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Encyclopedia > Image sensor
A dismantled USB webcam, with and without a lens over its (Bayer format) image sensor.
A dismantled USB webcam, with and without a lens over its (Bayer format) image sensor.

An image sensor is a device that converts a visual image to an electric signal. It is used chiefly in digital cameras and other imaging devices. It is usually an array of charge-coupled devices (CCD) or CMOS sensors such as active-pixel sensors. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (681x1586, 297 KB) Summary This is a Sweex miniwebcam USB with its casing removed. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (681x1586, 297 KB) Summary This is a Sweex miniwebcam USB with its casing removed. ... A typical webcam A web camera (or webcam) is a real-time camera (usually, though not always, a video camera) whose images can be accessed using the World Wide Web, instant messaging, or a PC video calling application. ... A SiPix digital camera next to a matchbox to show scale Nikon D200 SLR with Nikon film scanner, which converts film images to digital A Hasselblad 503CW with a digital camera back A digital camera is an electronic device used to capture and store photographs digitally, instead of using photographic... A specially developed CCD used for ultraviolet imaging in a wire bonded package. ... For other uses, see CMOS (disambiguation). ... An active-pixel sensor (APS), also commonly written active pixel sensor, is an image sensor consisting of an integrated circuit containing an array of pixel sensors, each containing a photodetector and connecting to an active transistor reset and readout circuit. ...


There are several main types of color image sensors, differing by the means of the color separation mechanism:

  • Bayer sensor, low-cost and most common, using a Bayer filter that passes red, green, or blue light to selected pixels, forming interlaced grids sensitive to red, green, and blue. The image is then interpolated using a demosaicing algorithm.
  • Foveon X3 sensor, using an array of layered sensors where every pixel contains three stacked sensors sensitive to the individual colors.
  • 3CCD, using three discrete image sensors, with the color separation done by a dichroic prism. Considered the best quality, and generally more expensive than single-CCD sensors.

Contents

The Bayer arrangement of color filters on the pixel array of an image sensor Front page of Dr. Bryce Bayers 1976 patent on the Bayer pattern filter mosaic, showing his terminology of luminance-sensitive and chrominance-sensitive elements A Bayer filter mosaic is a color filter array (CFA) for... A demosaicing algorithm is a digital image process used to interpolate a complete image from the partial raw data received from the color-filtered image sensor internal to many digital cameras in form of a matrix of colored pixels. ... The Foveon X3 sensor is an image sensor for digital cameras produced by Foveon, Inc. ... 3CCD is a term used to describe an imaging system used used by some video camcorders. ... A dichroic prism is a prism that splits light into two beams of differing wavelength (colour). ...

CCD Vs CMOS

Today, most digital still cameras use either a CCD images sensor or a CMOS sensor. Both types of sensor accomplish the same task of capturing light and converting it into electrical signals.


A CCD is an analog device. When light strikes the chip it is held as a small electrical charge in each photo sensor. The charges are converted to voltage one pixel at a time as they are read from the chip. Additional circuitry in the camera converts the voltage into digital information. A specially developed CCD used for ultraviolet imaging in a wire bonded package. ...


A CMOS chip is a type of active pixel sensor made using the CMOS semiconductor process. Extra circuitry next to each photo sensor converts the light energy to a voltage. Additional circuitry on the chip converts the voltage to digital data. A high-tech CMOS imager, mainly developed for medical imaging. ... For other uses, see CMOS (disambiguation). ...


Neither technology has a clear advantage in image quality. CMOS can potentially be implemented with fewer components, use less power and provide data faster than CCDs. CCD is a more mature technology and is in most respects the equal of CMOS.[1] [2]


Specialty sensors

Special sensors are used for various applications. The most important are the sensors for thermal imaging, creation of multi-spectral images, gamma cameras, sensor arrays for x-rays, and highly sensitive arrays for astronomy. Thermography can refer to a printing process and a imaging process. ... Multi-spectral images are images of the same object (earth surface), taken in different bands of visible or infrared region of electromagnetic continuum. ... Diagrammatic cross section of a gamma camera detector A gamma camera is an imaging device, most commonly used as a medical imaging device in nuclear medicine. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ...


See also

In older video cameras, before the 1990s, a video camera tube or pickup tube was used instead of a charge-coupled device (CCD). ... A semiconductor particle detector is a device that uses a semiconductor (usually silicon) to detect the passage of charged particles. ... Contact Image Sensors (CIS) are a relatively recent technological innovation in the field of optical flatbed scanners that are rapidly replacing CCDs in low power and portable applications. ... A specially developed CCD used for ultraviolet imaging in a wire bonded package. ... A high-tech CMOS imager, mainly developed for medical imaging. ...

References

  1. ^ [1] CCD Vs CMOS from Photonics Spectra 2001
  2. ^ [2] Sensors By Vincent Bockaert

Leading Suppliers of Image Sensors

  • OmniVision Technologies, Inc.
  • Panavision SVI
  • TOSHIBA Semiconductor Company - Click "Products/Imaging Solutions"
  • STMicroelectronics Imaging Division
  • Micron Technology, IncCMOS Image Sensors
  • Galaxy Core, Inc CMOS Image Sensors

  Results from FactBites:
 
Image sensor module package patent invention (2105 words)
A bumped image sensor chip is flip-chip attached to the second surface of the glass substrate so that a sensing area of the image sensor chip is corresponding to a light entering area of the glass substrate without blocking the via-redistribution layer.
An image sensor chip is flip-chip attached to a glass substrate where the glass substrate includes a plurality of connecting pads, a via-redistribution layer, and a plurality of vias.
The image sensor chip is flip-chip attached to the second surface of the glass substrate where the image sensor chip has a sensing area and a plurality of bumps.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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