed Şefi) became officers in the Russian army, while two other sons (Muhammed Gazi and Muhammed Kamil) served in the Turkish army. 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... This article is about the Islamic tradition. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... The ODESSA, which stands for the German phrase Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, which phrase in turn translates as “Organization of Former Members of the SS,” is the name commonly given to an international Nazi network alleged to have been set up towards the end of World War II... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Jannat al-Baqi (also spelt Jannat ul-Baqi) is a famous cemetery in Madinah, located right across from the Masjid al-Nabawi. ...


Shamil continues to be revered in the Caucasus for his resistance to the Russians, and is held up as a role-model by those leading the current fight against Russian control of the region.


References

  1. ^ Андрей Манчук, Шамиль на печерских холмах, "Газета по-киевски", 06.09.2007

Further reading

  • Grigol Robakidze. "Imam Shamil". Kaukasische Novellen, Leipzig, 1932; Munich, 1979 (in German)
  • Lesley Blanch. The Sabres of Paradise. New York: Viking Press. 1960.
  • Nicholas Griffin. Caucasus: Mountain Men and Holy Wars
  • Leo Tolstoy. Hadji Murat
  • The Russian conquest of the Caucasus / John F. Baddeley (1908).

Girgol Robakidze Grigol Robakidze (Georgian: ) (1882 – 1962) was a Georgian writer, publicist, and public figure primarily known for his exotic prose and anti-Soviet émigré activities. ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy(Lyof, Lyoff) (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , IPA:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ... Hadji Murat (sometimes written as Murad, but only the given spelling here captures the phoneme of the original Russian) was a short novel written by Leo Tolstoy from 1896-1904 and published after his death, in the year 1912. ...

External links

  • The Jihad of Imam Shamil
  • The Song of Shamil; also, video of the song

  Results from FactBites:
 
Imam Shamil - Biocrawler (492 words)
Imam Shamil (1797 - March 1871) was a Daghestani Avar political and religious leader of the Muslims of the Northern Caucasus.
Imam Shamil was born in 1797 in the small village of Gimry which is in current-day Daghestan.
Shamil continues to be revered in the Caucasus for his resistance to the Russians, and is held up as a role-model by those leading the current fight against Russian control of the region.
Imam Shamil (457 words)
Imam Shamil was born around 1797 in the town of Gimry which is in current-day Daghestan.
Indeed, Shamil made effective use of guerilla warfare tactics and the resistance was only ended when the Russians deployed half a million troops and reduced the forces of Shamil down to the hundreds.
Shamil continues to be revered in the Caucasus for his resitance to the Russians, and is held up as a role-model by those leading the current fight against Russian control of the region.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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