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Encyclopedia > Ijazah

An ijazah is a certificate used primarily by Muslims to indicate that one has been authorized by a higher authority to transmit a certain subject or text of Islamic knowledge. This usually implies that the student has learned this knowledge through face-to-face interactions "at the feet" of the teacher. A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ...


In a paper titled Traditionalism in Islam: An Essay in Interpretation [1], Harvard professor William A. Graham explains the ijazah system as follows: Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and a member of the Ivy League. ...

   
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The basic system of "the journey in search of knowledge" that developed early in Hadith scholarship, involved travelling to specific authorities (shaykhs), especially the oldest and most renowned of the day, to hear from their own mouths their hadiths and to obtain their authorization or "permission" (ijazah) to transmit those in their names. This ijazah system of personal rather than institutional certification has served not only for Hadith, but also for transmission of texts of any kind, from history, law, or philology to literature, mysticism, or theology. The isnad of a long manuscript as well as that of a short hadith ideally should reflect the oral, face-to-face, teacher-to-student transmission of the text by the teacher's ijazah, which validates the written text. In a formal, written ijazah, the teacher granting the certificate typically includes an isnad containing his or her scholarly lineage of teachers back to the Prophet of Companions, a later venerable shaykh, or the author of a specific book.
   
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Image File history File links Cquote1. ... Hadith ( translit: ) are traditions relating to the words and deeds of Muhammad. ... Shaikh (شيخ, also rendered as Sheik, Shaykh or Sheikh) is a word in the Arabic language meaning an elder or a revered old man. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Philology is the study of ancient texts and languages. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition of Islam encompassing a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Allah/God, divine love and sometimes to help a fellow man. ... Theology is reasoned discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason). It can also refer to the study of other religious topics. ... The isnad (Arabic اسناد or in Quranic era Arabic اسند) are the citations or backings that establish the legitimacy of the hadith, which are the sayings of Muhammad, Prophet of Islam. ... This article is becoming very long. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... Image File history File links Cquote2. ...

References

  1. ^ Graham, William A. (Winter, 1993). "Traditionalism in Islam: An Essay in Interpretation". Journal of Interdisciplinary History 23 (3): 495-522.

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