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Encyclopedia > Illegal immigration
Legal status of Persons
Concepts

Citizenship
Nationality
Naturalization
Leave to Remain
Immigration
Illegal immigration
Statelessness In law legal status refers to the concept of individuals having a particular place in society, relative to the law, as it determines the laws which affect them. ... For other uses, see Person (disambiguation). ... “Citizen” redirects here. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... A judge swears in a new citizen. ... The Leave to Remain is the legal status of a person issued by a government office of internal affairs to one who is not yet a citizen. ... It has been suggested that Stateless person be merged into this article or section. ...

Legal designations

Citizen
Native-born citizen
Naturalized citizen
Dual-citizen
Alien
Migrant worker
Refugee
Illegal immigrant
Political prisoner
Stateless person
Administrative detainee
“Citizen” redirects here. ... A native-born citizen or natural-born citizen of a country is a person who is legally recognized as that countrys citizen as of the moment of birth, rather than by acquiring citizenship afterwards through naturalization. ... Naturalization is the process whereby a person becomes a national of a nation, or a citizen of a country, other than the one of his birth. ... Multiple citizenship is simultaneous citizenship in two or more countries (whether it is recognized by all countries or not). ... In U.S. law, an alien is a term Americans use for a person who owes political allegiance to another country or government and not a native or naturalized citizen of the land where they are found. ... Migrant farm worker, New York A migrant worker is someone who regularly works away from home, if they even have a home. ... A political prisoner is someone held in prison or otherwise detained, perhaps under house arrest, because their ideas or image are deemed by a government to either challenge or threaten the authority of the state. ... A stateless person is someone with no citizenship or nationality. ... Administrative detention is a military term used in Israel to refer to political prisoners —people held as criminals while not actually being charged. ...

Social politics

Immigration law
Nationality law
Nationalism
Nativism (politics)
Immigration debate
Nationality law is the branch of a countrys legal system wherein legislation, custom and court precendent combine to define the ways in which that countrys nationality and citizenship are transmitted, acquired or lost. ... Nationality law is the branch of a countrys legal system wherein legislation, custom and court precedent combine to define the ways in which that countrys nationality and citizenship are transmitted, acquired or lost. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Illegal immigration refers to a mass-immigration of people across national borders —in direct violation of the immigration laws of the country of destination. ...

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Illegal immigration refers to immigration across national borders in a way that violates the immigration laws of the destination country. Under this definition, an illegal immigrant is a foreigner who either has illegally crossed an international political border, be it by land, sea, or air, or a foreigner who has entered a country legally but then overstays his/her Visa in order to live and/or work therein. In politics, the term may imply a larger set of social issues and time constraints with disputed consequences in areas such as economy, social welfare, education, health care, slavery, prostitution, crime, legal protections, voting rights, public services, and human rights. Illegal emigration would be leaving a country in a manner that violates the laws of the country being exited. Illegal Aliens could mean: Illegal immigration Illegal Aliens (film), a 2007 film starring Anna Nicole Smith and Chyna Illegal Alien (novel), a 1997 science fiction novel by Robert J Sawyer Illegal Aliens (novel), a 1989 science fiction novel by Nick Pollotta and Phil Foglio Illegal Alien (song), the 5th track... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Border (disambiguation). ... Nationality law is the branch of a countrys legal system wherein legislation, custom and court precendent combine to define the ways in which that countrys nationality and citizenship are transmitted, acquired or lost. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... Entry visa valid in Schengen treaty countries. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In law, time constraints are placed on certain actions and filings in the interest of speedy justice, and additionally to prevent the evasion of the ends of justice by waiting until a matter is moot. ... ... A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ... Slave redirects here. ... Whore redirects here. ... Voting rights refers to the right of a person to vote in an election. ... Public services is a term usually used to mean services provided by government to its citizens, either directly (through the public sector) or by financing private provision of services. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... A memorial statue in Hanko, Finland, commemorating the thousands of emigrants who left the country to start a new life in the United States Emigration is the act and the phenomenon of leaving ones native country or region to settle in another. ...

Contents

Terminology

Europe

  • illegal immigrant (mostly in the UK)[1]
  • undocummented immigrant
  • clandestine workers[2]
  • sans papiers/"sin papeles"[3]

United States

Terms used in the United States include: // Illegal immigration to the United States refers to the act of foreign nationals voluntarily resettling in the United States in violation of U.S. immigration and nationality law. ...

  • illegal alien [the official term in legislation and the border patrol for a person who has entered the country illegally or is residing in the United States illegally after entering legally (for example, using a tourist visa and remaining after the visa expires)][4]
  • illegal immigrant (those who enter the United States through means that are broadly deemed illegal in nature)
  • undocumented immigrant/migrant/alien/worker/resident (terminology most often used by social progressives)
  • unauthorized immigrant/migrant/alien/worker/resident
  • paperless immigrant/migrant/alien/worker/resident
  • immigrant "without immigration status"
  • out of status (those whose lawful status has expired, those who have overstayed their visas, etc.)
  • illegrant "illegal immigrant" (slang term)[citation needed]
  • Unnaturalized immigrant

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Other

For other uses, see Boat people (disambiguation). ... Anchor baby or jackpot baby are terms used to refer to a child born in the United States to illegal immigrants or other non-citizens. ...

Causes

War

One motive of illegal immigration is to escape civil war or repression in the country of origin. For example, people in Germany that were considered minorities fled their country in fear that they would be oppressed and arrested. Non-economic push factors include persecution (religious and otherwise), frequent abuse, bullying, oppression, and genocide, and risks to civilians during war. Political motives traditionally motivate refugee flows - to escape dictatorship for instance. For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... Political repression is the oppression or persecution of an individual or group for political reasons, particularly for the purpose of restricting or preventing their ability to take part in the political life of society. ... Look up Persecution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Abuser redirects here. ... Bullying is the act of intentionally causing harm to others through verbal harassment, physical assault, or other more subtle methods of coercion such as manipulation. ... For other uses, see Oppression (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... This is a list of lists of wars, sorted by country, date, region, and type of conflict. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ...


After decades of armed conflict, roughly one of every 10 Colombians now live abroad.[5] Figures from the U.S. Department of Homeland Security indicate that Colombia is the fourth-leading source country of unauthorized immigration to the United States. The estimated number of unauthorized Colombian residents in the United States has almost tripled from 51,000 in 1990 to 141,000 in 2000.[6] The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is a Cabinet department of the federal government of the United States that is concerned with protecting the American homeland and the safety of American citizens. ... 2000 Census Population Ancestry Map Immigration to the United States of America is the movement of non-residents to the United States. ...


The largest per-capita source of immigrants to the United States comes from El Salvador, for which up to a third of the population lives outside the country, mostly in the United States.[7] According to the Santa Clara County Office of Human Relations.

Despite the fact that the U.S. government’s role in the Salvadoran conflict was unique in sustaining the prolongation of the civil conflict, the government and the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) extended little sympathy to the people affected by the war. In the 1980s, the INS granted only 2% of political asylum applications, claiming that democracy existed in El Salvador and that reports of U.S. and government-sponsored “death squads” were overblown. As a response to the U.S. government’s failure to address the situation of Salvadoran refugees in the U.S., American activists established a loose network to aid refugees. Operating in clear violation of U.S. immigration laws, these activists took refugees into their houses, aided their travel, hid them and helped them find work. This became known as the “sanctuary movement”.[8]

The United States will accept 70,000 refugees in FY 2007. President Bush stated that his eventual goal is a program that resettles 90,000 refugees in the United States each year. In 2006, the State Department officially re-opened the Vietnamese resettlement program. In recent years, the main refugee sending-region has been Africa (Somalia, Liberia, Sudan, Ethiopia).[9] George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... 2000 Census Population Ancestry Map Immigration to the United States of America is the movement of non-residents to the United States. ... For other uses, see Boat people (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


To reunite families

Some illegal immigrants seek to live with loved ones, such as a spouse or other family members.[10][11][12] This is particularly true for the families of binational same sex couples.[13] The Lesbian and Gay Immigration Rights Task Force (LGIRTF) warns binational same sex couples in the United States that marriage may actually increase the likelihood of becoming undocumented, rather than decreasing it. [4] [5] Other individuals seek to distance themselves from their spouses.


Poverty

Another reason for illegal immigration is to escape poverty. Natural disasters and overpopulation can amplify poverty-driven migration flows. According to CBS 60 Minutes, U.S. Marine Lance Corporal Jose Gutierrez, one of the first U.S. servicemen to die in combat in Iraq, a former street child in Guatemala having been orphaned at age 8, first entered the United States as an illegal immigrant in 1997 to escape poverty, and dreamed of being an architect.[14] Sometimes the person moves over the border because the wage-labor ratio is much higher in the neighboring country, as is the case with the illegal immigration to the United States from Mexico. A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... Natural Disasters is a young rap group made up of five young teens from the Chicago suburbs. ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ... This article is about the broadcast network. ... This article is about the CBS news magazine. ... A street child or street kid is a child who lives on the street – in particular, one that is not taken care of by parents or other adults – and who sleeps on the street because he or she does not have a home. ...


Prostitution and slavery

Illegal immigrants may also be trafficked. After the end of the legal international slave trade by the European nations and the United States in the early 19th century, the illegal importation of slaves has continued, albeit at much reduced levels. Although not as common as in Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America, some women are undoubtedly smuggled into the United States and Canada.[citation needed] The so-called "white slave trade" referred to the smuggling of women, almost always under duress or fraud, for the purposes of forced prostitution. Now more generically called "sexual slavery" it continues to be a problem, particularly in Eastern Europe and the Middle East, though there has been an increase in the number of cases in the U.S. [6] [7] People may also be kidnapped or tricked into slavery to work as laborers, for example in factories. Those trafficked in this manner often face additional barriers to escaping slavery, since their status as illegal immigrants makes it difficult for them to gain access to help or services. For example Burmese women trafficked into Thailand and forced to work in factories or as prostitutes may not speak the language and may be vulnerable to abuse by police due to their illegal immigrant status.[15] For other uses, see Human trafficking (disambiguation). ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: slave Slave may refer to: Slavery, where people are owned by others, and live to serve their owners without pay Slave (BDSM), a form of sexual and consenual submission Slave clock, in technology, a clock or timer that synchrnonizes to a master clock... White slavery is a 19th century term for a form of slavery involving the sexual abuse of women held as captives and forced into prostitution. ... Sexual slavery is a special case of slavery which includes various different practices: forced prostitution single-owner sexual slavery ritual slavery, sometimes associated with traditional religious practices slavery for primarily non-sexual purposes where sex is common or permissible In general, the nature of slavery means that the slave is... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


In the Dominican Republic, Haitian migrant workers are sold into slavery on Dominican Sugar plantations, including children.[16][17]Some Haitian children have allegedly been forced to work as prostitutes in the Dominican sexual tourism industry.[18] Currently the Dominican sex trade ranks third in the world, only behind Thailand and the Philippines.[19]


Methods

Border crossing

Border control at sea by the U.S. Customs and Border Protection
Border control at sea by the U.S. Customs and Border Protection

Immigrants from nations that do not have automatic visa agreements, or who would not otherwise qualify for a visa, often cross the borders illegally in some areas like the United States–Mexico border, the Mona Channel between the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, the Strait of Gibraltar, Fuerteventura, and the Strait of Otranto. Because these methods are illegal, they are often dangerous. Would-be immigrants suffocate in shipping containers,[20] boxcars,[21] and trucks [8], sink in shipwrecks caused by unseaworthy vessels [9], die of dehydration [10] or exposure during long walks without water. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), an agency of the United States Department of Homeland Security, is charged with regulating and facilitating international trade, collecting import duties, and enforcing U.S. trade laws. ... The border between Mexico and the United States spans four U.S. states, six Mexican states, and has over twenty commercial crossings. ... The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space (on the left: Spain) A view across the Strait of Gibraltar taken from the hills over Tarifa, Spain The Strait of Gibraltar (Arabic: مضيق جبل طارق, Spanish: Estrecho de Gibraltar) is the strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain... Morro Jable Fuerteventura, a Spanish island, is one of the Canary Islands, in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Africa. ... Map showing the location of the Strait of Otranto. ... Containers on the Port of Singapore. ... For other uses, see Boxcar (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Shipwreck (disambiguation). ... Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydro in ancient Greek) from an object. ... Look up exposure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


An official estimate puts the number of people who died in illegal crossings across the U.S.-Mexican border between 1998 and 2004 at 1954 people (see immigrant deaths along the U.S.-Mexico border). Border Patrol sign in California warning Caution! Do not expose your life to the elements. ...


Human smuggling is the practice of intermediaries aiding illegal immigrants in crossing over international borders in financial gain, often in large groups. Human smuggling differs from, but is sometimes associated with, human trafficking. A human smuggler will facilitate illegal entry into a country for a fee, but on arrival at their destination, the smuggled person is usually free. Trafficking involves a process of using physical force, fraud, or deception to obtain and transport people. People smuggling is a term which is used to describe transportation of people across international borders to a non-official entry point of a destination country for financial gain. ... Trafficking in human beings (or human trafficking) involves the movement of people (mostly women and children) against their will by means of force for the purpose of sexual or labor exploitation. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


Types of notorious human smugglers include Snakehead gangs present in mainland China (especially in Fujian) that smuggle laborers into Pacific Rim nations (making Chinatowns frequent centers of illegal immigration) [11] and "coyotes," who smuggle illegal immigrants to the Southwestern United States and have been known to abuse or even kill migrants in attempts to have the debt repaid. [12] Sometimes immigrants are abandoned by their human traffickers if there are difficulties, often dying in the process. Others may be victims of intentional killing. Snakeheads (Chinese: 蛇頭 shé tóu) are China gangs who smuggle people to other countries. ... For other uses, see Gang (disambiguation). ... ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal map spelling: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The USS Abraham Lincoln Battle Group along with ships from Australia, Chile, Japan, Canada, and Korea speed towards Honolulu in RIMPAC 2000. ... This article is about sections of an urban area associated with a large number of Chinese residents or commercial activities. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ...


Overstaying a visa

Some illegal immigrants enter a country legally and then overstay or violate their visa. [13] For example, most of the estimated 200,000 illegal immigrants in Canada (perhaps as high as 500,000), are refugee claimants whose refugee applications were rejected but who have not yet been ejected from the country.[22] Entry visa valid in Schengen treaty countries. ...


A related way of becoming an illegal immigrant is through bureaucratic means. For example, a person can be allowed to remain in a country - or be protected from expulsion - because he/she needs special pension for a medical condition, etc., without being able to regularize his/her situation and obtain a work and/or residency permit, let alone naturalization. Hence, categories of people being neither illegal immigrants nor legal citizens are created, living in a judicial "no man's land". Another example is formed by children of foreigners born in countries observing jus soli ("right of territory"), such as France. In that country, one may obtain French nationality if one is born in France - but, due to recent legislative changes, it is only granted at the age of eighteen, and only upon request. A judge swears in a new citizen. ... Jus soli (Latin for right of the territory), or birthright citizenship, is a right by which nationality or citizenship can be recognised to any individual born in the territory of the related state. ...


Legal and political status

See also: Illegal immigration to the United States, Immigration to the United States, Australian immigration, Immigration to the United Kingdom, Immigration to Canada, Illegal immigrants in Malaysia, Hazleton, Pennsylvania.

Many countries have had or currently have laws restricting immigration for economic or nationalistic political reasons. Whether a person is permitted to stay in a country legally may be decided by quotas or point systems or may be based on considerations such as family ties (marriage, elderly mother, etc.). Exceptions relative to political refugees or to sick people are also common. Immigrants who do not participate in these legal proceedings or who are denied permission under them and still enter or stay in the country are illegal immigrants. [14] // Illegal immigration to the United States refers to the act of foreign nationals voluntarily resettling in the United States in violation of U.S. immigration and nationality law. ... 2000 Census Population Ancestry Map Immigration to the United States of America is the movement of non-residents to the United States. ... Australian immigration has a checkered history. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Highly Skilled Migrant Programme. ... Immigration to Canada is the process by which people migrate to Canada and become nationals of the country. ... Illegal immigrants in Malaysia comprise a substantial portion of the Malaysian population, numbering as many as two million by some estimates. ... For other places with the same name, see Hazleton (disambiguation). ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... In the United States, the Emergency Quota Act (ch. ...


Most countries have laws requiring workers to have proper documentation, often intended to prevent or minimize the employment of unauthorized immigrants. However the penalties against employers are often small and the acceptable identification requirements vague and ill-defined as well as being seldom checked or enforced, making it easy for employers to hire unauthorized labor. Unauthorized immigrants are especially popular with many employers because they can pay less than the legal minimum wage or have unsafe working conditions, secure in the knowledge that few unauthorized workers will report the abuse to the authorities. Often the minimum wages in one country can be several times the prevailing wage in the unauthorized immigrant's country, making even these jobs attractive to the unauthorized worker. The minimum wage is the minimum rate a worker can legally be paid (usually per hour) as opposed to wages that are determined by the forces of supply and demand in a free market. ...


In response to the outcry following popular knowledge of the Holocaust, the newly-established United Nations held an international conference on refugees, where it was decided that refugees (legally defined to be people who are persecuted in their original country and then enter another country seeking safety) should be exempted from immigration laws. [15] It is, however, up to the countries involved to decide if a particular immigrant is a refugee or not, and hence whether they are subject to the immigration controls. “Shoah” redirects here. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


The right to freedom of movement of an individual within National borders is often contained within the constitution or in a country's human rights legislation but these rights are restricted to citizens and exclude all others. Some argue that the freedom of movement both within and between countries is a basic human right and that nationalism and immigration policies of state governments violate this human right that those same governments recognize within their own borders. According to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, fundamental human rights are violated when citizens are forbidden to leave their country. (Article 13). This, however, only assists immigrants with the first part of their immigration process and does not assist with the second, finding a new home. Title page of a European Union member state passport. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The word citizen may refer to: A person with a citizenship Citizen Watch Co. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (abbreviated UDHR) is an advisory declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/217, 10 December 1948 at Palais de Chaillot, Paris). ...


Since illegal immigrants without proper legal status have no valid identification documents such as identity cards, they may have reduced or no access to public health systems, proper housing, education and banks. This lack of access may result in the creation or expansion of illegal underground forgery to provide this documentation. [16]. German identity document sample An identity document is a piece of documentation designed to prove the identity of the person carrying it. ... Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ...


When the authorities are overwhelmed in their efforts to stop illegal immigration, they have historically provided amnesty. Amnesties, which are becoming less tolerated by the citizenry, [17] waive the "subject to deportation" clause associated with illegal aliens. Look up Amnesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


By region

European Union

The European Union is developing a common system for immigration and asylum and a single external border control strategy.


In France, helping an illegal immigrant (providing shelter, for example) is prohibited by a law passed on December 27, 1994 under the cohabitation between socialist President François Mitterrand and right-wing Prime Minister Edouard Balladur [18]. The law was heavily criticized by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) such as the CIMADE or the GISTI, left-wing political parties such as the Greens or the French Communist Party, and trade-unions such as the magistrates' Syndicat de la magistrature. Cohabitation in government occurs in semi-presidential systems, such as Frances system, when the President and the Prime Minister come from different political parties. ...   IPA: (October 26, 1916 – January 8, 1996) served as President of France from 1981 to 1995, elected as representative of the Socialist Party (PS). ... Categories: Stub | 1929 births | Prime ministers of France | Alumni of Sciences Po ... NGO redirects here. ... GISTI (Groupe dInformation et de Soutien des Immigrés) is a French non-profit human rights organization created in 1972 to protect the legal and political rights of foreigners and immigrants and to advocate freedom of movement across borders. ... Les Verts (the Greens) is a Green Party in France. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers. ... The Syndicat de la Magistrature is the French second largest magistrates trade union - in terms of membership - after the more conservative Union syndicale des magistrats. ...


The Turkish newspaper Hürriyet published stories once in July 2004 and a second time in May 2006 that Hellenic Coast Guard ships were caught on film cruising as near as a few hundred meters off the Turkish coast and abandoning clandestine immigrants to the sea. This practice allegedly resulted in the drowning of six people between Chios and Karaburun Peninsula on 26 September 2006 while three others disappeared and 31 were saved by Turkish gendarmes and fishermen.[23] However, there are numerous non-Turkish claims and testimonies that Turkish authorities and/or citizens lead immigrants through the sea, often resulting to the abandonment and sometimes drowning of said immigrants. Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Hellenic Coast Guard (Greek Ελληνικό Λιμενικό Σώμα - lit. ... Chios (Greek: , alternative transliterations Khios and Hios), is the fifth largest of the Greek islands, situated in the Aegean Sea seven kilometres (five miles) off the Turkish coast. ... Map of karaburun peninsula Location of Karaburun peninsula at Turkey Karaburun_Peninsula is one of the biggest peninsula of Turkey. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Deaths

Allegations have been made that thousands of illegal immigrants attempting to reach Europe have died since 1986. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...


In the Mediterranean Sea, and through the Atlantic Ocean toward Spain, 6,027 immigrants died.[citation needed] In the Sicily channel 1,929 people died along the routes from Libya and Tunisia to Malta and Italy, including 1,118 missing; 33 other people drowned sailing from Algeria to Sardinia. Along the routes from Mauritania, Morocco and Algeria toward Spain, through the Gibraltar Strait or off the Canary Islands, at least 2,929 people died, including 1,206 who were missing. 514 people died in the Aegean sea, between Turkey and Greece, including 252 missing. 474 people died in the Adriatic sea, between Albania, Montenegro and Italy, including 136 missing. Not all illegal immigrants travel in makeshift boats. 148 men died by asphyxiation or drowning in registered cargo vessels.[citation needed] The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space. ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In order to arrive to the sea, the dangerous passage of the Sahara is necessary. People have crossed it on trucks and off-road vehicles along the tracks between Sudan, Chad, Niger and Mali one one side and Libya and Algeria on the other. On this passage at least 1,069 people have died since 1996. The Libyan, Algerian and Morocan Governments have been accused of abandoning hundreds of migrants in open desert border areas.


Abuse has been reported of migrants in Libya. There are not any official data, but in 2006 Human Rights Watch and AFVIC accused Tripoli of arbitrary arrests, beatings and tortures in the migrant detention centers,[citation needed] three of which are financed by Italy.[citation needed] In September 2000 in Zawiyah, in northwest Libya, at least 560 foreigners were killed in racist attacks.[citation needed]


247 stowaways in trucks were found dead in Albania, France, Germany, Greece, Turkey, U.K., Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and Hungary.


There are still minefields along the Evros river between the Greece-Turkey border.[citation needed] At least 88 people are reported to have been killed in these minefields.[citation needed]


Additionally, 51 persons drowned crossing rivers delimiting the frontier between Croatia and Bosnia; Turkey and Greece; Slovakia and Austria; and Slovenia and Italy.[citation needed] Forty-one people froze to death travelling over the icy mountains at the border between Turkey, Greece and Slovakia;[citation needed] 20 people died under the trains in the Channel tunnel trying to reach England;[citation needed] 33 people were shot dead by Spanish and Moroccan police or injured along the border fence of Ceuta and Melilla Spanish enclaves in Morocco;[citation needed] 11 people burnt when a deportation center in the Netherlands caught fire;[citation needed] 11 people were killed by Turkish, French and Yugoslav policemen;[citation needed] and 8 men were found dead hidden in the undercarriages of planes.[citation needed]


United States

Illegal immigration has been a longstanding issue in the United States, creating immense controversy. // Illegal immigration to the United States refers to the act of foreign nationals voluntarily resettling in the United States in violation of U.S. immigration and nationality law. ...


The Pew Hispanic Center state that 57% of illegal aliens are of Mexican origin and about 24% are of non-Mexican Latin American origin ( 81% Latinos ). [19] They also report that while the number of legal immigrants (including LPRs, refugees, and asylees) arriving has not varied substantially since the 1980s, the number of illegal aliens has increased dramatically and, since the mid 1990s, has surpassed the number of legal immigrants. [20] The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that provides information on the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the USA and the world. ...


Argentina

Illegal immigration has been a relatively important factor in recent Argentine demographics. Most illegal immigrants come from Bolivia, and Paraguay, countries which border Argentina to the north. Smaller numbers arrive from Chile, Uruguay, Brazil, Ukraine, Peru, Ecuador, Romania, Dominican Republic, Cuba and the People's Republic of China. The Argentine government estimates that 750,000 inhabitants lack official documents and has launched a program called Patria Grande ("Greater Homeland"), to encourage illegal immigrants to regularize their status; so far some 200,000 applications have been processed under the program. Argentina remains the only Latin American nation that holds a positive net migration rate.[citation needed]


Chile

Chile has recently became a new pole of attraction for illegal immigrants, mostly from the neighboring countries such as Peru and Bolivia. According to the national census of 2002 the foreign populaton have increased by 75% since 1992.[21]


Mexico

The Mexican constitution restricts non-citizens from participating in politics, holding office, or serving on the crews of Mexican-flagged ships or airplanes.


In the first six months of 2005 alone, more than 120,000 people from Central America have been deported to their countries of origin. This is a significantly higher rate than in 2002, when for the entire year, only 130,000 people were deported [22]. Another important group of people are those of Chinese origin, who pay about $5,500 to smugglers to be taken to Mexico from Hong Kong. It is estimated that 2.4% of rejections for work permits in Mexico correspond to Chinese citizens [23]. Many women from Eastern Europe, Asia, the United States, and Central and South America are also offered jobs at table dance establishments in large cities throughout the country causing the National Institute of Migration (INM) in Mexico to raid strip clubs and deport foreigners who work without the proper documentation [24]. In 2004, the INM deported 188,000 people at a cost of $10 million [25]. For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Bartop dancing is encouraged at New York Citys Hogs and Heifers, evidenced by the ever-expanding ceiling of brassieres hung by patrons. ... The National Institute of Migration (Spanish: Instituto Nacional de Migración (INM)) is a unit of the government of Mexico dependent on the Secretariat of the Interior that controls and supervises migration in the country. ... For the book or movie Striptease see Striptease (book) and Striptease (movie) A striptease is a performance, usually a dance, in which the performer gradually removes their clothing for the purposes of sexually arousing the audience, usually performed in nightclubs. ... USD redirects here. ...


Illegal immigration of Cubans through Cancún tripled from 2004 to 2006 [26] Giant Mexican flag in the Hotel Zone Cancún (pronounced as IPA: ) is a coastal city in Mexicos easternmost state, Quintana Roo, on the Yucatán Peninsula. ...


Malaysia

An ethnic Indian Malaysian was recently sentenced to whipping and 10 months in prison for hiring six illegal immigrants at his restaurant. "I think that after this, Malaysian employers will be afraid to take in foreign workers (without work permits). They will think twice," said immigration department prosecutor Azlan Abdul Latiff. “This is the first case where an employer is being sentenced to caning,” he told. Illegal immigrants also face caning before being deported.[24] There are an estimated 800,000 illegal immigrants in Malaysia.[25] Illegal immigrants in Malaysia comprise a substantial portion of the Malaysian population, numbering as many as two million by some estimates. ... The Indian Malaysians are a group of Malaysians largely descended from those who migrated from southern India during the British colonization of Malaya. ...


China

People's Republic of China is building a security barrier along its border with North Korea to prevent the illegal immigrants from North Korea.[26]


India

The Indo-Bangladeshi barrier is a 4,000-kilometer fence India is presently constructing to seal off the Indian-Bangladeshi international border of India from Bangladesh.[27] This obstruction will virtually isolate Bangladesh from the rest of India. The barrier's plan is based on the designs of the Israeli West Bank barrier and will be 3.6m high. The stated aim of the fence is to stop infiltration of terrorists, prevent smuggling, and to bring a close to the illegal immigration from Bangladesh.[28][29] India is presently constructing a 3,286-kilometer fence to seal off the Indian-Bangladeshi border. ... The barrier route as of July 2006. ...


See also

Illegal emigration may occur in countries where emigration is not allowed, or is restricted. ... Separation barriers (separation walls, security fences) are constructed to limit the movement of people across a certain line or border or to separate two populations. ... In U.S. law, an alien is a term Americans use for a person who owes political allegiance to another country or government and not a native or naturalized citizen of the land where they are found. ... For the effort initiated by Polish Zionists from Lublin to bring European Jews to Palestine (1944-48), see Berihah. ...

References

  1. ^ Call for illegal immigrant study at http://news.bbc.co.uk (accessed Aug, 2006)
  2. ^ Reem Saad. "Egyptian Workers in Paris: Pilot Ethnography", SRC, American University in Cairo, May 2006. 
  3. ^ The undocumented Africans "of St. Ambroise" Bok.net. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
  4. ^ U.S. Customs & Border Protection, Frequently asked questions. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
  5. ^ Colombia: In the Crossfire. Migration Information Source
    "In the last decade, large-scale emigration has marked Colombian society, with roughly one of every 10 Colombians now living abroad. Internally, the country has been confronted with a major humanitarian crisis, as forced displacement has reached alarming proportions during the same period. Political, social, and economic problems, coupled with widespread insecurity, have fueled both voluntary and forced migration, while the same factors have acted as powerful deterrents for immigration to the country. After 40 years of armed conflict, various fruitless attempts at peace negotiations, and a persistent drug trade, Colombia remains plagued by violence." (November 2005).
  6. ^ Office of Policy and Planning U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service: Estimates of the unauthorized immigrant population residing in the United States: 1990 to 2000 page 9.
  7. ^ To slow immigration from El Salvador, understand its causes Baltimore Sun, January 11, 2007
  8. ^ Knowledge of immigrant nationalities of Santa Clara County (KIN): El Salvador
  9. ^ Don Barnett of The Center For Immigration Studies, A new era of refugee resettlement. American Immigration LLC, ILW.com. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
  10. ^ N.C. Aizenman, Young migrants risk all to reach U.S.: Thousands detained after setting out from Central America without parents Washington Post, August 28, 2006. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
  11. ^ Rosario Vital, Love unites them, La Migra separates them El Observador, November 30, 2006. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
  12. ^ After such respect, such humiliation. Haaretz, January 31, 2005.
  13. ^ Family, unvalued: Discrimination, denial, and the fate of binational same-sex couples under U.S. law. Human Rights Watch, May 2, 2006 Faced with the unpalatable choice between leaving and living with the person they love in violation of U.S. immigration laws, foreign-born partners may become undocumented—staying after their visa expires.
  14. ^ The Death Of Lance Cpl. Gutierrez: Simon Reports On Non-Citizen SoldiersCBS 60 Minutes, Aug. 20, 2003
  15. ^ Bales, Kevin (1999). Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22463-9. 
  16. ^ The Price of Sugar. thepriceofsugar.com. Retrieved on 2007-09-27.
  17. ^ "No Papers, No Rights" New York Times 2005
  18. ^ Human trafficking & modern-day slavery: Dominican Republic. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
  19. ^ Juan O. Tamayo, Dominican prostitution: Cheap, prevalent and accepted. The Miami Herald. June 24, 1997. Retrieved on 2007-09-27.
  20. ^ CBC News, Three illegal migrants die in shipping container. November 11, 2000. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
  21. ^ Siskind Susser Bland, At least 52 immigrants die of heat crossing from Mexico. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
  22. ^ Marina Jimenez. "200,000 illegal immigrants toiling in Canada's underground economy", Globe and Mail, 11/15/03. 
  23. ^ Delete the Border quoting Khaleej Times; ADN Kronos Survivors of the immigrant boat tragedy accuse Greeks (in English) - [1] [2] [3]. The newspaper Hürriyet (in Turkish). Three of the drowned were Tunisians, one was Algerian, one Palestinian and the other Iraqi. The three disappeared were also Tunisians.
  24. ^ Malaysian man receives unusually harsh punishment for employing illegals
  25. ^ Indians among illegal immigrants rounded up in Malaysia
  26. ^ China building border fence facing North Korea
  27. ^ Villagers left in limbo by border fence
  28. ^ The good fences epidemic
  29. ^ India builds a 2,500-mile barrier to rival the Great Wall of China

See August (album) for the album by Eric Clapton. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... These lollipops were found to contain heroin when inspected by the US DEA The drug trade is a worldwide black market consisting of production, distribution, packaging and sale of illegal psychoactive substances. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr. Kevin Bales is the worlds leading expert on modern slavery and President of Free the Slaves, the US Sister organization of Anti-Slavery International (the world’s oldest human rights organization). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Hürriyet (Liberty) is a secular centrist, nationalist high-circulation broadsheet daily Turkish newspaper. ... For other uses of Palestinian, see Definitions of Palestine and Palestinian. ...

Further reading

  • Barkan, Elliott R. "Return of the Nativists? California Public Opinion and Immigration in the 1980s and 1990s." Social Science History 2003 27(2): 229-283. in Project Muse
  • Vanessa B. Beasley, ed. Who Belongs in America?: Presidents, Rhetoric, And Immigration (2006)
  • Borjas, G.J. "The economics of immigration," Journal of Economic Literature, v 32 (1994), pp. 1667-717
  • Cull, Nicholas J. and Carrasco, Davíd, ed. Alambrista and the US-Mexico Border: Film, Music, and Stories of Undocumented Immigrants U. of New Mexico Press, 2004. 225 pp.
  • Thomas J. Espenshade; "Unauthorized Immigration to the United States" Annual Review of Sociology. Volume: 21. 1995. pp 195+.
  • Flores, William V. "New Citizens, New Rights: Undocumented Immigrants and Latino Cultural Citizenship" Latin American Perspectives 2003 30(2): 87-100
  • Griswold, Daniel T.; "Willing Workers: Fixing the Problem of Illegal Mexican Migration to the United States," Trade Policy Analysis no. 19, October 15, 2002.
  • Nicholas Laham; Ronald Reagan and the Politics of Immigration Reform Praeger Publishers. 2000.
  • Lisa Magaña, Straddling the Border: Immigration Policy and the INS (2003)j63-a12036-m12i-3620+3e
  • Mohl, Raymond A. "Latinization in the Heart of Dixie: Hispanics in Late-twentieth-century Alabama" Alabama Review 2002 55(4): 243-274. ISSN 0002-4341 9-4894945651
  • Ngai, Mae M. Impossible Subjects: Illegal Aliens and the Making of Modern America (2004), 90952-15665
  • Ngai, Mae M. "The Strange Career of the Illegal Alien: Immigration Restriction and Deportation Policy in the United States, 1921-1965" Law and History Review 2003 21(1): 69-107. ISSN 0738-2480 Fulltext in History Cooperative
  • Mireille Rosello; "Representing Illegal Immigrants in France: From Clandestins to L'affaire Des Sans-Papiers De Saint-Bernard" Journal of European Studies, Vol. 28, 1998 959525126
  • Dowell Myers (2007), Immigrants and Boomers: Forging a New Social Contract for the Future of America, Russell Sage Foundation, ISBN 978-0-87154-636-4.
  • Tranaes, T. and Zimmermann, K.F. (eds), Migrants, Work, and the Welfare State, Odense, University Press of Southern Denmark, (2004)
  • Venturini, A. Post-War Migration in Southern Europe. An Economic Approach Cambridge University Press (2004)
  • Zimmermann, K.F. (ed.), European Migration: What Do We Know? Oxford University Press, (2005)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Illegal immigration - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3528 words)
Illegal immigration refers to the immigration of people across national borders in a way that violates the immigration laws of the destined country.
One driver of illegal immigration is an attempt to escape civil war, repression, military servitude (such as conscription or national service), or sexism in their native country.
One of the driving forces of illegal immigration is the excessive population growth often found in feeder countries without the corresponding growth in the economy to support that population.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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