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Encyclopedia > Ileum
Ileum
Small intestine
The cecal fossa. The ileum and cecum are drawn backward and upward.
Gray's subject #248 1171
Artery ileal arteries
Vein ileal veins
Nerve celiac ganglia, vagus [1]
Precursor midgut

In anatomy of the digestive system, the ileum is the final section of the small intestine. It is about 2-4 m long in humans, follows the duodenum and jejunum, and is separated from the cecum by the ileocecal valve (ICV). The pH in the ileum is usually between 7 and 8 (neutral or slightly alkaline). Image File history File linksMetadata Illu_small_intestine. ... Image File history File links Gray1045. ... The cecum or caecum (from the Latin caecus meaning blind) is a pouch connected to the ascending colon of the large intestine and the ileum. ... For other uses, see Artery (disambiguation). ... In the circulatory system, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. ... For other uses, see Nerve (disambiguation). ... The Celiac Ganglia (semilunar ganglia) are two large irregularly shaped masses having the appearance of lymph glands and placed one on either side of the middle line in front of the crura of the diaphragm close to the suprarenal glands, that on the right side being placed behind the inferior... The vagus nerve is tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves and is the only nerve that starts in the brainstem (somewhere in the medulla oblongata) and extends all the way down past the head, right down to the abdomen. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The midgut is the portion of the embryo from which most of the intestines are derived. ... The ilium of the pelvis is divisible into two parts, the body and the ala; the separation is indicated on the internal surface by a curved line, the arcuate line, and on the external surface by the margin of the acetabulum. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... what was here was sick and improperly spelled. ... In biology the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract (gut) between the stomach and the large intestine and includes the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. ... This article is about modern humans. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube about 25-30 cm long connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... Diagram of the Human Intestine In anatomy of the digestive system, the jejunum is the central of the three divisions of the small intestine and lies between the duodenum and the ileum. ... The cecum or caecum (from the Latin caecus meaning blind) is a pouch connected to the ascending colon of the large intestine and the ileum. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: lack of content If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Function

Its function is mainly to absorb vitamin B12 and bile salts and whatever products of digestion that were not absorbed by the jejunum. The wall itself is made up of folds, each of which has many tiny finger-like projections known as villi, on its surface. In turn, the epithelial cells which line these villi possess even larger numbers of microvilli. Therefore the ileum has an extremely large surface area both for the adsorption (attachment) of enzyme molecules and for the absorption of products of digestion. The DNES (diffuse neuroendocrine system)cells that line the ileum contain the protease and carbohydrase enzymes (gastrin, secretin, cholecystokinin) responsible for the final stages of protein and carbohydrate digestion. These enzymes are present in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells. The villi contain large numbers of capillaries which take the amino acids and glucose produced by digestion to the hepatic portal vein and the liver. Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ... Bile is also another name for Belenus, a god in Brythonic mythology. ... Villi (singular: villus) are tiny, finger-like structures that protrude from the wall of the intestine to help absorb nutrients in the lumen. ... Categories: Stub ... Not to be confused with absorption. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... For the industrial process, see anaerobic digestion. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Schematic showing the cytoplasm, with major components of a typical animal cell. ... In zootomy, epithelium is a tissue composed of a layer of cells. ... The portal vein is a major vein in the human body draining blood from the digestive system and its associated glands. ...


Lacteals are small lymph vessels, and are present in villi. They absorb fatty acid and glycerol, the products of fat digestion. Layers of circular and longitudinal smooth muscle enable the digested food to be pushed along the ileum by waves of muscle contractions called peristalsis. A lacteal is a lymphatic capillary that absorbs dietary fats in the microvilli of the small intestine. ... Not to be confused with fats. ... Glycerine, Glycerin redirects here. ... Smooth muscle Layers of Esophageal Wall: 1. ... Peristalsis is the rhythmic contraction of smooth muscles to propel contents through the digestive tract. ...


Differences between jejunum and ileum

There is no line of demarcation between the jejunum and the ileum. There are, however, subtle differences between the two.

  • The ileum has more fat inside the mesentery than the jejunum.
  • The ileum is a paler color, and tends to be of a smaller caliber as well.
  • While the length of the intestinal tract contains lymphoid tissue, only the ileum has abundant Peyer's patches.

These unencapsulated lymphoid nodules contain large amounts of lymphocytes and other cells of the immune system. In mammals including humans, the lymphatic vessels (or lymphatics) are a network of thin tubes that branch, like blood vessels, into tissues throughout the body. ... Peyers patches are secondary lymphoid organs, named after the 17th-century Swiss anatomist Johann Conrad Peyer. ... Structure of the lymph node. ... A scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of a single human lymphocyte. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ...


Embryology

In the fetus the ileum is connected to the navel by the vitelline duct. In roughly 3% of humans, this duct fails to close during the first seven weeks after birth, causing a condition called Meckel's diverticulum. For other uses, see Fetus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Navel (disambiguation). ... At the end of the fourth week the yolk-sac presents the appearance of a small pear-shaped vesicle (umbilical vesicle) opening into the digestive tube by a long narrow tube, the vitelline duct. ... A Meckels diverticulum is a true congenital diverticulum. ...


Veterinary anatomy

In veterinary anatomy, the ileum is distinguished from the jejunum by being that portion of the jejunoileum that is connected to the caecum by the ileocaecal fold. In anatomy of the digestive system, the cecum or caecum is a pouch connected to the large intestine between the ileum and the colon. ...


Additional images

References

  1. ^ Physiology at MCG 6/6ch2/s6ch2_30

In 1828 the Medical Academy of Georgia was chartered by the state of Georgia with plans to offer a single course of lectures leading to a bachelors degree. ...

External links

This article is about the bodily orifice. ... The Sphincter ani internus muscle is a muscle of the human body. ... The Sphincter ani externus muscle is a muscle of the human body. ... Overview About 70% of the bodys immune system is found in the digestive tract. ... Peyers patches are secondary lymphoid organs, named after the 17th-century Swiss anatomist Johann Conrad Peyer. ... M cells (or Microfold cells) are cells found in the follicle-associated epithelium of the Peyers patch that have the unique ability to sample antigen from the lumen of the small intestine and deliver it via transcytosis to antigen presenting cells and lymphocytes located in a unique pocket-like...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ileum definition - Medical Dictionary definitions of popular medical terms (309 words)
Ileum: The lowest part of the small intestine, located beyond the duodenum and jejunum, just before the large intestine (the colon).
The word "ileum" is derived from the Greek "eileos" meaning "twisted." This is apt because, when the small intestine is viewed at surgery or at autopsy (or exposed from a wound), it looks twisted.
The ileum is not to be confused with the ilium, the upper part of the pelvis which forms the receptacle for the head of the femur at the hip joint.
Ileum - WikiHealth (376 words)
The pH in the ileum is usually between 7 and 8 (neutral or slightly alkaline).
In the fetus the ileum is connected to the navel by the vitelline duct.
In veterinary anatomy, the ileum is distinguished from the jejunum by being that portion of the jejunoileum that is connected to the caecum by the ileocaecal fold.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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