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Encyclopedia > Iliad
title page of the Rihel edition of ca. 1572
title page of the Rihel edition of ca. 1572

The Iliad (Greek Ἰλιάς, Iliás) is, together with the Odyssey, one of two ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer, supposedly a blind Ionian poet. Most modern scholars consider the epics to be the oldest literature in the Greek language, possibly equalled by Hesiod, dated to the 8th or 7th century BC. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 379 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (500 × 791 pixel, file size: 117 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Homer: Edition of Obertus (Hubert) Griphanius Publisher: Th. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 379 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (500 × 791 pixel, file size: 117 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Homer: Edition of Obertus (Hubert) Griphanius Publisher: Th. ... Beginning of the Odyssey The Odyssey (Greek Οδύσσεια (Odússeia) ) is one of the two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to the Ionian poet Homer. ... The Temple of Athena, the Parthenon Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around nine hundred years. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... Homer (Greek: ) is the name given to the supposed unitary author of the early Greek poems the Iliad and the Odyssey. ... Location of Ionia Ionia (Greek Ιωνία; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient region of southwestern coastal Anatolia (in present-day Turkey, the region nearest Ä°zmir,) on the Aegean Sea. ... Roman bronze bust, the so-called Pseudo-Seneca, now identified by some as possibly Hesiod Hesiod (Hesiodos, ) was an early Greek poet and rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BC. Hesiod and Homer, with whom Hesiod is often paired, have been considered the earliest Greek poets whose work has survived... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia, Greece. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 7th century BC started on January 1, 700 BC and ended on December 31, 601 BC. // Overview Events Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria who created the the first systematically collected library at Nineveh A 16th century depiction of the Hanging Gardens of...


The poem concerns events during the tenth and final year in the siege of the city of Ilion, or Troy, by the Greeks (See Trojan War). The word "Iliad" means "pertaining to Ilion" (in Latin, Ilium), the city proper, as opposed to Troy (in Greek, Τροία, Troía; in Latin, Troia), the state centered around Ilium, over which Priam reigned. The names "Ilium" and "Troy" are often used interchangeably. Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... King Priam killed by Neoptolemus, son of Achilles, detail of an Attic red-figure amphora In Greek mythology, Priam (Greek Πρίαμος, Priamos) was the king of Troy during the Trojan War, and youngest son of Laomedon. ...

Contents

Date

For most of the twentieth century, scholars dated the Iliad and the Odyssey to the 8th century BC. Some still argue for an early dating, notably Barry B. Powell, who has proposed a link between the writing of the Iliad and the invention of the Greek alphabet. Many others (including Martin West and Richard Seaford) now prefer a date in the 7th or even the 6th century BC. Martin Bernal proposes a date several centuries earlier. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia, Greece. ... Barry B. Powell is the Halls-Bascom Professor of Classics Emeritus at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, visiting professor at the University of New Mexico, and author of the widely used textbook Classical Myth (fifth edition, Prentice-Hall, 2006), as well as The Greeks (Prentice-Hall 2005, with Ian Morris... Martin Litchfield West (born 23 September 1937, London, England) is an internationally recognised scholar in classics, classical antiquity and philology. ... Professor Richard Seaford, from the University of Exeter in England, is a British professor has refused a request to write an article for an academic journal funded by Israeli universities. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 7th century BC started on January 1, 700 BC and ended on December 31, 601 BC. // Overview Events Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria who created the the first systematically collected library at Nineveh A 16th century depiction of the Hanging Gardens of... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time... Martin Bernal is a scholar of modern Chinese political history who claims classical civilization in Ancient Greece actually stems from Afroasiatic and Semitic cultures, not just from Europe. ...


The story of the Iliad

The first verses of the Iliad
The first verses of the Iliad

The Iliad begins with these lines: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

μῆνιν ἄειδε θεὰ Πηληϊάδεω Ἀχιλῆος
οὐλομένην, ἣ μυρί' Ἀχαιοῖς ἄλγε' ἔθηκεν,

Sing, goddess, the rage of Achilles the son of Peleus,
the destructive rage that sent countless pains on the Achaeans...

The first word of the Iliad is μῆνιν (mēnin), "rage" or "wrath". This word announces the major theme of the Iliad: the wrath of Achilles. When Agamemnon, the commander of the Greek forces at Troy, dishonors Achilles by taking Briseis, a slave woman given to Achilles as a prize of war, Achilles becomes enraged and withdraws from the fighting for almost all of the story. Without him and his powerful Myrmidon warriors, the Greeks suffer defeat by the Trojans, almost to the point of losing their will to fight. Achilles re-enters the fighting when his dearest friend, Patroclus, is killed by the Trojan prince Hector. Achilles slaughters many Trojans and kills Hector. In his rage, he then refuses to return Hector's body and instead defiles it. Priam, the father of Hector, ransoms his son's body, and the Iliad ends with the funeral of Hector. The Wrath of Achilles, by François-Léon Benouville (1821–1859) (Musée Fabre) In Greek mythology, Achilles (also Akhilleus or Achilleus) (Ancient Greek: ) was a hero of the Trojan War, the central character and greatest warrior of Homers Iliad, which takes for its theme, not the War... The so-called Mask of Agamemnon. Discovered by Heinrich Schliemann in 1876 at Mycenae. ... In Greek mythology, BrisÄ“is (Greek Βρισηίς) was a Trojan widow (from Lyrnessus) who was abducted during the Trojan War by Achilles upon the death of her three brothers and husband, King Mynes of Lyrnessus, in the fight. ... A cup depicting Achilles bandaging Patroklos arm, by the Sosias Painter. ... See List of King Priams children Hector brought back to Troy. ... King Priam killed by Neoptolemus, son of Achilles, detail of an Attic red-figure amphora In Greek mythology, Priam (Greek Πρίαμος, Priamos) was the king of Troy during the Trojan War, and youngest son of Laomedon. ...


Homer devotes long passages to frank, blow-by-blow descriptions of combat. He gives the names of the fighters, recounts their taunts and battle-cries, and gruesomely details the ways in which they kill and wound one another. Often, the death of a hero only escalates the violence, as the two sides battle for his armor and corpse, or his close companions launch a punitive attack on his killer. The lucky ones are sometimes whisked away by friendly charioteers or the intervention of a god, but Homeric warfare is still some of the most bloody and brutal in literature. Homer (Greek: ) is the name given to the supposed unitary author of the early Greek poems the Iliad and the Odyssey. ...


The Iliad has a very strong religious and supernatural element. Both sides in the war are extremely pious, and both have heroes descended from divine beings. They constantly sacrifice to the gods and consult priests and prophets to decide their actions. For their own part, the gods frequently join in battles, both by advising and protecting their favorites and even by participating in combat against humans and other gods.


The Iliad's huge cast of characters connects the Trojan War to many Greek myths, such as Jason and the Argonauts, the Seven Against Thebes, and the Labors of Hercules. Many Greek myths exist in multiple versions, so Homer had some freedom to choose among them to suit his story. See Greek mythology for more detail. Jason and the Argonauts may refer to: the Greek myth of Jason and the Argonauts Jason and the Argonauts (film), a 1963 film with animation by Ray Harryhausen Jason and the Argonauts (TV movie), a TV movie made in 2000 This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Επτά επί Θήβας The Seven Against Thebes is a mythic narrative that finds its classic statement in the play by Aeschylus (467 BCE) concerning the battle between the Seven led by Polynices and the army of Thebes headed by Eteocles and his supporters, traditional Theban... Hercules and the hydra by Antonio Pollaiuolo The Twelve Labours (Greek: dodekathlos) of Heracles (Latin: Hercules) are a series of archaic episodes connected by a later continuous narrative, concerning a penance carried out by Heracles, the greatest of the Greek heroes. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ...


The action of the Iliad covers only a few weeks of the tenth and final year of the Trojan War. It does not cover the background and early years of the war (Paris' abduction of Helen from King Menelaus) nor its end (the death of Achilles and the fall of Troy). Other epic poems, collectively known as the Epic Cycle or cyclic epics, narrated many of these events; these poems only survive in fragments and later descriptions. See Trojan War for a summary of the events of the war. The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ... Statue of Paris in the British Museum This article is about the prince of Troy. ... // This article is about the mythological figure Helen of Troy. ... Armenian king Tigranes the Great. ... Menelaus regains Helen, detail of an Attic red-figure crater, ca. ... The Wrath of Achilles, by François-Léon Benouville (1821–1859) (Musée Fabre) In Greek mythology, Achilles (also Akhilleus or Achilleus) (Ancient Greek: ) was a hero of the Trojan War, the central character and greatest warrior of Homers Iliad, which takes for its theme, not the War... The Epic Cycle (Greek: Επικός Κύκλος) was a collection of Ancient Greek epic poems that related the story of the Trojan War, which includes the Kypria, the Aithiopis, the Little Iliad, the Iliou persis (The Sack of Troy), the Nostoi (Returns), and the Telegony. ... The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ...


Synopsis

As the poem begins, the Greeks have captured Chryseis, the daughter of Apollo's priest Chryses, and given her as a prize to Agamemnon. In response, Apollo has sent a plague against the Greeks, who compel Agamemnon to restore Chryseis to her father to stop the sickness. In her place, Agamemnon takes Briseis, whom the Achaeans had given to Achilles as a spoil of war. Achilles, the greatest warrior of the age, follows the advice of his goddess mother, Thetis, and withdraws from battle in revenge. For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... Chryses attempting to ransom his daughter Chryseis from Agamemnon, Apulian red-figure crater by the Athens 1714 Painter, ca. ... The so-called Mask of Agamemnon. Discovered by Heinrich Schliemann in 1876 at Mycenae. ... In Greek mythology, Brisēis (Greek Βρισηίς) was a Trojan widow (from Lyrnessus) who was abducted during the Trojan War by Achilles upon the death of her three brothers and husband, King Mynes of Lyrnessus, in the fight. ... The Wrath of Achilles, by François-Léon Benouville (1821–1859) (Musée Fabre) In Greek mythology, Achilles (also Akhilleus or Achilleus) (Ancient Greek: ) was a hero of the Trojan War, the central character and greatest warrior of Homers Iliad, which takes for its theme, not the War... This article is about the Greek sea nymph. ...


In counterpoint to Achilles' pride and arrogance stands the Trojan prince Hector, son of King Priam, a husband and father who fights to defend his city and his family. With Achilles on the sidelines, Hector leads successful counterattacks against the Greeks, who have built a fortified camp around their ships pulled up on the Trojan beach. The best remaining Greek fighters, including Odysseus, Diomedes, and Ajax, are wounded, and the gods favor the Trojans. Patroclus, impersonating Achilles by wearing his armor, finally leads the Myrmidons back into battle to save the ships from being burned. The death of Patroclus at the hands of Hector brings Achilles back to the war for revenge, and he slays Hector in single combat. Hector's father, King Priam, later comes to Achilles alone (but aided by Hermes) to ransom his son's body, and Achilles is moved to pity; the funeral of Hector ends the poem. See List of King Priams children Hector brought back to Troy. ... King Priam killed by Neoptolemus, son of Achilles, detail of an Attic red-figure amphora In Greek mythology, Priam (Greek Πρίαμος, Priamos) was the king of Troy during the Trojan War, and youngest son of Laomedon. ... Head of Odysseus from a Greek 2nd century BC marble group representing Odysseus blinding Polyphemus, found at the villa of Tiberius at Sperlonga Odysseus or Ulysses (Greek Odysseus; Latin: Ulixes or, more commonly, Ulysses), pronounced , was the Greek king of Ithaca and the main hero in Homers epic poem... Diomēdēs or Diomed (Gk:Διομήδης - God-like cunning or advised by Zeus) is a hero in Greek mythology, mostly known for his participation in the Trojan War. ... Ajax Ajax or Aias (ancient Greek: ) was a mythological Greek hero, the son of Telamon and Periboea and king of Salamis. ... A cup depicting Achilles bandaging Patroklos arm, by the Sosias Painter. ... Guðrún agitates her sons, Hamðir and Sörli, to avenge their sister. ... Hermes Fastening his Sandal, Roman marble copy of a Lysippan bronze (Louvre Museum) Hermes (Greek, , IPA: ), in Greek mythology, is the Olympian god of boundaries and of the travelers who cross them, of shepherds and cowherds, of orators and wit, of literature and poets, of athletics, of weights and measures...


Book summaries

Iliad, Book 8, lines 245-253, in a manuscript of the late fifth or early sixth century AD

The so-called Mask of Agamemnon. Discovered by Heinrich Schliemann in 1876 at Mycenae. ... In Greek mythology, Brisēis (Greek Βρισηίς) was a Trojan widow (from Lyrnessus) who was abducted during the Trojan War by Achilles upon the death of her three brothers and husband, King Mynes of Lyrnessus, in the fight. ... The Wrath of Achilles, by François-Léon Benouville (1821–1859) (Musée Fabre) In Greek mythology, Achilles (also Akhilleus or Achilleus) (Ancient Greek: ) was a hero of the Trojan War, the central character and greatest warrior of Homers Iliad, which takes for its theme, not the War... The Wrath of Achilles, by François-Léon Benouville (1821–1859) (Musée Fabre) In Greek mythology, Achilles (also Akhilleus or Achilleus) (Ancient Greek: ) was a hero of the Trojan War, the central character and greatest warrior of Homers Iliad, which takes for its theme, not the War... The so-called Mask of Agamemnon. Discovered by Heinrich Schliemann in 1876 at Mycenae. ... Head of Odysseus from a Greek 2nd century BC marble group representing Odysseus blinding Polyphemus, found at the villa of Tiberius at Sperlonga Odysseus or Ulysses (Greek Odysseus; Latin: Ulixes or, more commonly, Ulysses), pronounced , was the Greek king of Ithaca and the main hero in Homers epic poem... Map of Homeric Greece The famous Catalogue of Ships (νεων κατολογος) is recorded as a part of Book II (verses 494–760, PP Il. ... The Trojan Battle Order is a section of the second book of the Iliad. ... Statue of Paris in the British Museum This article is about the prince of Troy. ... Menelaus regains Helen, detail of an Attic red-figure crater, ca. ... For other uses, see Aphrodite (disambiguation). ... Diomēdēs or Diomed (Gk:Διομήδης - God-like cunning or advised by Zeus) is a hero in Greek mythology, mostly known for his participation in the Trojan War. ... Ancient Greek, literally: In the dramatic conventions of such works as the Iliad, this is a scene in which a hero in battle has his finest moments (aristos = best). ... For other uses, see Aphrodite (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Ares (Ancient Greek: , modern Greek Άρης [pron. ... In Greek mythology, Glaucus (shiny, bright or bluish-green) was the name of several different figures, including one God. ... Diomēdēs or Diomed (Gk:Διομήδης - God-like cunning or advised by Zeus) is a hero in Greek mythology, mostly known for his participation in the Trojan War. ... See List of King Priams children Hector brought back to Troy. ... Andromache grieves the loss of Hector In Greek mythology, Andromache was the wife of Hector and daughter of Eetion, sister to Podes. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... See List of King Priams children Hector brought back to Troy. ... Ajax Ajax or Aias (ancient Greek: ) was a mythological Greek hero, the son of Telamon and Periboea and king of Salamis. ... The so-called Mask of Agamemnon. Discovered by Heinrich Schliemann in 1876 at Mycenae. ... The Wrath of Achilles, by François-Léon Benouville (1821–1859) (Musée Fabre) In Greek mythology, Achilles (also Akhilleus or Achilleus) (Ancient Greek: ) was a hero of the Trojan War, the central character and greatest warrior of Homers Iliad, which takes for its theme, not the War... Diomēdēs or Diomed (Gk:Διομήδης - God-like cunning or advised by Zeus) is a hero in Greek mythology, mostly known for his participation in the Trojan War. ... Head of Odysseus from a Greek 2nd century BC marble group representing Odysseus blinding Polyphemus, found at the villa of Tiberius at Sperlonga Odysseus or Ulysses (Greek Odysseus; Latin: Ulixes or, more commonly, Ulysses), pronounced , was the Greek king of Ithaca and the main hero in Homers epic poem... Statue of Paris in the British Museum This article is about the prince of Troy. ... Diomēdēs or Diomed (Gk:Διομήδης - God-like cunning or advised by Zeus) is a hero in Greek mythology, mostly known for his participation in the Trojan War. ... The Wrath of Achilles, by François-Léon Benouville (1821–1859) (Musée Fabre) In Greek mythology, Achilles (also Akhilleus or Achilleus) (Ancient Greek: ) was a hero of the Trojan War, the central character and greatest warrior of Homers Iliad, which takes for its theme, not the War... A cup depicting Achilles bandaging Patroklos arm, by the Sosias Painter. ... Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... In the Olympian pantheon of classical Greek Mythology, Hera, (Greek , IPA pronunciation ; or Here in Ionic and in Homer) was the wife and older sister of Zeus. ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iliad. ... The Statue of Zeus at Olympia Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in Ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th century engraving Zeus (in Greek: nominative: Zeús, genitive: Diós), is... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... A cup depicting Achilles bandaging Patroklos arm, by the Sosias Painter. ... The Wrath of Achilles, by François-Léon Benouville (1821–1859) (Musée Fabre) In Greek mythology, Achilles (also Akhilleus or Achilleus) (Ancient Greek: ) was a hero of the Trojan War, the central character and greatest warrior of Homers Iliad, which takes for its theme, not the War... In Greek mythology, Sarpedon referred to several different people. ... See List of King Priams children Hector brought back to Troy. ... A cup depicting Achilles bandaging Patroklos arm, by the Sosias Painter. ... The Wrath of Achilles, by François-Léon Benouville (1821–1859) (Musée Fabre) In Greek mythology, Achilles (also Akhilleus or Achilleus) (Ancient Greek: ) was a hero of the Trojan War, the central character and greatest warrior of Homers Iliad, which takes for its theme, not the War... A cup depicting Achilles bandaging Patroklos arm, by the Sosias Painter. ... The Shield Described in the Iliad The Shield of Achilles is described in the Iliad in great detail. ... The Wrath of Achilles, by François-Léon Benouville (1821–1859) (Musée Fabre) In Greek mythology, Achilles (also Akhilleus or Achilleus) (Ancient Greek: ) was a hero of the Trojan War, the central character and greatest warrior of Homers Iliad, which takes for its theme, not the War... The so-called Mask of Agamemnon. Discovered by Heinrich Schliemann in 1876 at Mycenae. ... The Wrath of Achilles, by François-Léon Benouville (1821–1859) (Musée Fabre) In Greek mythology, Achilles (also Akhilleus or Achilleus) (Ancient Greek: ) was a hero of the Trojan War, the central character and greatest warrior of Homers Iliad, which takes for its theme, not the War... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598. ... The Wrath of Achilles, by François-Léon Benouville (1821–1859) (Musée Fabre) In Greek mythology, Achilles (also Akhilleus or Achilleus) (Ancient Greek: ) was a hero of the Trojan War, the central character and greatest warrior of Homers Iliad, which takes for its theme, not the War... In Greek mythology, Scamander (Skamandros) was an Oceanid, son of Oceanus and Tethys. ... See List of King Priams children Hector brought back to Troy. ... Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... The Wrath of Achilles, by François-Léon Benouville (1821–1859) (Musée Fabre) In Greek mythology, Achilles (also Akhilleus or Achilleus) (Ancient Greek: ) was a hero of the Trojan War, the central character and greatest warrior of Homers Iliad, which takes for its theme, not the War... See List of King Priams children Hector brought back to Troy. ... A cup depicting Achilles bandaging Patroklos arm, by the Sosias Painter. ... King Priam killed by Neoptolemus, son of Achilles, detail of an Attic red-figure amphora In Greek mythology, Priam (Greek Πρίαμος, Priamos) was the king of Troy during the Trojan War, and youngest son of Laomedon. ...

Incidents and passages

Map of Homeric Greece The famous Catalogue of Ships (νεων κατολογος) is recorded as a part of Book II (verses 494–760, PP Il. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iliad. ... The Shield Described in the Iliad The Shield of Achilles is described in the Iliad in great detail. ...

After the Iliad: the end of the war and the odyssey home

Although the Iliad scatters foreshadowings of certain events subsequent to the funeral of Hector, and there is a general sense that the Trojans are doomed, Homer does not set out a detailed account of the fall of Troy. The following account comes from later Greek and Roman poetry and drama. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ...


Achilles fights and kills the Amazon queen Penthesilea and the Aethiopean king Memnon. Not long after the death of Hector, Paris kills Achilles himself on the battlefield, striking his vulnerable heel with a poisoned arrow. (See Achilles' Heel). After his death, the Greeks' next greatest warrior after Achilles, Ajax feuds with Odysseus over who should keep his armor. They submit their disagreement to an impromptu court, which awards the armor to Odysseus. Ajax subsequently sets out to murder the other Greek commanders, but is sent mad by the gods and instead slaughters his own livestock. Upon regaining his senses, he kills himself in shame. The Wrath of Achilles, by François-Léon Benouville (1821–1859) (Musée Fabre) In Greek mythology, Achilles (also Akhilleus or Achilleus) (Ancient Greek: ) was a hero of the Trojan War, the central character and greatest warrior of Homers Iliad, which takes for its theme, not the War... The Amazons (in Greek, ) were a mythical ancient nation of all-female warriors. ... In Greek mythology, Penthesilea (also spelled Penthesilia) was an Amazonian queen, daughter of Ares and Otrera, sister of Hippolyte, Antiope and Melanippe. ... In Greek mythology, Memnon was an Ethiopian king and son of Tithonus and Eos. ... Statue of Paris in the British Museum This article is about the prince of Troy. ... An Achilles’ heel is a fatal weakness in spite of overall strength, actually or potentially leading to downfall. ... Ajax Ajax or Aias (ancient Greek: ) was a mythological Greek hero, the son of Telamon and Periboea and king of Salamis. ... Head of Odysseus from a Greek 2nd century BC marble group representing Odysseus blinding Polyphemus, found at the villa of Tiberius at Sperlonga Odysseus or Ulysses (Greek Odysseus; Latin: Ulixes or, more commonly, Ulysses), pronounced , was the Greek king of Ithaca and the main hero in Homers epic poem...


Odysseus sets forth on several missions to learn and fulfill the many prophecies about the fall of Troy. He recruits Neoptolemus, son of Achilles, into the war, and they retrieve Philoctetes, a crippled Greek who had been abandoned by the others along the journey, because it was prophesied the war could not be won without his bow, passed down to him by Heracles. Along with Diomedes, Odysseus sneaks into the city to steal the Palladion, again because the city could not fall with the holy statue still safely inside it. Neoptolemus killing Priam In Greek mythology, Neoptolemus, also Neoptólemos or Pyrrhus, was the son of the warrior Achilles and the princess Deidamea. ... In Greek mythology, Philoctetes (also Philoktêtês or Philocthetes, Φιλοκτήτης) was the son of King Poeas of Meliboea in Thessaly. ... Hercules, a Roman bronze (Louvre Museum) For other uses, see Heracles (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Palladium (mythology). ...


Odysseus devises a plan to take the city by stealth. He has his men build a large, hollow wooden horse, and then he and twenty others hide inside. The Greek ships withdraw out of sight of Troy, seemingly admitting defeat and returning home, and leave behind the horse, purportedly as an offering to Poseidon for good winds on the return trip. The Trojans take this inside the great walls of Troy, then feast to celebrate their victory and the war's end. At night, Odysseus, Diomedes, Idomeneus and the other soldiers creep out of the horse and open the gates to the other Greeks who have sailed back under cover of night. The city is sacked, and in some accounts burns for seven years. 19th century etching of the Trojan Horse. ...


Priam is killed. According to one tradition, Hector's wife Andromache throws their son Astyanax and herself from the ramparts to save them from slavery. According to another, Astyanax is killed by Neoptolemus to ensure that Hector's son cannot seek vengeance for his father's death against Achilles' son. Andromache becomes Neoptolemus' concubine, later to marry Helenus, Hector's brother. A Roman tradition held that Aeneas escaped with his family and several hundred people, who after years of migration eventually founded Rome. (This tradition is best known from Virgil's Aeneid). See List of King Priams children Hector brought back to Troy. ... Andromache grieves the loss of Hector In Greek mythology, Andromache was the wife of Hector and daughter of Eetion, sister to Podes. ... In Greek mythology, Astyanax (Greek Ἀστυάναξ, prince of the city) was the son of Hector and Andromache. ... Slave redirects here. ... Helenus was a Trojan soldier in the Trojan War. ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Publius Vergilius Maro (October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), later called Virgilius, and known in English as Virgil or Vergil, was a classical Roman poet, the author of epics in three modes: the Bucolics [commonly but less correctly called the Eclogues], the Georgics and the substantially completed Aeneid... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome The Aeneid (IPA English pronunciation: ; in Latin Aeneis, pronounced — the title is Greek in form: genitive case Aeneidos): is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BCE (between 29 and 19 BCE) that tells the legendary story...


Homer narrated Odysseus' long journey home in the Odyssey. Menelaus and Helen return to Sparta to rule. Agamemnon enslaves the cursed prophetess Cassandra. When he returns home, he is murdered by his wife Clytemnestra and her lover, Aegisthus. They in turn are killed by Agamemnon's son, Orestes, and his daughter, Elektra. Menelaus regains Helen, detail of an Attic red-figure crater, ca. ... // This article is about the mythological figure Helen of Troy. ... Sparta (Doric: Spártā, Attic: SpártÄ“) is a city in southern Greece. ... Painting by Evelyn De Morgan. ... After the murder (1882 painting) Clytemnestra (or Clytaemestra) ‘‘(Eng. ... In Greek mythology, Aegisthus (goat strength, also transliterated as Aegisthos or Aigísthos) was the son of Thyestes and his daughter, Pelopia. ... The so-called Mask of Agamemnon. Discovered by Heinrich Schliemann in 1876 at Mycenae. ... Orestes Ορεστης is a Greek name, literally he who stands on the mountain, or mountain-dweller. Orestes can refer to: In Greek mythology, the son of Agamemnon. ... Electra at the Tomb of Agamemnon In Greek mythology, Electra was daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra. ...


Major characters

Main article: List of characters in the Iliad

The Iliad contains a sometimes confusingly great number of characters. The latter half of the second book (often called the Catalogue of Ships) is devoted entirely to listing the various commanders. Many of the battle scenes in the Iliad feature bit characters who are quickly slain. See Trojan War for a detailed list of participating armies and warriors. This is a list of the characters that appear in the Iliad by Homer. ... Map of Homeric Greece The famous Catalogue of Ships (νεων κατολογος) is recorded as a part of Book II (verses 494–760, PP Il. ... The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ...

  • The Achaeans (Αχαιοί) - the word "Hellenes", which would today be translated as "Greeks", is not used by Homer
    • Achilles (Αχιλλεύς), the leader of the Myrmidons (Μυρμιδόνες) and the principal Greek champion whose anger is one of the main elements of the story
      • Briseis, a woman captured by the Achaeans in the sack of Lyrnessus, a small town in the territory of Troy, and awarded to Achilles as a prize; Agamemnon takes her from Achilles in Book 1 and Achilles withdraws from battle as a result
    • Agamemnon (Αγαμέμνων), King of Mycenae, supreme commander of the Achaean armies whose actions provoke the feud with Achilles; brother of King Menelaus
    • Menelaus (Μενέλαος), Helen's abandoned husband, younger brother of Agamemnon, King of Sparta
    • Odysseus (Οδυσσεύς), another warrior-king, famed for his guile and cunning, who is the main character of another (roughly equally ancient) epic, the Odyssey, is an important character in the Iliad
    • Calchas (Κάλχας), a powerful Greek prophet and omen reader, who guided the Greeks through the war with his predictions.
    • Patroclus (Πάτροκλος), beloved companion to Achilles
    • Nestor (Νέστωρ), Diomedes (Διομήδης), Idomeneus (Ιδομενεύς), and Telamonian Ajax (Αίας ο Τελαμώνιος), kings of the principal city-states of Greece who are leaders of their own armies, under the overall command of Agamemnon
    • Diomedes (Διομήδης), son of Tydeus, and a noble Greek. He was a close companian of Odysseus.
  • The Trojan men and their allies
    • Priam (Πρίαμος), king of the Trojans, too old to take part in the fighting; many of the Trojan commanders are his fifty sons
    • Hector (Έκτωρ), firstborn son of King Priam, leader of the Trojan and allied armies and heir apparent to the throne of Troy
    • Paris (Πάρις), Trojan prince and Hector's brother, also called Alexander (Aλέξανδρος); his abduction of Helen is the casus belli. He was supposed to be killed as a baby because his sister Cassandra foresaw that he would cause the destruction of Troy. Raised by a shepherd.
    • Aeneas (Αινείας), cousin of Hector and his principal lieutenant, son of Aphrodite, the only major Trojan figure to survive the war. Held by later tradition to be the forefather of the founders of Rome. See the Aeneid.
    • Glaucus and Sarpedon (Σαρπήδων), leaders of the Lycian forces allied to the Trojan cause.
    • Pandarus, a Trojan archer whose shot at Menelaus in Book 4 breaks the temporary truce between the two sides.
    • Polydamas, a young Trojan commander who sometimes figures as a foil for Hector by proving cool-headed and prudent when Hector charges ahead. Polydamas gives the Trojans sound advice, but Hector seldom acts on it.
    • Agenor, a Trojan warrior who attempts to fight Achilles in Book 21. Agenor delays Achilles long enough for the Trojan army to flee inside Troy’s walls.
    • Dolon (Δόλων), a Trojan who is sent to spy on the Achaean camp in Book 10.
    • Antenor (mythology), a Trojan nobleman, advisor to King Priam, and father of many Trojan warriors. Antenor argues that Helen should be returned to Menelaus in order to end the war, but Paris refuses to give her up.
  • The Trojan women
    • Hecuba (Εκάβη), Queen of Troy, wife of Priam, mother of Hector, Cassandra, Paris etc
    • Helen (Ελένη), former Queen of Sparta and wife of Menelaus, now espoused to Paris
    • Andromache (Ανδρομάχη), Hector's wife and mother of their infant son, Astyanax (Αστυάναξ)
    • Cassandra (Κασσάνδρα), daughter of Priam, prophetess, first courted and then cursed by Apollo. As her punishment for offending him, she accurately foresees the fate of Troy, including her own death and the deaths of her entire family, but does not have the power to do anything about it.

The Olympian deities, principally Zeus, Hera, Apollo, Hades, Aphrodite, Ares, Athena, Hermes and Poseidon, as well as the lesser figures Eris, Thetis, and Proteus appear in the Iliad as advisers to and manipulators of the human characters. All except Zeus become personally involved in the fighting at one point or another (See Theomachy). This article is about the ancient people of the Achaeans. ... The Wrath of Achilles, by François-Léon Benouville (1821–1859) (Musée Fabre) In Greek mythology, Achilles (also Akhilleus or Achilleus) (Ancient Greek: ) was a hero of the Trojan War, the central character and greatest warrior of Homers Iliad, which takes for its theme, not the War... The Myrmidons (or Myrmidones Μυρμιδόνες) were an ancient nation of Greek mythology. ... Anger may be a (physiological and psychological) response to a perceived threat to self or important others, present, past, or future. ... In Greek mythology, Brisēis (Greek Βρισηίς) was a Trojan widow (from Lyrnessus) who was abducted during the Trojan War by Achilles upon the death of her three brothers and husband, King Mynes of Lyrnessus, in the fight. ... In Greek mythology Lyrnessus is a town or cirty in Dardania (Asia minor), inhabited by Cilicians. ... The so-called Mask of Agamemnon. Discovered by Heinrich Schliemann in 1876 at Mycenae. ... A clay tablet with writing in Linear B from Mycenae. ... This article is about the ancient people of the Achaeans. ... Menelaus regains Helen, detail of an Attic red-figure crater, ca. ... Menelaus regains Helen, detail of an Attic red-figure crater, ca. ... // This article is about the mythological figure Helen of Troy. ... Sparta (Doric: Spártā, Attic: Spártē) is a city in southern Greece. ... Head of Odysseus from a Greek 2nd century BC marble group representing Odysseus blinding Polyphemus, found at the villa of Tiberius at Sperlonga Odysseus or Ulysses (Greek Odysseus; Latin: Ulixes or, more commonly, Ulysses), pronounced , was the Greek king of Ithaca and the main hero in Homers epic poem... Beginning of the Odyssey The Odyssey (Greek Οδύσσεια (Odússeia) ) is one of the two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to the Ionian poet Homer. ... In Greek mythology, Kalchas Thestórides (son of Thestor), or Calchas (brazen) for short, a loyal Argive, was a powerful seer, a gift of Apollo: as an augur, Calchas had no rival in the camp (Iliad i, E.V. Rieu translation) Calchas prophesized that in order to gain a favourable... In religion, a prophet (or prophetess) is a person who has directly encountered the numinous or the divine and serves as an intermediary with humanity. ... Examples of omens from the Nuremberg Chronicle (1493): natural phenomena and strange births. ... A cup depicting Achilles bandaging Patroklos arm, by the Sosias Painter. ... In Greek mythology, Nestor of Gerênia (Greek: Νέστωρ) was the son of Neleus, the King of Pylos, and Chloris. ... Diomēdēs or Diomed (Gk:Διομήδης - God-like cunning or advised by Zeus) is a hero in Greek mythology, mostly known for his participation in the Trojan War. ... In Greek mythology, Idomeneus was a Cretan warrior, grandson of Minos. ... Ajax Ajax or Aias (ancient Greek: ) was a mythological Greek hero, the son of Telamon and Periboea and king of Salamis. ... Diomēdēs or Diomed (Gk:Διομήδης - God-like cunning or advised by Zeus) is a hero in Greek mythology, mostly known for his participation in the Trojan War. ... King Priam killed by Neoptolemus, son of Achilles, detail of an Attic red-figure amphora In Greek mythology, Priam (Greek Πρίαμος, Priamos) was the king of Troy during the Trojan War, and youngest son of Laomedon. ... See List of King Priams children Hector brought back to Troy. ... Contrasting with heir presumptive, an heir apparent is one who cannot be prevented from inheriting by the birth of any other person. ... Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... Statue of Paris in the British Museum This article is about the prince of Troy. ... // This article is about the mythological figure Helen of Troy. ... Casus belli is a modern Latin language expression meaning the justification for acts of war. ... Painting by Evelyn De Morgan. ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598. ... For other uses, see Aphrodite (disambiguation). ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome The Aeneid (IPA English pronunciation: ; in Latin Aeneis, pronounced — the title is Greek in form: genitive case Aeneidos): is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BCE (between 29 and 19 BCE) that tells the legendary story... In Greek mythology, Glaucus (shiny, bright or bluish-green) was the name of several different figures, including one God. ... In Greek mythology, Sarpedon referred to several different people. ... Lycia (Lycian: Trm̃misa) is a region in the modern day Antalya Province on the southern coast of Turkey. ... In Homers Iliad, Pandarus or Pandaros is the son of Lycaon and a famous archer. ... In Greek mythology, Poludamas or Polydamas was a lieutenant and friend of Hector during the Trojan War. ... In history and Greek mythology, Agenor (which means very manly) was a king of Tyre. ... In Greek mythology, Dolon (In Ancient Greek: Δόλων) was the son of Eumedes. ... In Greek mythology, Antenor was a son of the Dardanian noble Aesyetes by Cleomestra. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... King Priam killed by Neoptolemus, son of Achilles, detail of an Attic red-figure amphora In Greek mythology, Priam (Greek Πρίαμος, Priamos) was the king of Troy during the Trojan War, and youngest son of Laomedon. ... See List of King Priams children Hector brought back to Troy. ... Painting by Evelyn De Morgan. ... Statue of Paris in the British Museum This article is about the prince of Troy. ... // This article is about the mythological figure Helen of Troy. ... Menelaus regains Helen, detail of an Attic red-figure crater, ca. ... Statue of Paris in the British Museum This article is about the prince of Troy. ... Andromache grieves the loss of Hector In Greek mythology, Andromache was the wife of Hector and daughter of Eetion, sister to Podes. ... See List of King Priams children Hector brought back to Troy. ... In Greek mythology, Astyanax (Greek Ἀστυάναξ, prince of the city) was the son of Hector and Andromache. ... Painting by Evelyn De Morgan. ... The Statue of Zeus at Olympia Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in Ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th century engraving Zeus (in Greek: nominative: Zeús, genitive: Diós), is... In the Olympian pantheon of classical Greek Mythology, Hera, (Greek , IPA pronunciation ; or Here in Ionic and in Homer) was the wife and older sister of Zeus. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Aphrodite (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Ares (Ancient Greek: , modern Greek Άρης [pron. ... This marble copy signed ANTIOCHOS is a first century BCE copy of Phidias 5th-century original that stood on the Acropolis In Greek mythology, Athena (Attic: , Athēnâ, or , Athḗnē; Doric: , Asána; Latin: Minerva), the shrewd companion of heroes, evolved into the goddess of wisdom, as philosophy became... Hermes Fastening his Sandal, Roman marble copy of a Lysippan bronze (Louvre Museum) Hermes (Greek, , IPA: ), in Greek mythology, is the Olympian god of boundaries and of the travelers who cross them, of shepherds and cowherds, of orators and wit, of literature and poets, of athletics, of weights and measures... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... Eris (ca. ... This article is about the Greek sea nymph. ... This article is about Proteus in Greek mythology. ... Theomachy is a reference to battles fought between Greek Olympians themselves. ...


Technical features

The poem is written in dactylic hexameter. The Iliad comprises 15,693 lines of verse. Later Greeks divided it into twenty-four books, or scrolls, and this convention has lasted to the present day with little change. Dactyllic hexameter (also known as heroic hexameter) is a form of meter in poetry or a rhythmic scheme. ...


The Iliad as oral tradition

The Iliad and the Odyssey were considered by Greeks of the classical age, and later, as the most important works in Ancient Greek literature, and were the basis of Greek pedagogy in antiquity. As the center of the rhapsode's repertoire, their recitation was a central part of Greek religious festivals. The book would be spoken or sung all night (modern readings last around 14 hours), with audiences coming and going for parts they particularly enjoyed. Ancient Greek literature refers to literature written in the Greek language until the 4th century AD. // This period of Greek literature stretches from Homer until the 4th century and the rise of Alexander the Great. ... Pedagogy (IPA: ) , the art or science of being a teacher, generally refers to strategies of instruction, or a style of instruction[1]. The word comes from the Ancient Greek (paidagōgeō; from (child) and (lead)): literally, to lead the child”. In Ancient Greece, was (usually) a slave who supervised the... In classical antiquity, a rhapsode was a professional reciter of poetry, especially the epics of Homer, but also the wisdom-verse of Hesiod and the satires of Archilochus, among others. ...


Throughout much of their history, scholars of the written word treated the Iliad and Odyssey as literary poems, and Homer as a writer much like themselves. However, in the late 19th century and the early 20th century, scholars began to question this assumption. Milman Parry, a classical scholar, was intrigued by peculiar features of Homeric style: in particular the stock epithets and the often extensive repetition of words, phrase and even whole chunks of text. He argued that these features were artifacts of oral composition. The poet employs stock phrases because of the ease with which they could be applied to a hexameter line. Taking this theory, Parry travelled in Yugoslavia, studying the local oral poetry. In his research he observed oral poets employing stock phrases and repetition to assist with the challenge of composing a poem orally and improvisationally. Parry's line of inquiry opened up a wider study of oral modes of thought and communication and their evolution under the impact of writing and print by Eric Havelock, Marshall McLuhan, Walter Ong and others. Homer (Greek: ) is the name given to the supposed unitary author of the early Greek poems the Iliad and the Odyssey. ... Milman Parry (1902 -December 3, 1935) was a scholar of epic poetry. ... Orality can be defined as thought and its verbal expression in societies where the technologies of literacy (especially writing and print) are unfamiliar to most of the population. ... Illustration of a scribe writing Writing, in its most common sense, is the preservation of and the preserved text on a medium, with the use of signs or symbols. ... For other uses, see Print. ... Attic cup inscribed with the Greek alphabet. ... “McLuhan” redirects here. ... Walter Ong Walter J. Ong (November 30, 1912 – August 12, 2003) is an educator, academic, and linguist known for his work in Renaissance literary and intellectual history and in contemporary culture as well as for his more wide-ranging studies on the evolution of consciousness. ...


The relationship of Achilles and Patroclus

Achilles and Patroclus.

The precise nature of the relationship between Achilles and Patroclus has been the subject of some dispute in both the classical period and modern times. In the Iliad, it is clear that the two heroes have a deep and extremely meaningful friendship, but the evidence of a romantic or sexual element is equivocal. Commentators from the classical period to today have tended to interpret the relationship through the lens of their own cultures. Thus, in fifth-century Athens the relationship was commonly interpreted as pederastic, since pederasty was an accepted part of Athenian society. Present day readers are more likely to interpret the two heroes either as non-sexual "war buddies" or as a similarly-aged homosexual couple. Enlarge Achilles bandages the arm of his friend Patroclus. ... Image File history File links Achilles_Patroclus_Berlin_F2278. ... Image File history File links Achilles_Patroclus_Berlin_F2278. ... The term pederasty or paederasty embraces a wide range of erotic practices between adult and adolescents, generally between males. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ...


The Iliad in subsequent arts and literature

Subjects from the Trojan War were a favourite among ancient Greek dramatists. Aeschylus' trilogy, the Oresteia, comprising Agamemnon, The Libation Bearers, and The Eumenides, follows the story of Agamemnon after his return from the war. This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ... The Oresteia is a trilogy of tragedies about the end of the curse on the House of Atreus, written by Aeschylus. ...


William Shakespeare used the plot of the Iliad as a source material for his play Troilus and Cressida, but focused the love story of Troilus, a Trojan prince and a son of Priam, and a Trojan woman Cressida. The play, often considered to be a comedy, reverses traditional views on events of the Trojan War and depicts Achilles as a coward, Ajax as a dull, unthinking mercenary, etc. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A Scene from Troilus and Cressida (1789) by Angelica Kauffmann Troilus and Cressida is a play by William Shakespeare. ... Troilus is a character in medieval and Renaissance versions of the legend of the Trojan War. ... King Priam killed by Neoptolemus, son of Achilles, detail of an Attic red-figure amphora In Greek mythology, Priam (Greek Πρίαμος, Priamos) was the king of Troy during the Trojan War, and youngest son of Laomedon. ... Cressida is a character who appears in many Medieval and Renaissance retellings of the story of the Trojan War. ... The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ... The Wrath of Achilles, by François-Léon Benouville (1821–1859) (Musée Fabre) In Greek mythology, Achilles (also Akhilleus or Achilleus) (Ancient Greek: ) was a hero of the Trojan War, the central character and greatest warrior of Homers Iliad, which takes for its theme, not the War... Ajax Ajax or Aias (ancient Greek: ) was a mythological Greek hero, the son of Telamon and Periboea and king of Salamis. ...


Power Metal band Blind Guardian composed a 14 minute song about the Iliad. The song's name is And Then There Was Silence. Power metal is a style of heavy metal music typically with the aim of evoking an epic feel, combining characteristics of traditional metal with thrash metal or speed metal, often within symphonic context. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Band members Vocals and backing vocals: Hansi Kürsch Lead, rhythm and acoustic guitars: André Olbrich Rhythm guitars: Marcus Siepen Drums and percussions: Thomas Thomen Stauch Track listing And then there was Silence (14:07) Harvest of Sorrow (3:39) Multi Media Track: Born in a Mourning Hall (5:17...


The 1954 Broadway musical The Golden Apple by librettist John Treville Latouche and composer Jerome Moross was freely adapted from the Iliad and the Odyssey, re-setting the action to America's Washington state in the years after the Spanish-American War, with events inspired by the Iliad in Act One and events inspired by the Odyssey in Act Two. Musical theater (or theatre) is a form of theater combining music, songs, dance, and spoken dialogue. ... The Golden Apple is a musical adaptation of both the Iliad and Odyssey of Homer, produced both off-Broadway and on- in 1954. ... John Treville Latouche (November 13, 1914 – August 7, 1956) was a musician and writer. ... Jerome Moross (August 1, 1913 - July 27, 1983) was an American stage and film composer and conductor. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Official language(s) English Capital Olympia Largest city Seattle Area  Ranked 18th  - Total 71,342 sq mi (184,827 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 6. ... Combatants United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Republic Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Arsenio Linares General Ramón Blanco Casualties 3,289 U.S. dead (432 from combat); considerably higher although undetermined Cuban and Filipino...


Christa Wolf's 1983 novel Kassandra is a critical engagement with the stuff of the Iliad. Wolf's narrator is Cassandra, whose thoughts we hear at the moment just before her murder by Clytemnestra in Sparta. Wolf's narrator presents a feminist's view of the war, and of war in general. Cassandra's story is accompanied by four essays which Wolf delivered as the Frankfurter Poetik-Vorlesungen. The essays present Wolf's concerns as a writer and rewriter of this canonical story and show the genesis of the novel through Wolf's own readings and in a trip she took to Greece. Christa Wolf (born March 18, 1929 in Landsberg an der Warthe, Germany (currently Gorzów Wielkopolski, Poland) as Christa Ihlenfeld) is one of the best-known writers to emerge from the former East Germany. ...


An epic science fiction adaptation/tribute by acclaimed author Dan Simmons titled Ilium was released in 2003. The novel received a Locus Award for best science fiction novel of 2003. Dan Simmons (born April 4, 1948 in Peoria, Illinois) is an American author most widely known for his Hugo Award-winning science fiction novel Hyperion and its sequel The Fall of Hyperion. ... Ilium is a science fiction novel by Dan Simmons concerning the re-creation of the events in the Iliad (possibly on an alternate-universe Earth) by post-humans who dwell on Olympus Mons on Mars, and who have taken on the roles of the Greek gods. ... The Locus Awards are presented to winners of Locus Magazines annual readers poll, which was established in the early 70s specifically to provide recommendations and suggestions to Hugo Awards voters. ...


A loose film adaptation of the Iliad, Troy, was released in 2004, starring Brad Pitt as Achilles, Orlando Bloom as Paris, Eric Bana as Hector, Sean Bean as Odysseus and Brian Cox as Agamemnon. It was directed by German-born Wolfgang Petersen. The movie only loosely resembles the Homeric version, with the supernatural elements of the story were deliberately expunged, except for one scene that includes Achilles' sea nymph mother, Thetis (although her supernatural nature is never specifically stated, and she is aged as though human). Troy is a movie released on May 14, 2004 about the Trojan War, which is described in Homers Iliad and other Greek myths as having taken place in Anatolia (modern Turkey) around the 13th or 12th century BC. It stars, among others: Brad Pitt as Achilles, Eric Bana as... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... William Bradley Brad Pitt(born December 18, 1963) is an American actor and film producer. ... Orlando Jonathan Blanchard Bloom[1] (born 13 January 1977) is an English actor. ... Eric Bana (born Eric Banadinovich on August 9, 1968) is an Australian film and television actor. ... Shaun Mark Bean (born 17 April 1959 in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England) is an English film and stage actor. ... Head of Odysseus from a Greek 2nd century BC marble group representing Odysseus blinding Polyphemus, found at the villa of Tiberius at Sperlonga Odysseus or Ulysses (Greek Odysseus; Latin: Ulixes or, more commonly, Ulysses), pronounced , was the Greek king of Ithaca and the main hero in Homers epic poem... Brian Denis Cox, CBE (born June 1, 1946 in Dundee, Scotland) is a Scottish actor, notable for being the first actor to play Hannibal Lecter, a role he took in the Michael Mann film Manhunter (in which the characters surname was spelled Lecktor). Image:Http://www. ... The so-called Mask of Agamemnon. Discovered by Heinrich Schliemann in 1876 at Mycenae. ... Wolfgang Petersen Wolfgang Petersen (born March 14, 1941 in Emden, Lower Saxony, Germany) is a German film director. ... This article is about the Greek sea nymph. ...


Though the film received mixed reviews, it was a commercial success, particularly in international sales. It grossed $133 million in the United States and $497 million worldwide, placing it in the 50 top-grossing movies of all time.


A number of comic series have re-told the legend of the Trojan War. The most inclusive may be Age of Bronze, a comprehensive retelling by writer/artist Eric Shanower that incorporates a broad spectrum of literary traditions and archaeological findings. Started in 1999, it is projected to number seven volumes. Age of Bronze is a comic book series by writer/artist Eric Shanower which began publication by Image Comics in the late 1990s. ... Age of Bronze issue 12 cover art Eric James Shanower (b. ...


Translations into English

The Iliad has been translated into English for centuries. George Chapman's 16th century translation was praised by John Keats in his sonnet, On First Looking into Chapman's Homer. Alexander Pope's translation into rhymed pentameter was published in 1713. William Cowper's 1791 version in forceful Miltonic blank verse is highly regarded by those who manage to find a copy. In his lectures On Translating Homer Matthew Arnold commented on the problems of translating the Iliad and on the major translations available in 1861. In 1870 the American poet William Cullen Bryant published a "simple, faithful" (Van Wyck Brooks) version in blank verse. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article is about George Chapman the English literary figure; see George Chapman (murderer) for the Victorian poisoner of the same name. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Keats grave in Rome (left). ... On First Looking into Chapmans Homer is a sonnet by English Romantic poet John Keats (1795-1821), written in October 1816. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In poetry, a pentameter is a line of verse consisting of five metrical feet: Be what you can if thus your heart so deem, For more the man will less the foible seem. ... Caricature from Punch, 1881: Admit that Homer sometimes nods, That poets do write trash, Our Bard has written Balder Dead, And also Balder-dash On Translating Homer, published in January 1861, was a printed version of the series of public lectures given by Matthew Arnold as Professor of Poetry at... Matthew Arnold Caricature from Punch, 1881: Admit that Homer sometimes nods, That poets do write trash, Our Bard has written Balder Dead, And also Balder-dash Family tree Matthew Arnold (24 December 1822 – 15 April 1888) was an English poet and cultural critic, who worked as an inspector of schools. ...


There are several twentieth century English translations. Richmond Lattimore's version attempts to reproduce, line for line, the rhythm and phrasing of the original poem. Robert Fitzgerald has striven to situate the Iliad in the musical forms of English poetry. Robert Fagles and Stanley Lombardo both follow the Greek closely but are bolder in adding dramatic significance to conventional and formulaic Homeric language. Lombardo has chosen an American idiom that is much more colloquial than the other translations. Richmond Alexander Lattimore (May 6, 1906 - February 26, 1984) was an American poet and translator known for his translations of the Greek classics, especially his versions of the Iliad and Odyssey, still considered superior despite their age. ... Robert Stuart Fitzgerald (1910 - 1985) was best known as a translator of ancient Greek and Latin. ... Robert Fagles is a Professor of Comparative Literature at Princeton University. ... Stanley Lombardo is a professor of Classics at the University of Kansas. ...


Partial List of English translations

This is a partial list of translations into English of Homer's Iliad. For a more complete list, see English translations of Homer. This is a list of the translations into English of Homers Iliad and Odyssey, listed alphabetically by the translators name, and with the date of first publication. ...

  • A.T. Murray, 1924
  • Alexander Falconer, 1933
  • Sir William Marris, 1934 - verse
  • Ennis Rees, 1963 - verse
  • Martin Hammond, 1987
  • Ian Johnston, 2002 - verse: full text

This article is about George Chapman the English literary figure; see George Chapman (murderer) for the Victorian poisoner of the same name. ... John Ogilby (1600-1676) was a British writer and cartographer. ... “Hobbes” redirects here. ... John Ozell (? - October 15, 1743) was an English translator and accountant who became an adversary to Jonathan Swift and Alexander Pope. ... William Broome (1689 - 1745) was an English poet and translator. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... James Macpherson (October 27, 1736–February 17, 1796), was a Scottish poet, known as the translator of the Ossian cycle of poems (also known as the Oisín cycle). ... Portrait of William Cowper attributed to Romney. ... Arms of Edward Smith-Stanley Statue in Parliament Square, London Edward George Geoffrey Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, KG, PC (29 March 1799–23 October 1869) was a British statesman, three times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and is to date the longest serving leader of the Conservative... William Cullen Bryant William Cullen Bryant (November 3, 1794 - June 12, 1878) an American Romantic poet, journalist, political adviser, and homeopath, was born in Cummington, Massachusetts, the second son of Peter Bryant, a doctor and later a state legislator, and Sarah Snell; the William Cullen Bryant Homestead, his boyhood home... Walter Leaf (1852 - 1927), English banker and scholar, was born at Norwood, London, on November 26, 1852 and educated at Harrow and Trinity College, Cambridge. ... For the former National Basketball Association player, see Andrew Lang (basketball). ... Samuel Butler Samuel Butler (December 4, 1835 - June 18, 1902) was a British writer best known for his satire Erewhon. ... Dr. E.V. Rieu— in full Emile Victor Rieu (1887–1972)— is best known for his lucid translations of Homer, as editor of Penguin Classics, and for a modern translation of the Gospels, which evolved from his role as editor of a projected Penguin translation of the Bible. ... William G. Perry, Jr. ... Richmond Alexander Lattimore (May 6, 1906 - February 26, 1984) was an American poet and translator known for his translations of the Greek classics, especially his versions of the Iliad and Odyssey, still considered superior despite their age. ... W. H. D. Rouse (1863-1950) was a pioneering British teacher who advocated the use of the Direct Method of teaching Latin and Greek. ... Robert Stuart Fitzgerald (1910 - 1985) was best known as a translator of ancient Greek and Latin. ... Robert Fagles is a Professor of Comparative Literature at Princeton University. ... Stanley Lombardo is a professor of Classics at the University of Kansas. ...

See also

The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... Map of the Troad (Troas) Map of Bronze Age Greece as described in Homers Iliad The extent of the historical basis of the Iliad has been debated for some time, and recent discoveries have fueled more discussion across several disciplines. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... Beginning of the Odyssey The Odyssey (Greek Οδύσσεια (Odússeia) ) is one of the two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to the Ionian poet Homer. ... Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ...

References

  • Budimir, Milan (1940). On the Iliad and Its Poet. 
  • Mueller, Martin (1984). The Iliad. London: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 0-04-800027-2. 
  • Nagy, Gregory (1979). The Best of the Achaeans. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-2388-9. 
  • Powell, Barry B. (2004). Homer. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell. 978-1-4051-5325-6. 
  • Seaford, Richard (1994). Reciprocity and Ritual. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-815036-9. 
  • West, Martin (1997). The East Face of Helicon. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-815221-3. 

External links

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
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Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... The Perseus Project is a digital library project of Tufts University that assembles digital collections of humanities resources. ...

Epic Cycle
Cypria | Iliad | Aithiopis | Little Iliad | Iliou persis | Nostoi | Odyssey | Telegony

The Epic Cycle (Greek: Επικός Κύκλος) was a collection of Ancient Greek epic poems that related the story of the Trojan War, which includes the Kypria, the Aithiopis, the Little Iliad, the Iliou persis (The Sack of Troy), the Nostoi (Returns), and the Telegony. ... The Cypria is one of the lost sections of the eight volume cycle that told the full story of the Trojan War. ... The Aithiopis (Greek: Αἰθιοπίς; Latin: Aethiopis) is a lost epic of ancient Greek literature. ... The Little Iliad (Greek: Ἰλιὰς μικρά, Ilias mikra; Latin: Ilias parva) is a lost epic of ancient Greek literature. ... The Iliou persis (Greek: ; also known as Iliupersis, esp. ... The Nostoi (Greek: Νόστοι; also known as Nosti in Latin; English: Returns;) is a lost epic of ancient Greek literature. ... Beginning of the Odyssey The Odyssey (Greek Οδύσσεια (Odússeia) ) is one of the two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to the Ionian poet Homer. ... The Telegony (Greek: Τηλεγόνεια, Telegoneia; Latin: Telegonia) is a lost epic of ancient Greek literature. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
iliad (2000 words)
In this Attic red-figure Crater (c480 BCE), he wounds Aeneas in the hip (with a spear, not a rock as in the ILIAD), and Aphrodite grabs hold to rescue her son.
Fighting resumes in book 11, and after Agamemnon has his aristeia and is driven from the field by a wound to his elbow, Diomedes again takes the lead.
In this Attic red-figure cup (c480 BCE), Hector breaks his spear on Achilles' shield, and Achilles advances with drawn sword--again, different from the ILIAD, where Hector advances with drawn sword and is stabbed by Achilles with a spear in the throat.
Iliad - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2729 words)
The Iliad (Ancient Greek Ἰλιάς, Ilias) is, together with the Odyssey, one of the two principal ancient Greek epic poems.
The first word of the Iliad is mēnin, "rage" or "wrath." This word announces the major theme of the Iliad: the wrath of Achilles.
The Iliad and the Odyssey were considered by Greeks of the classical age and after as the most important works in Ancient Greek literature, and were the basis of Greek pedagogy in antiquity.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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