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Encyclopedia > Ijtihad

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Usul al-fiqh

Uṣūl al-fiqh (Arabic: ‎ ) is a term which literally translates to the roots of the law and refers to the study of the origins, sources, and practice of Islamic jurisprudence. ...

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Ijtihad (Arabic اجتهاد) is a technical term of Islamic law that describes the process of making a legal decision by independent interpretation of the legal sources, the Qur'an and the Sunnah. The opposite of ijtihad is taqlid, Arabic for "imitation". A person who applied ijtihad was called a mujtahid, and traditionally had to be a scholar of Islamic law, an Islamic lawyer or alim. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Quran and Sunnah is an often quoted Islamic term regarding the sources of Islam. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A Mujtahid is an Islamic scholar, competent independently to interpret divine law in practical situations using Ijtihad, or independent thought. ... Madhhab or Mazhab (Arabic مذهب pl. ... Minhaj is the Arabic word for methodology. ... In Sunni Islamic jurisprudence, Qiyas is the process of analogical reasoning from a known injunction (nass) to a new injunction. ... Urf العرف is an Arabic Islamic term referring to the custom, or knowledge, of a given society, leading to change in the fiqh فقه (Islamic jurisprudence). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ijmāʿ (إجماع) is an Arabic tern referring to the consensus of the ummah, the community of Muslims, those practicing Islam, or of the ulema, those learned in the relevant topic. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand, ca. ... An ijazah is a certificate used primarily by Muslims to indicate that one has been authorized by a higher authority to transmit a certain subject or text of Islamic knowledge. ... Istihlal (Arabic: ) is a term used in Islamic jurisprudence, or fiqh, to refer to the act of regarding some action as permissible, or halaal; the implication is that such a regard is an erroneous and improper distortion of Islamic law. ... Istihsan is an Arabic term for juristic preference and is one of the methods of reasoning for understanding the sources of shariah and itjihad. ... For other uses, see Risala (disambiguation). ... In Islamic context, the Ahkam (أحكام) are rulings and orders of the Quran and Sunnah. ... Halaal (حلال, halāl, halal) is an Islamic Arabic term meaning permissible. In English it is most frequently used to refer to food that is permissible according to Islamic law. ... Mustahab, recomended, is a Islamic term denoting a actions between Mubah (neutral) and Wajib (actions which must be performed). ... Mubah is an Islamic Arabic term denoting an action as neither forbidden nor commended; neutral. ... Acts and substances which should be evaded by muslims. ... harām (Arabic: حرام Ḥarām, Turkish: Haram, Malay: Haram) is an Arabic word, used in Islam to refer to anything that is prohibited by the faith. ... Fard also farida (فرض obligation, duty) is an Islamic Arabic term which denotes a religious duty. ... Fard also farida (arabic فرض obligation, duty) is an Islamic term which denotes a religious duty. ... Batil is an Arabic word meaning falsehood, and can be used to describe a nullified or invalid act or contract according to the sharia. ... A term in Islam. ... A marja, or marja-e-taqleed (Arabic and persian مرجع تقليد), literally source of imitation or source of tradition, is the second highest authority on religion and law in Shia Islam after the prophet and (Shia) Imams. ... Ulema (, translit: , singular: , translit: , scholar) (Islamic clergy) refers to the educated class of Muslim scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ... Omdurman, Sudan. ... A Mufti (Arabic: مفتى ) is an Islamic scholar who is an interpreter or expounder of Islamic law (Sharia), capable of issuing fataawa (plural of fatwa). // Role of a Mufti in governments In theocracies like Saudi Arabia and Iran, and in some countries where the constitution is based on sharia law, such... Qadi (قاضى) is an Arabic term meaning judge. ... A Faqih is an expert in fiqh, or, Islamic jurisprudence. ... Muhaddith is an Islamic title, referring to one who profoundly knows and narrates hadiths, the chains of their narration (saneed), and the original and famous narrators. ... Mullahs in the court of a Qajar monarch, Iran. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Maulvi (also spelled: Moulvi, Mawlawi and Mawlvi Persian: مولوی) is an honorific Islamic religious title often, but not exclusively, given to Sunni Muslim religious scholars or Ulema preceding their names, similar to the titles Maulana, Mullah or Shaykh. ... For other uses, see Sheikh (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with murshid, Pir (Sufism) and Peer-E-Tariqat (Discuss) A Shaykh of Sufism is a Sufi who is authorized to teach, initiate and guide aspiring dervishes. ... Shaikh (Arabic: شيخ ), meaning elder of a tribe, lord, revered old man, or Islamic scholar. ... Ayatollah redirects here. ... A Mujaddid (Arabic: مجدد), in Islamic tradition, refers to a person who, Muslims believe, is sent by God in the first half of every century of the Islamic calendar. ... Maulana is a title of respect, technically reserved for Muslim scholars or Ulema (plural of Aalim) who are knowledgable about Islam and have studied under a scholar or at a religious institution, e. ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... The Qurān [1] (Arabic: ‎, literally the recitation; also called ‎ The Noble Qurān; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... A Mujtahid is an Islamic scholar, competent independently to interpret divine law in practical situations using Ijtihad, or independent thought. ... English barrister 16th century painting of a civil law notary, by Flemish painter Quentin Massys. ... Ulema (Arabic: علماء) is the community of legal scholars of Islam and the Sharia. ...


To become a mujathid in theological terms is similar to having a doctorate in divinity in Islamic Kalam, or similar to reaching the status of a high or supreme court judge in legal terms. Aquatint of a Doctor in Divinity at the University of Oxford, in the scarlet and black academic robes corresponding to his position. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... The supreme court in some countries, provinces, and states, functions as a court of last resort whose rulings cannot be challenged. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Contents

Etymology

The word derives from the Arabic verbal root jahada "struggle", the same root as that of jihad; the <t> is inserted because the word is a derived stem VIII verb. The common etymology is worth noting, as both words touch on the concepts of struggle or effort. In the case of form VIII verbs, this means to "struggle with oneself", as through deep thought. Ittihad is a method of legal reasoning that does not rely on the traditional schools of jurisprudence, or madhabs. Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Jihad, sometimes spelled Jahad, Jehad, Jihaad, Jiaad, Djihad, or Cihad, (Arabic: ‎ ) as an Islamic term, literally means struggle in the way of God or striving hard in Gods cause and is sometimes referred to as the sixth pillar of Islam, although it occupies no official status as such in... Arabic is a Semitic language. ... Not to be confused with Entomology, the study of insects. ... Madhhab(&#1605;&#1584;&#1607;&#1576;) (Madhahib, pl) is an Islamic term that refers to a school of thought or religious jurisprudence (fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ...


Ijtihad in Sunni Islam

In early Islam ijtihad was a commonly used legal practice, and was well integrated with the philosophy of kalam, its secular counterpart. It slowly fell out of practice for several reasons, most notably the efforts of the Asharite theologians, who saw it as leading to errors of over-confidence in judgement. Al-Ghazali was the most notable of these, and his "The Incoherence of the Philosophers" was the most celebrated statement of this view. Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... The Asharite (Arabic الأشعرية al-ash`aryah) is a school of early Muslim philosophy that wasinstrumental in drastically changing the direction of Islamic philosophy, separating its development radically from that of philosophy in the Christian world. ... Haruniyah stucture in Tus, named after Harun al-Rashid, the mausoleum of Al-Ghazali is expected to be situated on the entrance of this monument Abu Hāmed Mohammad ibn Mohammad al-Ghazzālī (1058-1111) (Persian: ‎), known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born and died in Tus... The Incoherence of the Philosophers (Tahafut al-Falasifa) is the title of a landmark polemic in Islamic philosophy by the Sufi sympathetic Al-Ghazali of the Asharite school against the neoplatonic school of thought in Islamic Philosophy. ...


It is debated whether Al-Ghazali was observing or creating the so-called "closure of the door of ijtihad". Some say this had occurred by the beginning of the 10th century CE, a couple of centuries after the finalizing of the major collections of hadith. In the words of Joseph Schacht: "hence a consensus gradually established itself to the effect that from that time onwards no one could be deemed to have the necessary qualifications for independent reasoning in religious law, and that all future activity would have to be confined to the explanation, application, and, at the most, interpretation of the doctrine as it had been laid down once and for all." This theory has been put in question recently by Wael Hallaq, who writes that there was also always a minority that claimed that the closing of the door is wrong, and a properly qualified scholar must have the right to perform ijtihad, at all times, not only up until the four schools of law were defined.[1] As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... The Six major Hadith collections are the works of some individuals Islamic scholars who by their own initiative started collecting sayings that people attributed to Muhammad approximately 200 years after his death. ... A hadith collection is a book that includes several hadith. ... Joseph Schacht (1902-1969), Schact was professor of Arabic and Islamics at Columbia University in New York. ...


What is clear is that long after the 10th century the principles of ijtihad continued to be discussed in the Islamic legal literature, and other Asharites continued to argue with their Mutazilite rivals about its applicability to sciences. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... The Asharite (Arabic الأشعرية al-ash`aryah) is a school of early Muslim philosophy that wasinstrumental in drastically changing the direction of Islamic philosophy, separating its development radically from that of philosophy in the Christian world. ... Mutazili (Arabic &#1575;&#1604;&#1605;&#1593;&#1578;&#1586;&#1604;&#1577;) is an extinct theological school of thought within Islam. ...


Al-Amidi (1233) mentions twelve common controversies about ijtihad in his book about usul al-fiqh (the theory of Islamic law) amongst others the question if the Prophet himself depended on ijtihad and if it should be allowed for a mujtahid to follow taqleed. // Events Fortress of Kalan built. ... ijtihad is a technical term of the Islamic law and means the process of making a legal decision by independent interpretation of the sources of the law, the Quran and the Sunna. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In Islamic political theory ijtihad is often counted as one of the essential qualifications of the caliph, e.g. by Al-Baghdadi (1037) or Al-Mawardi (1058). Al-Ghazali dispenses with this qualification in his legal theory and delegates the exercise of ijtihad to the Ulema. Caliph is the title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Al-Baghdadi or just Baghdadi is an Arabic nesbat, meaning from Baghdad. It is usually added at the end of names as a specifier. ... // Events Construction of the church of Saint Sophia Cathedral is started in Kyiv. ... Abu al-Hasan Ali Ibn Muhammad Ibn Habib al-Mawardi (d. ... Events March 17 - King Lulach I of Scotland is killed in battle against his cousin and rival Malcolm Canmore, who later becomes King of Scotland as Malcolm III of Scotland. ... Haruniyah stucture in Tus, named after Harun al-Rashid, the mausoleum of Al-Ghazali is expected to be situated on the entrance of this monument Abu Hāmed Mohammad ibn Mohammad al-Ghazzālī (1058-1111) (Persian: ‎), known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born and died in Tus... Ulema (, translit: , singular: , translit: , scholar) (Islamic clergy) refers to the educated class of Muslim scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ...


Ironically, the loss of its application in law seems to have also led to its loss in philosophy and the sciences, which most historians think caused Muslim societies to stagnate before the 1492 fall of al-Andalus, after which Muslim works were translated and led in part to The Renaissance revival of classical works, using improved methods, although the Muslims themselves were no longer using these methods in their daily life at all. Not to be confused with 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711&#8211;1492). ... By Region: Italian Renaissance Northern Renaissance -French Renaissance -German Renaissance -English Renaissance The Renaissance was a great cultural movement which brought about a period of scientific revolution and artistic transformation, at the dawn of modern European history. ...


Qualifications of a Mujtahid

A Mujtahid is an Islamic scholar, competent independently to interpret divine law in practical situations using Ijtihad, or independent thought. In some, but not all, Islamic traditions, a Mujtahid can specialise in a branch of Sharia - economic or family law for example. Islam (Arabic: ; ( ▶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Umma was an ancient city in Sumer. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic law. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( ▶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic law. ...


The qualifications for a mujtahid were set out by Abu’l Husayn al-Basri (died 467 AH / 1083 CE ) in “al Mu’tamad fi Usul al-Fiqh” and accepted by later Sunni scholars, including al-Ghazali. These qualifications can be summed up as (i) an understanding of the objectives of the Sharia and (ii) a knowledge of its sources and methods of deduction. They include There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (also called Hijri calendar, Arabic التقويم الهجري) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Islamic holy days. ... Era Vulgaris redirects here. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic &#1587;&#1606;&#1617;&#1577;) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazali (born 1058 in Tus, Khorasan province of Persia, modern day Iran, died 1111, Tus) was a Persian Muslim theologian and philosopher, known as Algazel to the western medieval world. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic law. ...

  • a competence in the Arabic language which allows him to have a correct understanding of the Koran . That is, he must appreciate the subtleties of the language so as to be able to draw accurate deductions from the “clear and un-crooked Arabic” of this infallible source, and that of the Sunnah .
  • an adequate knowledge of the Meccan and Medinese contents of the Koran, the events surrounding their revelation and the incidences of abrogation (suspending or repealing a ruling) revealed therein. He must be fully acquainted with its legal contents (the “ayat al-ahkam”) - some 500 verses, according to al-Ghazali. He need not have a detailed knowledge the narratives and parables, nor of the sections relating to the hereafter, but he must be able to use these to infer a legal rule. He needs to acquainted with all the classical commentaries on the “ayat al-ahkam”, especially the views of the Companions of the Prophet .
  • an adequate knowledge of the Sunnah, especially those related to his specialisation. He needs to know the relative reliability of the narrators of the Hadith, and be able to distinguish between the reliable from the weak. He needs to have a thorough knowledge of incidences of abrogation, distinguish between the general and specific, the absolute and the qualified. One estimate (by Ahmad ibn Hanbal ) suggests that 1,200 hadith need to be known.
  • he should be able to verifiy the consensus ijma of the Companions of the Prophet, the Successors and the leading Imams and Mujtahidim of the past, especially with regard to his specialisation. Complementary to this, he should be familiar with the issues on which there is no consensus.
  • he should have a thorough knowledge of the the rules and procedures for reasoning by analogy (qiyas) so he can apply revealed law to an unprecedented case.
  • he should understand the revealed purposes of Sharia, which relate to considerations of public interest, including the Five Pillars protection of life, religion, intellect, lineage and property. He should also understand the general maxims for the interpretation of Sharia, which include the removal of hardship, that certainty must prevail over doubt, and the achievement of a balance between unnecessary rigidity and a too free an interpretation.
  • he must practice what he preaches, that is he must be an upright person whose judgement people can trust

Some Islamic traditions consider that these high conditions cannot be met by anyone nowadays, while for others - especially the Shi’ite tradition - they are met in every generation. Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... The Quran (Arabic: al-qurān literally the recitation; also called Al Qurān Al KarÄ«m or The Noble Quran; or transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Quran (Arabic: al-qurān literally the recitation; also called Al Qurān Al KarÄ«m or The Noble Quran; or transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Abrogation is a technical term used with reference to the validity of verses of the Quran. ... Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazali (born 1058 in Tus, Khorasan province of Persia, modern day Iran, died 1111, Tus) was a Persian Muslim theologian and philosopher, known as Algazel to the western medieval world. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah () were the companions of Muhammad. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Abrogation is a technical term used with reference to the validity of verses of the Quran. ... Imam Ahmed ibn Hanbal (Arabic: ‏‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎أحمد بن حنبل‏‎‎‎‏‎‎‎ ‎‎‎‎‎‎‎ Ahmad bin Hanbal ) (780 - 855 CE, 164 - 241 AH) was an important Muslim scholar and theologian. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ijmāʿ (إجماع) is an Arabic tern referring to the consensus of the ummah, the community of Muslims, those practicing Islam, or of the ulema, those learned in the relevant topic. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah () were the companions of Muhammad. ... A successor can refer to Someone who, or something which succeeds or comes after (see success and succession). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... ijtihad is a technical term of the Islamic law and means the process of making a legal decision by independent interpretation of the sources of the law, the Quran and the Sunna. ... In Sunni Islamic jurisprudence, Qiyas is the process of analogical reasoning from a known injunction (nass) to a new injunction. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic law. ... This seems unusual, to direct people to a place called five pillars and then arrive and find no one has been here. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic law. ... Shi&#699;a Islam (Arabic &#1588;&#1610;&#1593;&#1609; follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%&#8211;35% of all Muslim. ...


Ijtihad in 12er Shi'a Islam.

Shi'a Hawza students start their studies learning fiqh, kalam, hadith, tafsir, philosophy and Arabic literature. After mastering these levels they can start becoming mujtahid by studying advanced textbooks known as sat'h, and research courses known as kharij. Shia Islam ( Arabic &#1588;&#1610;&#1593;&#1609; follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Hawza is an academy or school of traditional Islamic studies. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A tafsir ( (Arabic: تفسير )tafsīr, also transliterated tafseer, Arabic explanation) is Quranic exegesis or commentary. ... This article is 58 kilobytes or more in size. ... Arabic literature is the writing produced, both prose and poetry, by speakers of the Arabic language. ...


The following points are presented in order to clarify the purpose of ijtihad:

  • God is All-Powerful, All-Knowing.
  • God created Laws for humankind and only God has the authority to do so.
  • God appointed Messengers to convey the Laws to humankind.
  • God appointed Imams to guide humankind about the Laws.
  • At present, neither the Messenger (Muhammad), nor the Imams (God-appointed Leaders) are accessible. The current Imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi, is in occultation.
  • Therefore, qualified jurists have the duty to find God's Law, not create God's Laws.
  • Therefore, Ijtihad is the process of finding God's Law from the Qur'an and the Hadith using specific methods.

For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ... For other uses, see Mahdi (disambiguation). ... In this July, 1997 still frame captured from video, the bright star Aldebaran has just reappeared on the dark limb of the waning crescent moon in this predawn occultation. ... The Qurān [1] (Arabic: ‎, literally the recitation; also called ‎ The Noble Qurān; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

In modern times

Muslims living in the West are subject to secular laws of the state rather than Islamic Law. In this context ijtihad becomes mainly a theoretical and ideological exercise without any legal force.


Conservative Muslims say that most Muslims do not have the training in legal sources to conduct ijtihad. They argue that this role was traditionally given to those who have studied for a number of years under a scholar. However, Liberal movements within Islam generally argue that any Muslim can perform ijtihad, given that Islam has no generally accepted clerical hierarchy or bureaucratic organization. This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ...


On March 19, 2004 a meeting on ijtihad took place in Washington D.C., hosted by the U.S. Institute of Peace. [2] The United States Institute of Peace is an independent, nonpartisan federal institution created by Congress to promote the prevention, management, and peaceful resolution of international conflicts. ...


References

    • Glassé, Cyril, The Concise Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd Edition, Stacey International, London (1991) ISBN 0-905743-65-2
    • Goldziher, Ignaz (translated by A And R Hamori), Introduction to Islamic Theology and Law, Princeton University Press, Princeton New Jersey (1981) ISBN 0-691-10099-3
    • Kamali, Mohammad Hashim Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence, Islamic Text Society, Cambridge (1991) ISBN 0-946621-24-1

    See also

    This page is a partial list of the Marja Taqleeds (Grand Ayatollahs), which are followed by Usulli Shia Muslims around the world. ... Photo taken from medieval manuscript by Qotbeddin Shirazi (1236–1311), a Persian Astronomer. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Uṣūl al-fiqh (Arabic: ‎ ) is a term which literally translates to the roots of the law and refers to the study of the origins, sources, and practice of Islamic jurisprudence. ... Ijmāʿ (إجماع) is an Arabic tern referring to the consensus of the ummah, the community of Muslims, those practicing Islam, or of the ulema, those learned in the relevant topic. ... In Sunni Islamic jurisprudence, Qiyas is the process of analogical reasoning from a known injunction (nass) to a new injunction. ... Istihsan is an Arabic term for juristic preference and is one of the methods of reasoning for understanding the sources of shariah and itjihad. ... The following list consists of concepts that are derived from both Islamic and Arab tradition, which are expressed as words in the Arabic language. ... Sola scriptura (Latin ablative, by scripture alone) is the assertion that the Bible as Gods written word is self-authenticating, clear (perspicuous) to the rational reader, its own interpreter (Scripture interprets Scripture), and sufficient of itself to be the only source of Christian doctrine. ... Biblical Hermeneutics, part of the broader hermeneutical question, relates to the problem of how one is to understand Holy Scripture. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Doctrine, from Latin doctrina, (compare doctor), means a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the body of teachings in a branch of knowledge or belief system. ...

    Bibliography

    • Wael Hallaq: "Was the Gate of Ijtihad Closed?", International Journal of Middle East Studies, 16, 1 (1984), pp. 3-41

    External links


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