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Encyclopedia > Imagism
Ezra Pound was one of the prime movers of Imagism.

Imagism was a movement in early 20th-century Anglo-American poetry that favored precision of imagery, and clear, sharp language. The Imagists rejected the sentiment and artifice typical of much Romantic and Victorian poetry. This was in contrast to their contemporaries, the Georgian poets, who were by and large content to work within that tradition. Group publication of work under the Imagist name appearing between 1914 and 1917 featured writing by many of the most significant figures in modernist poetry in English, as well as a number of other Modernist figures prominent in fields other than poetry. Ezra pound in 1913 from http://www. ... Ezra pound in 1913 from http://www. ... Ezra Pound in 1913. ... Imagery is any of the five senses (sight, touch, smell, hearing, and taste). ... The Georgian poets were, by the strictest definition, those whose works appeared in a series of five anthologies named Georgian Poetry, published by Harold Monro and edited by Edward Marsh. ... a poem, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock, which brought him to prominence. ... This article focuses on the cultural movement labeled modernism or the modern movement. See also: Modernism (Roman Catholicism) or Modernist Christianity; Modernismo for specific art movement(s) in Spain and Catalonia. ...


Based in London, the Imagists were drawn from Britain, Ireland and the United States. Somewhat unusually for the time, the Imagists featured a number of women writers among their major figures. Imagism is also significant historically as the first organised Modernist English language literary movement or group. In the words of T.S. Eliot: "The point de repère usually and conveniently taken as the starting-point of modern poetry is the group denominated 'imagists' in London about 1910."[1] a poem, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock, which brought him to prominence. ... Thomas Stearns Eliot (September 26, 1888 - January 4, 1965), was a major Modernist Anglo-American poet, dramatist, and literary critic. ...


At the time Imagism emerged, Longfellow and Tennyson were considered the paragons of poetry, and the public valued the sometimes moralising tone of their writings. In contrast, Imagism called for a return to what were seen as more Classical values, such as directness of presentation and economy of language, as well as a willingness to experiment with non-traditional verse forms. The focus on the "thing" as "thing" (an attempt at isolating a single image to reveal its essence) also mirrors contemporary developments in avant-garde art, especially Cubism. Although Imagism isolates objects through the use of what Ezra Pound called "luminous details", Pound's Ideogrammic Method of juxtaposing concrete instances to express an abstraction is similar to Cubism's manner of synthesizing multiple perspectives into a single image. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (February 27, 1807 – March 24, 1882) was an American poet whose works include Paul Reveres Ride, A Psalm of Life, The Song of Hiawatha and Evangeline. He also wrote the first American translation of Dante Alighieris Divine Comedy and was one of the five members... Alfred, Lord Tennyson Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (6 August 1809 – 6 October 1892) was Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom and is one of the most popular English poets. ... Moralism is the philosophy of adherence to morality, created by Max Shapiro, of 20th century Los Angeles. ... A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... Pablo Picasso, Le guitariste, 1910 Juan Gris, Portrait of Picasso, 1912, oil on canvas Georges BraqueWoman with a guitar, 1913 Juan Gris, Still Life with Fruit Dish and Mandolin, 1919, oil on canvas Cubist villa in Prague, Czech Republic Cubist House of the Black Madonna, Prague, Czech Republic, 1912 Cubism... Ezra Pound in 1913. ... The Ideogrammic Method was an technique expounded by Ezra Pound which allowed poetry to deal with abstract content through concrete images. ...

Contents

Pre-Imagism

In the first ten years of the 20th century, Alfred Austin was the serving British Poet Laureate. Poetry still had a large audience, and volumes of verse published during the decade included Thomas Hardy's The Dynasts, Christina Rossetti's posthumous Poetical Works, Ernest Dowson's Poems, George Meredith's Last Poems, Robert Service's Ballads of a Cheechako and John Masefield's Ballads and Poems. Future Nobel Prize winner William Butler Yeats was devoting much of his energy to the Abbey Theatre and writing for the stage, producing relatively little lyric poetry during this period. In 1907, the Nobel Prize for Literature was awarded to Rudyard Kipling. Alfred Austin Alfred Austin (May 3, 1835 – 1913) was an English poet, who was appointed Poet Laureate in 1896 upon the death of Tennyson. ... A Poet Laureate is a poet officially appointed by a government and often expected to compose poems for State occasions and other government events. ... Thomas Hardy redirects here. ... Christina Rossetti Christina Georgina Rossetti (December 5, 1830 – December 29, 1894) was an English poet. ... Ernest Christopher Dowson (2 August 1867-23 February 1900), an English poet who was associated with the Decadent Movement, was born at Lee, south-east of London. ... George Meredith, OM (February 12, 1828 – May 18, 1909) was an English novelist and poet. ... Robert W. Service Robert William Service (January 16, 1874 – September 11, 1958) was a poet and writer. ... John Edward Masefield, OM, (1 June 1878 – 12 May 1967), was an English poet and writer, and Poet Laureate from 1930 until his death in 1967. ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... William Butler Yeats, 1933. ... This article is about the Abbey Theatre, Dublin. ... This article is about the British author. ...


The origins of Imagism are to be found in two poems, Autumn and A City Sunset by T. E. Hulme.[2] These were published in January 1909 by the Poets' Club in London in a booklet called For Christmas MDCCCCVIII. Hulme was a student of mathematics and philosophy; he had been involved in the setting up of the Club in 1908 and was its first secretary. Around the end of 1908 he presented his paper A Lecture on Modern Poetry at one of the Club's meetings.[3] Writing in A. R. Orage's magazine The New Age, the poet and critic F. S. Flint (a champion of free verse and modern French poetry) was highly critical of the club and its publications. From the ensuing debate, Hulme and Flint became close friends. In 1909, Hulme left the Poets' Club, and started meeting with Flint and other poets in a new group which Hulme referred to as the 'Secession Club'; they met at the Eiffel Tower restaurant in London's Soho[4] to discuss plans to reform contemporary poetry through free verse and the tanka and haiku and the removal of all unnecessary verbiage from poems. The interest in Japanese verse forms can be placed in a context of the late Victorian and Edwardian revival of interest in Chinoiserie and Japonism as witnessed in the 1890s vogue for William Anderson's Japanese prints donated to the British Museum, performances of Noh plays in London, and the success of Gilbert and Sullivan's operetta The Mikado (1885). Direct literary models were available from a number of sources, including F. V. Dickins’s 1866 Hyak nin is’shiu, or, Stanzas by a Century of Poets, Being Japanese Lyrical Odes, the first English-language version of the Hyakunin isshu, a 13th century anthology of 100 tanka, the early 20th-century critical writings and poems of Sadakichi Hartmann, and contemporary French-language translations. Thomas Ernest Hulme (September 16, 1883 – 28 September 1917) was an English writer, who during his informal tenure from 1909 as critic for The New Age, edited by A. R. Orage, exerted a notable influence on London modernism. ... The Poets Club was a group devoted to the discussion of poetry. ... A Lecture on Modern Poetry was a paper by T. E. Hulme which was read to the Poets Club around the end of 1908. ... Alfred Richard Orage was a socialist known for editing the magazine New Age. ... Frank Stuart Flint (December 19, 1885 - February 28, 1960) was an English poet and translator who was a prominent member of the Imagist group. ... See Waka (disambiguation) for other usages. ... Grave of the Japanese poet Yosa Buson Waka and Kanshi, Chinese poetry written in Chinese, were the two great pillars of traditional Japanese poetry. ... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her ascension to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... The Edwardian period or Edwardian era in the United Kingdom is the period 1901 to 1910, the reign of King Edward VII. It is sometimes extended to include the period to the start of World War I in 1914 or even the end of the war in 1918. ... Chinese House (Potsdam) Chinoiserie[1] refers to a recurring theme in European artistic styles since the seventeenth century, which reflects Chinese art and is characterized by the use of fanciful imagery of an imaginary China, by asymmetry in format and whimsical contrasts of scale, and by the attempts to imitate... Van Gogh - Portrait of Pere Tanguy Example of ukiyo-e influence in Western art Japonism (also in French Japonisme and Japonaiserie) is the influence of Japanese art on Western, primarily French, artists. ... William Anderson (1842 - 1900), was a British surgeon and collector of Japanese art. ... The British Museum in London, England is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... W. S. Gilbert Arthur Sullivan Gilbert and Sullivan refers to the Victorian era partnership of librettist W. S. Gilbert (1836–1911) and composer Arthur Sullivan (1842–1900). ... The Mikado, or The Town of Titipu, is a comic opera in two acts, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert, their ninth of fourteen operatic collaborations. ... Frederick Victor Dickins (1838-1915) was a British surgeon, barrister, orientalist and university administrator. ... Monument commemorating 700th anniversary of Teikas death The Hyakunin Isshu (百人一首) is an anthology of waka poems. ... Carl Sadakichi Hartmann (1867-1944) was a critic and poet of German and Japanese descent. ...


The American poet Ezra Pound was introduced to the group in April 1909, and found that their ideas were close to his own. In particular, Pound's studies of Romantic literature had led him to an admiration of the condensed, direct expression that he detected in the writings of Arnaut Daniel, Dante, and Guido Cavalcanti, amongst others. For example, in his 1911–12 series of essays I gather the limbs of Osiris, Pound writes of Daniel's line "pensar de lieis m'es repaus" ("it rests me to think of her") (from the canzone En breu brizara'l temps braus): "You cannot get statement simpler than that, or clearer, or less rhetorical".[5] These criteria of directness, clarity and lack of rhetoric were to be amongst the defining qualities of Imagist poetry. Through his friendship with Laurence Binyon, Pound had already developed an interest in Japanese art and he quickly became absorbed in the study of Japanese verse forms. Arnaut Danièl was a Provençal troubadour of the 13th century, praised by Dante as il miglior fabbro (the better craftsman/creator, literally the best smith) and called Grand Master of Love by Petrarch. ... DANTE is also a digital audio network. ... Cavalcanti and Dante Guido Cavalcanti (c. ... Literally song in Italian, a canzone (plural: canzoni) (cognate with English to chant) is an Italian or Provençal song or ballad. ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... Robert Laurence Binyon (August 10, 1869 at Lancaster – March 10, 1943 at Reading, Berkshire) was an English poet, dramatist and art scholar. ... Bronze statue of Amida Buddha at Kotokuin in Kamakura (1252 A.D.) Japanese art covers a wide range of art styles and media, including ancient pottery, sculpture in wood and bronze, ink painting on silk and paper, and a myriad of other types of works of art. ...


In a 1928 letter to the French critic and translator René Taupin, Pound was keen to emphasise another ancestry for Imagism, pointing out that Hulme was, in many ways, indebted to a Symbolist tradition, linking back via William Butler Yeats, Arthur Symons and the Rhymers' Club generation of British poets to Mallarmé.[6] In 1915, Pound edited the poetry of another '90s poet, Lionel Johnson for the publisher Elkin Mathews. In his introduction, he wrote René Taupin (1905 - 13 February 1981) was a French translator, critic, and academic. ... La mort du fossoyeur (The death of the gravedigger) by Carlos Schwabe is a visual compendium of Symbolist motifs. ... Arthur Symons (February 28, 1865 - January 22, 1945), was a British poet and critic. ... Portrait of Stéphane Mallarmé by Édouard Manet. ... Lionel Pigot Johnson (15 March 1867 - 4 October 1902) was an English poet, essayist and critic. ... Charles Elkin Mathews (1851 - November 10, 1921 was a publisher and bookseller who played an important role in the literary life of late 19th and early 20th century London. ...

No one has written purer imagism than [Johnson] has, in the line
Clear lie the fields, and fade into blue air,
It has a beauty like the Chinese.[7]

Early publications and statements of intent

H.D. Imagiste
H.D. Imagiste

In 1911, Pound introduced two other poets to the Eiffel Tower group, his ex-fiancée Hilda Doolittle (who had started signing her work H.D.) and her future husband Richard Aldington. These two were interested in exploring Greek poetic models, especially Sappho, an interest that Pound shared. The compression of expression that they achieved by following the Greek example complemented the proto-Imagist interest in Japanese poetry, and, in 1912, during a meeting with them in the British Museum tea room, Pound told H.D. and Aldington that they were Imagistes, and even appended the signature H.D. Imagiste to some poems they were discussing.[8] Public domain photo of H.D. poet in the 1910s from http://www. ... Public domain photo of H.D. poet in the 1910s from http://www. ... H.D. in the mid 1910s Hilda Doolitle(September 10, 1886, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, United States – September 27, 1961, Zürich, Switzerland), prominently known only by her initials H.D., was an American poet, novelist and memoirist. ... H.D. in the mid 1910s Hilda Doolitle(September 10, 1886, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, United States – September 27, 1961, Zürich, Switzerland), prominently known only by her initials H.D., was an American poet, novelist and memoirist. ... Richard Aldington (July 8, 1892 – July 27, 1962) was an English writer and poet. ... Ancient Greek bust. ...

When Harriet Monroe started her Poetry magazine in 1911, she had asked Pound to act as foreign editor. In October 1912, he submitted three poems each by H.D. and Aldington under the Imagiste rubric. That same month, Pound's book Ripostes was published with an appendix called The Complete Poetical Works of T. E. Hulme which carried a note that saw the first appearance of the word Imagiste in print. Aldington's poems, Choricos, To a Greek Marble, and Au Vieux Jardin, were in the November issue of Poetry and H.D.'s, Hermes of the Ways, Orchard, and Epigram, appeared in the January 1913 issue; Imagism as a movement was launched. Poetry's April issue published what came to be seen as "Imagism's enabling text"[9], the haiku-like poem of Ezra Pound entitled "In a Station of the Metro": Photo of Richard Aldington taken during World War I from http://www. ... Photo of Richard Aldington taken during World War I from http://www. ... Richard Aldington (July 8, 1892 – July 27, 1962) was an English writer and poet. ... Harriet Monroe (1860-12-23 – 1936-09-26) was an American editor, scholar, literary critic, and patron of the arts. ... Poetry, published in Chicago, Illinois, is one of the leading monthly poetry journals in the English-speaking world. ... For the operating system, see Haiku (operating system). ... Ezra Pound in 1913. ...

The apparition of these faces in the crowd;
Petals on a wet, black bough.[10]

The March issue of Poetry also contained Pound's A Few Don'ts by an Imagiste and Flint's Imagisme. The latter contained this succinct statement of the group's position:

  1. Direct treatment of the "thing", whether subjective or objective.
  2. To use absolutely no word that does not contribute to the presentation.
  3. As regarding rhythm: to compose in sequence of the musical phrase, not in sequence of the metronome.[11]

Pound's note opened with a definition of an image as that which presents an intellectual and emotional complex in an instant of time. Pound goes on to state that It is better to present one Image in a lifetime than to produce voluminous works.[12] His list of don'ts reinforced Flint's three statements, while warning that they should not be considered as dogma but as the result of long contemplation. Taken together, these two texts comprised the Imagist programme for a return to what they saw as the best poetic practice of the past. A mechanical wind-up metronome in motion A digital metronome set to pulse at four beats per measure at a tempo of 130 BPM A metronome is any device that produces a regulated audible and/or visual pulse, usually used to establish a steady beat, or tempo, measured in beats...


Des Imagistes

Determined to promote the work of the Imagists, and particularly of Aldington and H.D., Pound decided to publish an anthology under the title Des Imagistes. This was published in 1914 by the Poetry Bookshop in London, and became one of the most important and influential English language collections.[13] Included in the thirty-seven poems were ten poems by Aldington, seven by H.D., and six by Pound. The book also included work by Flint, Skipwith Cannell, Amy Lowell, William Carlos Williams, James Joyce, Ford Madox Ford, Allen Upward and John Cournos. Des Imagistes was the first anthology of the Imagism movement. ... The Poetry Bookshop, which ran in Bloomsbury, London, from 1913 to 1926, was the brainchild of Harold Monro, and was supported by his moderate income. ... Skipwith Cannell (1887 - 1957) was an American poet associated with the Imagist group. ... Amy Lowell Amy Lawrence Lowell (February 9, 1874 – May 12, 1925) was an American poet of the imagist school who posthumously won the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry in 1926. ... William Carlos Williams Dr. William Carlos Williams (sometimes known as WCW) (September 17, 1883 – March 4, 1963), was an American poet closely associated with modernism and Imagism. ... This article is about the writer and poet. ... Ford Madox Ford (December 17, 1873 - June 26, 1939) was an English novelist and publisher. ... Allen Upward (1863 - 1920) was a poet, lawyer, politician and teacher. ... John Cournos (1881 - 1966) was an American writer from a Russian-Jewish background; his family emigrated when he was aged 10. ...


Pound's editorial choices were based on what he saw as the degree of sympathy that these writers displayed with Imagist precepts, rather than active participation in a group as such. Williams, who was based in the United States, had not participated in any of the discussions of the Eiffel Tower group. However, he and Pound had long been corresponding on the question of the renewal of poetry along similar lines. Ford was included at least partly because of his strong influence on Pound as the younger poet made the transition from his earlier, Pre-Raphaelite influenced, style towards a harder, more modern way of writing. The inclusion of a poem by Joyce, I Hear an Army which was sent to Pound by W.B. Yeats,[14] took on a wider importance in the history of literary modernism as the subsequent correspondence between the two led to the serial publication, at Pound's behest, of A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man in The Egoist. Joyce's poem is not written in free verse, but in rhyming quatrains. However, it strongly reflects Pound's interest in poems written to be sung to music, such as the troubadours and Cavalcanti. The book met with little popular or critical success, at least partly because it had no introduction or commentary to explain what the poets were attempting to do, and a number of copies were returned to the publisher. The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was a group of English painters, poets and critics, founded in 1848 by John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and William Holman Hunt. ... A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is a semi-autobiographical novel by James Joyce, first serialized in The Egoist from 1914 to 1915 and published in book form in 1916. ... The Egoist was a London literary magazine published from 1914 to 1919, during which time it published early modernist works, including those of James Joyce. ... A quatrain is a poem or a stanza within a poem that consists of four lines. ... Cavalcanti and Dante Guido Cavalcanti (c. ...


Some Imagist Poets

The following year, Pound and Flint fell out over their different interpretations of the history and goals of the group arising from an article on the history of Imagism written by Flint and published in The Egoist in May 1915.[15] Flint was at pains to emphasise the contribution of the Eiffel Tower poets, especially Storer. Pound, who believed that the "Hellenic hardness" that he saw as the distinguishing quality of the poems of H.D. and Aldington was likely to be diluted by the "custard" of Storer, was to play no further direct role in the history of the Imagists. He went on to co-found the Vorticists with his friend the painter and writer Wyndham Lewis.[16] Ezra Pound, who gave Vorticism its name and contributed to Blast. ... Wyndham Lewis in 1916 Percy Wyndham Lewis (November 18, 1882 – March 7, 1957) was a Canadian-born British painter and author. ...


Around this time, the American Imagist Amy Lowell moved to London, determined to promote her own work and that of the other Imagist poets. Lowell was a wealthy heiress from Boston who loved Keats and cigars. She was also an enthusiastic champion of literary experiment who was willing to use her money to publish the group. Lowell was determined to change the method of selection from Pound's autocratic editorial attitude to a more democratic manner. This new editorial policy was stated in the Preface to the first anthology to appear under her leadership: "In this new book we have followed a slightly different arrangement to that of our former Anthology. Instead of an arbitrary selection by an editor, each poet has been permitted to represent himself by the work he considers his best, the only stipulation being that it should not yet have appeared in book form."[17] The outcome was a series of Imagist anthologies under the title Some Imagist Poets. The first of these appeared in 1915, planned and assembled mainly by H.D. and Aldington. Two further issues, both edited by Lowell, were published in 1916 and 1917. These three volumes featured most of the original poets with the exception of Pound, who had tried to persuade her to drop the Imagist name from her publications and who sardonically dubbed this phase of Imagism "Amy-gism." The family name Keats, a surname of England is believed to be descended originally from the Anglo Saxon race from old English word cyta or cyte which has been used to describe a worker at the shed, outhouse for animals, hence herdsman. ...


Lowell persuaded D. H. Lawrence to contribute poems to the 1915 and 1916 volumes,[18] making him the only writer to publish as both a Georgian poet and an Imagist. Marianne Moore also became associated with the group during this period. However, with World War I as a backdrop, the times were not easy for avant-garde literary movements (Aldington, for example, spent much of the war at the front), and the 1917 anthology effectively marked the end of the Imagists as a movement. David Herbert Richards Lawrence (11 September 1885 – 2 March 1930) was an important and controversial English writer of the 20th century, whose prolific and diverse output included novels, short stories, poems, plays, essays, travel books, paintings, translations, literary criticism, and personal letters. ... Marianne Moore photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1948 Marianne Moore (December 11, 1887 - February 5, 1972) was a Modernist American poet and writer. ... A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ...


The Imagists after Imagism

The cover of the Imagist Anthology 1930

In 1929, Walter Lowenfels jokingly suggested that Aldington should produce a new Imagist anthology.[19] Aldington, by now a successful novelist, took up the suggestion and enlisted the help of Ford and H.D. The result was the Imagist Anthology 1930, edited by Aldington and including all the contributors to the four earlier anthologies with the exception of Lowell, who had died, Cannell, who had disappeared, and Pound, who declined. The appearance of this anthology initiated a critical discussion of the place of the Imagists in the history of 20th-century poetry. Fair use book cover of Imagist anthology 1930 from www. ... Fair use book cover of Imagist anthology 1930 from www. ... Walter Lowenfels (1897 - 1976) was an American poet, journalist, and member of the Communist Party. ...


Of the poets who were published in the various Imagist anthologies, Joyce, Lawrence and Aldington are now primarily remembered and read as novelists. Marianne Moore, who was at most a fringe member of the group, carved out a unique poetic style of her own that retained an Imagist concern with compression of language. William Carlos Williams developed his poetic along distinctly American lines with his variable foot and a diction he claimed was taken "from the mouths of Polish mothers".[20] Both Pound and H.D. turned to writing long poems, but retained much of the hard edge to their language as an Imagist legacy. Most of the other members of the group are largely forgotten outside the context of the history of Imagism. William Carlos Williams Dr. William Carlos Williams (sometimes known as WCW) (September 17, 1883 – March 4, 1963), was an American poet closely associated with modernism and Imagism. ... In verse, a foot is the basic unit of meter used to describe rhythm. ...


Legacy

Despite the movement's short life, Imagism would deeply influence the course of modernist poetry in English. Aldington, in his 1941 memoir, writes: "I think the poems of Ezra Pound, H.D., Lawrence, and Ford Madox Ford will continue to be read. And to a considerable extent T. S. Eliot and his followers have carried on their operations from positions won by the Imagists." On the other hand, Wallace Stevens found shortcomings in the Imagist approach: "Not all objects are equal. The vice of imagism was that it did not recognize this."[21] a poem, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock, which brought him to prominence. ... Wallace Stevens Wallace Stevens (October 2, 1879 – August 2, 1955) was a major American Modernist poet. ...


The influence of Imagism can be seen clearly in the work of the Objectivist poets,[22] who came to prominence in the 1930s under the auspices of Pound and Williams. The Objectivists worked mainly in free verse. Clearly linking Objectivism's principles with Imagism's, Louis Zukofsky insisted, in his introduction to the 1931 Objectivist issue of Poetry, on writing "which is the detail, not mirage, of seeing, of thinking with the things as they exist, and of directing them along a line of melody." Zukofsky was a major influence on the Language poets,[23] who carried the Imagist focus on formal concerns to a high level of development. Basil Bunting, another Objectivist poet, was a key figure in the early development of the British Poetry Revival, a loose movement that also absorbed the influence of the San Francisco Renaissance poets.[24] William Carlos Williams (1883-1963), who was the only poet to be published as both an Objectivist and an Imagist The Objectivist poets were a loose-knit group of second-generation Modernists who emerged in the 1930s. ... The cover of the 1978 edition of Zukofskys long poem A. Louis Zukofsky (January 23, 1904 – May 12, 1978) was one of the most important second-generation American modernist poets. ... The Language poets (or L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E poets, after the magazine that bears that name) are an avant garde group or tendency in United States poetry that emerged in the late 1960s and early 1970s; its central figures are all actively writing, teaching, and performing... Basil Cheesman Bunting (March 3, 1900 – April 17, 1985) was a British modernist poet. ... The British Poetry Revival is the general name given to a loose poetic movement in Britain that took place in the 1960s and 1970s. ... The term San Francisco Renaissance is used as a global designation for a range of poetic activity centred around that city and which brought it to prominence as a hub of the American poetic avant-garde. ...


Imagism influenced a number of poetry circles and movements in the 1950s, especially the Beat generation, the Black Mountain poets, and others associated with the San Francisco Renaissance. In his seminal 1950 essay, Projective Verse, Charles Olson, the theorist of the Black Mountain group, wrote "ONE PERCEPTION MUST IMMEDIATELY AND DIRECTLY LEAD TO A FURTHER PERCEPTION";[25] his credo derived from and supplemented the Imagists.[26] Beats redirects here. ... The Black Mountain poets, sometimes called the Projectivist poets, were a group of mid 20th century American avant-garde or postmodern poets centered around Black Mountain College. ... The term San Francisco Renaissance is used as a global designation for a range of poetic activity centred around that city and which brought it to prominence as a hub of the American poetic avant-garde. ... Charles Olson (27 December 1910 – 10 January 1970) was an important 2nd generation American modernist poet who was a crucial link between earlier figures like Ezra Pound and William Carlos Williams and the New American poets, a rubric which includes the New York School, the Black Mountain School, the Beat...


Among the Beats, Gary Snyder and Allen Ginsberg in particular were influenced by the Imagist emphasis on Chinese and Japanese poetry. William Carlos Williams was another who had a strong impact on the Beat poets, encouraging poets like Lew Welch and writing an introduction for the book publication of Ginsberg's Howl (1955). Young Gary Snyder, on one of his early book covers Gary Snyder (born May 8, 1930) is an American poet (originally, often associated with the Beat Generation), essayist, lecturer, and environmental activist. ... Irwin Allen Ginsberg (IPA: ) (June 3, 1926 – April 5, 1997) was an American poet. ... Grave of the Japanese poet Yosa Buson Waka and Kanshi, Chinese poetry written in Chinese, were the two great pillars of traditional Japanese poetry. ... Lewis Barrett Welch, Jr. ... Howl and Other Poems was published in the fall of 1956 as number four in the Pocket Poets Series from City Lights Books This article is about the poem by Allen Ginsberg. ...


References

  1. ^ Brooker, p. 46.
  2. ^ Brooker, p. 48.
  3. ^ McGuinness, xii.
  4. ^ Blakeney Williams, Louise. "Modernism and the Ideology of History: Literature, Politics, and the Past". Cambridge University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-5218-1499-5. p. 16.
  5. ^ Reprinted in: Pound, Ezra (1975). in William Cookson (ed.): Selected Prose, 1909-1965. New Directions Publishing, 43. ISBN 0811205746. 
  6. ^ Woon-Ping Chin Holaday. "From Ezra Pound to Maxine Hong Kingston: Expressions of Chinese Thought in American Literature". MELUS, Vol. 5, No. 2, Interfaces, Summer, 1978. pp. 15-24.
  7. ^ Ming Xie, Ming Hsieh (1998). Ezra Pound and the Appropriation of Chinese Poetry: Cathay, Translation, and Imagism. Routledge, 80. ISBN 0815326238. 
  8. ^ Ayers, David. "H. D., Ezra Pound and Imagism". Blackwell Publishers (2004). Retrieved on 05 October 2007.
  9. ^ J.T. Barbarese, 'Ezra Pounds Imagist Aesthetics: Lustra to Mauberly in the Columbia History of American Poetry, ed Jay Parini, Columbia University Press, New York, 1993. ISBN 1567312764
  10. ^ "On 'In a Station of the Metro'". english.uiuc.edu. Exreact from "Genders, Races, and Religious Cultures in Modern American Poetry, 1908-1934". Cambridge University Press, 2001. Retrieved on 19 October 2007.
  11. ^ Elder, Bruce. "The Films of Stan Brakhage in the American Tradition of Ezra Pound, Gertrude Stein and Charles Olson". Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1998. pp. 72, 94.
  12. ^ Pound, "A Retrospect" (1918). Reprinted in Kolocotroni et al, p. 374.
  13. ^ Edgerly Firchow, Peter. "Reluctant Modernists: Aldous Huxley and Some Contemporaries". Transaction Books, 2002. p. 32.
  14. ^ Ellmann, Richard. "James Joyce". (New York): Oxford University Press, 1959. p. 350.
  15. ^ Pondrom, Cyrena; H.D., "Selected Letters from H. D. to F. S. Flint: A Commentary on the Imagist Period". Contemporary Literature, Vol. 10, No. 4, Special Number on H. D.: A Reconsideration, Autumn, 1969. pp. 557-586.
  16. ^ Cowley et al. "Years Work English Studies", 1993. pp. 452-521.
  17. ^ Preface to Some Imagist Poets (1915). Reprinted in Kolocotroni et al. p. 268.
  18. ^ Lawrence, D. H. "The Letters of D. H. Lawrence". Cambridge University Press, (Repubished) 1979. p. 394.
  19. ^ Aldington, Richard; Gates Norman. "Richard Aldington: An Autobiography in Letters". (Katowice): Oficyna Akademii sztuk pięknych w Katowicach, 1984. p. 103.
  20. ^ Bercovitch, Sacvan; Cyrus R. K. Patell (1994). The Cambridge History of American Literature. Cambridge University Press, 19. ISBN 0521497337. 
  21. ^ Enck, John J. (1964). Wallace Stevens: Images and Judgments. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 11. 
  22. ^ Sloan, De Villo (1987). "The Decline of American Postmodernism". SubStance 16 (3): p. 29–43. 
  23. ^ Stanley , Sandra. "Louis Zukofsky and the Transformation of a Modern American Poetics". South Atlantic Review, Vol. 60, No. 1, January 1995. pp. 186-189.
  24. ^ "The Possibility of Poetry: from Migrant magazine to artists’ books". The British Library, January 2007. Retrieved on 20 October 2007.
  25. ^ Olson, Charles (1966). Selected Writings. New Directions Publishing, 17. ISBN 0811203352. 
  26. ^ Riddel, Joseph N. (Autumn, 1979). "Decentering the Image: The 'Project' of 'American' Poetics?". boundary 2 8 (1): 159–188. 

October 5 is the 278th day of the year (279th in Leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... H.D. in the mid 1910s Hilda Doolitle(September 10, 1886, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, United States – September 27, 1961, Zürich, Switzerland), prominently known only by her initials H.D., was an American poet, novelist and memoirist. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Charles Olson (27 December 1910 – 10 January 1970) was an important 2nd generation American modernist poet who was a crucial link between earlier figures like Ezra Pound and William Carlos Williams and the New American poets, a rubric which includes the New York School, the Black Mountain School, the Beat...

Sources

  • Aldington, Richard. Life For Life's Sake (The Viking Press, 1941). See Chapter IX.
  • Blau Duplessis, Rachel. H.D. The Career of that Struggle. (The Harvester Press, 1986). ISBN 0-7108-0548-9
  • Brooker, Jewel Spears (1996). Mastery and Escape: T. S. Eliot and the Dialectic of Modernism. University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 1-55849-040-X.
  • Guest, Barbara. Herself Defined: The Poet H.D. and Her World. (Collins, 1985) ISBN 0-385-13129-1
  • Jones, Peter (ed.). Imagist Poetry (Penguin, 1972).
  • Kenner, Hugh. The Pound Era (Faber and Faber, 1975 edition). ISBN 0-571-10668-4
  • Kolocotroni, Vassiliki; Jane Goldman, Olga Taxidou (1998). Modernism: An Anthology of Sources and Documents. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226450740. 
  • McGuinness, Patrick (editor), T. E. Hulme: Selected Writings, Fyfield Books, Carcanet Press, 1998. ISBN 1-85754-362-9 (pages xii - xiii)
  • Sullivan, J.P. (ed). Ezra Pound (Penguin critical anthologies series, 1970). ISBN 0-14-080033-6

Further reading

  • Pratt, William, The Imagist Poem, Modern Poetry in Miniature, 1963, expanded 2001, Story Line Press, ISBN 1-58654-009-2
  • Symons, Julian, Makers of the New: The Revolution in Literature, 1912–1939, Andre Deutsch, 1987, ISBN 0-233-98007-5
  • Pound, Ezra, ABC of Reading, 1934, New Directions Publishing Corporation ISBN 0-8112-0151-1

Julian Gustave Symons (1912 - 1994) was a British writer, best known for crime fiction. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Imagism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2670 words)
Imagism was a movement in early 20th century Anglo-American poetry that favoured precision of imagery, and clear, sharp language.
At the time Imagism emerged, Longfellow and Tennyson were considered the paragons for poetry, and the public valued the sometimes moralising tone of their writings.
In contrast to this, Imagism called for a return to what were seen as more Classical values, such as directness of presentation, and economy of language, as well as a willingness to experiment with non-traditional verse forms.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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