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Encyclopedia > Il trovatore

Il trovatore (The Troubadour) is an opera in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto by Leone Emanuele Bardare and Salvatore Cammarano, based on the play El Trobador by Antonio García Gutiérrez. First performance: Teatro Apollo, Rome, January 19, 1853. The foyer of Charles Garniers Opéra, Paris, opened 1875 Opera is an art form consisting of a dramatic stage performance set to music. ... Giuseppe Verdi, by Giovanni Boldini, 1886 (National Gallery of Modern Art, Rome) Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi (October 10, 1813 – January 27, 1901) was one of the great composers of Italian opera. ... A libretto is the body of words used in an extended musical work such as an opera, operetta, oratorio, or musical. ... A play is a common form of literature, usually consisting chiefly of dialog between characters, and usually intended for performance rather than reading. ... Antonio García Gutiérrez (July 5, 1812 - August 6, 1884), Spanish dramatist, was born at Chiclana (Cádiz), and studied medicine in his native town. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Democratici di Sinistra) Area  - City Proper  1290 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,546,807 almost 4,000,000 1... January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...



Place, Biscay and Aragon.
Time, the fifteenth century.

Act I

The guard room in the castle of Luna (The Palace of Aljaferia, Zaragoza, Spain). Ferrando, the captain of the guards, orders the guards to keep watch while Di Luna wanders restlessly beneath the windows of Leonora, lady-in-waiting to the Princess, whom he loves. Luna's heart is torn with jealousy against his fortunate rival, the troubador Manrico. In order to keep the guards awake, Ferrando narrates the history of the count to the guard. (Fernando: "Once upon a time a father of two sons lived happily.") It appears that a Gypsy of dreadful aspect had once exercised her magic arts upon the little brother of the count, making the child weak and ill, and for this had been burnt alive as a witch. Dying, she had commanded her daughter Azucena to avenge her, which vengeance had been partially accomplished by the carrying off of the child. Although no news had been heard of him, the father refused to believe in his son's death, and dying, commanded his son, Count di Luna, to seek for the Gypsy. Change of scene: Garden in the palace of the princess. Leonora confesses her love for Manrico to her confidante, Inez. ("The story of love.") When they have gone, Count Luna hears the voice of his rival. (Manrico, behind the scenes: "Alone and forsaken am I.") Leonora in the darkness mistakes the count for her lover, when Manrico himself enters the garden, and she rushes to his arms. The count recognises Manrico as his enemy, who has been condemned to death, and compels him to fight. Leonara tries to intervene but cannot stop them from fighting. Manrico could have killed the count but, as he explains later to his mother, he mysteriously restrains himself, and escapes. Zaragozas location in Spain Zaragoza (frequently Saragossa in English; Latin Caesaraugusta) is the capital city of the autonomous region and former kingdom of Aragón in Spain, and is located on the river Ebro, and its tributaries the Huerva and Gállego, near the centre of the region, in... A troubadour was a composer and performer of songs in particular styles during the Middle Ages in Europe. ... The Roma people (pronounced rahma; singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom), along with the closely related Sinti people, are commonly known as Gypsies in English. ...

Act II

Camp of the gypsies. The gypsies sing the famous "Anvil Chorus." Manrico at the bedside of his mother, Azucena. (Chorus: "See the clouds in heaven's vault.") Azucena is the daughter of the Gypsy burnt by the count. She is old, but still nurses her vengeance. (Aria: "Flames rise to heaven.") The gypsies break up camp while Azucena confesses to Manrico that after stealing him she had intended to burn the count's little son, but had thrown her own child into the flames instead. Manrico realises that he is not the son of Azucena, but loves her as if she were indeed his mother, as she has always been faithful and loving to him. A messenger arrives and reports that Leonora, who believes Manrico dead, is about to take the veil. Manrico rushes away to prevent her from following out this purpose. Change of scene: Before the convent. Luna and his attendants intend to abduct Leonora. (Aria: "Her enlightening smile.") Leonora and the nuns appear in procession, but Manrico prevents Luna from carrying out his plans and instead, joins Leonora and proposes matrimony. The rousing and well-known Anvil Chorus (Coro di zingari or gypsy chorus) from Act 2, Scene 1 of Giuseppe Verdis Il Trovatore (The Troubador) (1853) depicts Spanish gypsies striking their anvils at dawn and singing the praises of hard work, good wine, and their gypsy women. ...


Luna's camp. (Chorus: "In the midst of conflict.") Ferrando brings in the captured Azucena. She is recognised by Luna and sentenced to be burnt. Change of scene: Chamber in the castle, which is besieged by Manrico. Leonora and Manrico live only for each other. (Aria, Manrico: "Yes, I am yours forever.") Ruiz, Manrico's comrade, reports that Azucena is to be burned at the stake. Manrico flies to her aid. (Stretta: "Of the funeral pyre.") Leonora faints.

Act IV

Before the dungeon keep. Leonora attempts to free Manrico, who has been captured by Luna. (Miserere of the prisoners and aria of Manrico in the turret: "Born on rosette wings.") Leonora begs Luna for mercy and offers herself in place of her lover. She promises to give herself to the count, but intends to take poison before the marriage. Change of scene: Manrico and Azucena. Manrico attempts to soothe Azucena, whose mind wanders. (Duet: "Home to our mountains.") At last the gypsy slumbers. Leonora comes to Manrico and tells him that he is saved, begs him to escape. When he discovers she cannot accompany him, he refuses to leave his prison. He believes Leonora has betrayed him until he realizes that she has taken poison to remain true to him. As she dies in agony in Manrico's arms she confesses that she prefers to die with him than to marry another. The count enters to find Leonora dead on his rival's arms and orders Manrico to be led to execution. Azucena arises from her couch and when Luna, dragging her to a window, shows her the dying Manrico, she cries in triumph: "He was your brother. Now are you avenged, mother!" and falls dead at his feet. The opera ends with the count screaming in despair.


  • Plot taken from The Opera Goer's Complete Guide by Leo Melitz, 1921 version.


  Results from FactBites:
Il Trovatore - Il Motore di ricerca Italiano (1227 words)
Il Trovatore è veloce, in quanto restituisce il risultato della ricerca in pochi istanti.
Il Trovatore estrapola la porzione del testo all'interno della pagina che contiene i termini richiesti (evidenziandoli), in modo da permettere all'utente di comprendere il contesto in cui la parola ricercata è inserita.
Il Trovatore è in grado di eliminare i risultati doppi, fornendo solo quelli effettivamente attinenti alla ricerca eseguita.
Il trovatore - Background (1260 words)
Il trovatore is the second opera of the so-called "trilogia popolare" of Rigoletto, Il trovatore and La traviata.
The last words of Il trovatore have the effect of a flash that reveals all former events to the Count.
Il trovatore's story is steadily turned to the past, and its action consists of the fragmentary revelation of pieces of the past.
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