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Encyclopedia > Igor Stravinsky
Igor Stravinsky.
Igor Stravinsky.

Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (Russian: Игорь Фёдорович Стравинский, Igor' Fjodorovič Stravinskij) (June 17, 1882April 6, 1971) was a Russian composer, considered by many in both the West and his native land to be the most influential composer of 20th century music.[1] He was a quintessentially cosmopolitan Russian who was named by Time magazine as one of the 100 most influential people of the century.[2] In addition to the recognition he received for his compositions, he also achieved fame as a pianist and a conductor, often at the premières of his works. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (4992x6860, 2293 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Igor Stravinsky Wikipedia:Todays featured article/November 2006 Main Page alternative (yesterday) Wikipedia:Todays featured article... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (4992x6860, 2293 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Igor Stravinsky Wikipedia:Todays featured article/November 2006 Main Page alternative (yesterday) Wikipedia:Todays featured article... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ... Cosmopolitanism is the idea that all of humanity belongs to a single moral community. ... TIME redirects here. ... A conductor conducting at a ceremony A conductors score and batons Conducting is the act of directing a musical performance by way of visible gestures. ...


Stravinsky's compositional career was notable for its stylistic diversity. He first achieved international fame with three ballets commissioned by the impresario Sergei Diaghilev and performed by Diaghilev's Ballets Russes (Russian Ballets): L'Oiseau de feu ("The Firebird") (1910), Petrushka (1911/1947), and Le Sacre du printemps ("The Rite of Spring") (1913). The Rite, whose première provoked a riot, transformed the way in which subsequent composers thought about rhythmic structure; to this day its vision of pagan rituals, enacted in an imaginary ancient Russia continues to dazzle and overwhelm audiences. Portrait of Sergei Diaghilev by Valentin Serov (1904) Sergei Pavlovich Diaghilev (Russian: / Sergei Pavlovich Dyagilev), also referred to as Serge, (March 31, 1872 – August 19, 1929) was a Russian art critic, patron, ballet impresario and founder of the Ballets Russes from which many famous dancers and choreographers would later arise. ... Léon Bakst: Firebird, Ballerina, 1910 There was also the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo from 1932 to 1963 The Ballets Russes was a ballet company established in 1909 by the Russian impresario Serge Diaghilev and resident first in the Théâtre Mogador and Théâtre du Châtelet, Paris... The Firebird (French: LOiseau de feu; Russian: Жар-птица, Žar-ptica) is a 1910 ballet by Igor Stravinsky. ... Petrouchka or Petrushka (French: Pétrouchka; Russian: Петрушка) is a ballet with music by the Russian composer Igor Stravinsky and choreography by Vaslav Nijinsky. ... This article is about the Igor Stravinsky ballet music. ...


After this first Russian phase Stravinsky turned to neoclassicism in the 1920s. The works from this period tended to make use of traditional musical forms (concerto grosso, fugue, symphony), frequently concealed a vein of intense emotion beneath a surface appearance of detachment or austerity, and often paid tribute to the music of earlier masters, for example J.S. Bach, Verdi, and Tchaikovsky. For the subgenre of darkwave, see Neoclassical (Dark Wave). ... The concerto grosso (Italian for big concert(o), plural concerti grossi) is a form of baroque music in which the musical material is passed between a small group of soloists (the concertino) and full orchestra (the ripieno). ... In music, a fugue (IPA: ) is a type of contrapuntal composition or technique of composition for a fixed number of parts, normally referred to as voices, irrespective of whether the work is vocal or instrumental. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other people named Bach and other meanings of the word, see Bach (disambiguation). ... VERDI is an acronym for the Italian unification movement, named after the composer Giuseppe Verdi (ardent supporter of the movement) VERDI stands for Vittorio Emmanuelle, Re D Italia (Victor Emmanuel, King of Italy) Categories: Historical stubs ... Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Russian Пётр Ильи́ч Чайко́вский, sometimes transliterated as Piotr, Anglicised as Peter Ilich), (May 7, 1840 – November 6, 1893 (N.S.); April 25, 1840 – October 25, 1893 (O.S.)) was a Russian composer of the Romantic era. ...


In the 1950s he adopted serial procedures, using the new techniques over the final twenty years of his life to write works that were briefer and of greater rhythmic, harmonic, and textural complexity than his earlier music. Their intricacy notwithstanding, these pieces share traits with all of Stravinsky's earlier output; rhythmic energy, the construction of extended melodic ideas out of a few cells comprising only two or three notes, and clarity of form, instrumentation, and of utterance. For other uses of serial or serialism, see Serial (disambiguation). ...


He also published a number of books throughout his career, almost always with the aid of a collaborator, sometimes uncredited. In his 1936 autobiography, Chronicles of My Life, written with the help of Alexis Roland-Manuel, Stravinsky included his infamous statement that "music is, by its very nature, essentially powerless to express anything at all."[3] With Roland-Manuel and Pierre Souvtchinsky he wrote his 1939–40 Harvard University Charles Eliot Norton Lectures, which were delivered in French and later collected under the title Poétique musicale in 1942 (translated in 1947 as Poetics of Music).[4] Several interviews in which the composer spoke to Robert Craft were published as Conversations with Igor Stravinsky[5] They collaborated on five further volumes over the following decade. Alexis Roland-Manuel (22 March 1891 - 1 November 1966) was a French composer and critic. ... Robert Lawson Craft (October 20th, 1923 - ) is an American conductor and writer on music best known for his intimate working friendship with Igor Stravinsky, a relationship which has resulted in a number of recordings and books. ...

Contents

Biography

Russia

Stravinsky was born in Oranienbaum (renamed Lomonosov in 1948), Russia and brought up in Saint Petersburg. His childhood, he recalled in his autobiography, was troubled: "I never came across anyone who had any real affection for me."[6] His father, Fyodor Stravinsky, was a bass singer at the Mariinsky Theater in Saint Petersburg,[7] and the young Stravinsky began piano lessons and later studied music theory and attempted some composition. In 1890, Stravinsky saw a performance of Tchaikovsky's ballet The Sleeping Beauty at the Mariinsky Theater; the performance, his first exposure to an orchestra, mesmerized him.[8] At fourteen, he had mastered Mendelssohn's Piano Concerto in G minor, and the next year, he finished a piano reduction of one of Alexander Glazunov's string quartets.[9] Lomonosov (Ломоно́сов), formerly Oranienbaum (Ораниенба́ум), is a city and in northwestern Russia, on the shore of the Bay of Finland west of St. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Fyodor Stravinsky as the Miller in Dargomyzhskys opera Rusalka Fyodor Ignatievich Stravinsky (Russian: , 20 June [O.S. 8 June] 1843 - 4 December [O.S. 21 November] 1902) was a Russian-Ukrainian bass opera singer and actor. ... A basso (or bass) is a male singer who sings in the lowest vocal range of the human voice. ... The Maryinsky (or Mariinsky) Theatre (or Theater), is the St Petersburg theatre where the Mariinsky Ballet is located. ... “Tchaikovsky” redirects here. ... The Sleeping Beauty (Russian: , Spyashchaya Krasavitsa) is a ballet in a prologue and three acts, Opus 66, by Pyotr Tchaikovsky. ... Portrait of Mendelssohn by the English miniaturist James Warren Childe (1778-1862), 1839 Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and generally known as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3, 1809 – November 4, 1847) is a German composer, pianist and conductor of the early Romantic period. ... Portrait by Ilya Repin, 1887. ...


Despite his enthusiasm for music, his parents expected him to become a lawyer. Stravinsky enrolled to study law at the University of Saint Petersburg in 1901, but was ill-suited for it, attending fewer than fifty class sessions in four years.[10] After the death of his father in 1902, he had already begun spending more time on his musical studies. Because of the closure of the university in the spring of 1905, in the aftermath of Bloody Sunday, Stravinsky was prevented from taking his law finals, and received only a half-course diploma, in April 1906.[11] Thereafter, he concentrated on music. On the advice of Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, probably the leading Russian composer of the time, he decided not to enter the Saint Petersburg Conservatoire; instead, in 1905, he began to take twice-weekly private tutelage from Rimsky-Korsakov, who became like a second father to him.[12] For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Categories: Russia-related stubs | Universities and colleges in Russia | Saint Petersburg ... For other incidents referred to by this name, see Bloody Sunday. ... Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov (Russian: , Nikolaj Andreevič Rimskij-Korsakov), also Nikolay, Nicolai, and Rimsky-Korsakoff, (March 6 (N.S. March 18), 1844 – June 8 (N.S. June 21) 1908) was a Russian composer, one of five Russian composers known as The Five, and was later a...


In 1905 he was betrothed to his cousin Katerina Nossenko, whom he had known since early childhood. They were married on 23 January 1906, and their first two children, Fyodor and Ludmilla, were born in 1907 and 1908 respectively. is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


In 1909, his Feu d'artifice (Fireworks), was performed in Saint Petersburg, where it was heard by Sergei Diaghilev, the director of the Ballets Russes in Paris. Diaghilev was sufficiently impressed to commission Stravinsky to carry out some orchestrations, and then to compose a full-length ballet score, L'Oiseau de feu (The Firebird). Feu dartifice, op. ... Portrait of Sergei Diaghilev by Valentin Serov (1904) Sergei Pavlovich Diaghilev (Russian: / Sergei Pavlovich Dyagilev), also referred to as Serge, (March 31, 1872 – August 19, 1929) was a Russian art critic, patron, ballet impresario and founder of the Ballets Russes from which many famous dancers and choreographers would later arise. ... Léon Bakst: Firebird, Ballerina, 1910 There was also the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo from 1932 to 1963 The Ballets Russes was a ballet company established in 1909 by the Russian impresario Serge Diaghilev and resident first in the Théâtre Mogador and Théâtre du Châtelet, Paris... This article is about the capital of France. ... The Firebird (French: LOiseau de feu; Russian: Жар-птица, Žar-ptica) is a 1910 ballet by Igor Stravinsky. ...


Switzerland

Stravinsky travelled to Paris in 1910 to attend the premiere of The Firebird. His family soon joined him, and decided to remain in the West for a time. He moved to Switzerland, where he lived until 1920 in Clarens and Lausanne. During this time he composed three further works for the Ballets Russes—Petrushka (1911), written in Lausanne, and Le Sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) (1913) and Pulcinella, both written in Clarens. Clarens is a small village in the municipality of Montreux, in the canton of Vaud, in Switzerland. ... Lausanne (pronounced ) is a city in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, situated on the shores of Lake Geneva (French: Lac Léman), and facing Évian-les-Bains (France) and with the Jura mountains to its north. ... Petrouchka or Petrushka (French: Pétrouchka; Russian: Петрушка) is a ballet with music by the Russian composer Igor Stravinsky and choreography by Vaslav Nijinsky. ... This article is about the Igor Stravinsky ballet music. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Pulcinella is a ballet by Igor Stravinsky based on an 18th-century play. ...


While the Stravinskys were in Switzerland, their second son, Soulima (who later became a minor composer), was born in 1910; and their second daughter, Maria Milena, was born in 1913. During this last pregnancy, Katerina was found to have tuberculosis, and she was placed in a Swiss sanatorium for her confinement. After a brief return to Russia in July 1914 to collect research materials for Les Noces, Stravinsky left his homeland and returned to Switzerland just before the outbreak of World War I brought about the closure of the borders. He was not to return to Russia for nearly fifty years. Stravinsky was one of the few Eastern Orthodox or Russian Orthodox community representatives living in Switzerland at that time and is still remembered as such in Switzerland to date.[13] Soulima Igorevich Stravinsky (23 September 1910 [os. ... Les Noces (English: The Wedding; Russian: Свадебка) is a dance cantata, or ballet with singers, with a libretto in Russian composed by Igor Stravinsky and choreographed by Bronislava Nijinska that was premiered on June 13, 1923, by the Ballets Russes. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


France

He moved to France in 1920, where he formed a business and musical relationship with the French piano manufacturer Pleyel. Essentially, Pleyel acted as his agent in collecting mechanical royalties for his works, and in return provided him with a monthly income and a studio space in which to work and to entertain friends and business acquaintances. He also arranged, one might say re-composed, many of his early works for the Pleyela, Pleyel's brand of player piano, in a way that makes full use of the piano's 88 notes, without regard for the number or span of human fingers and hands. These were not recorded rolls, but were instead marked up from a combination of manuscript fragments and handwritten notes by the French musician, Jacques Larmanjat, who was the musical director of Pleyel's roll department. Stravinsky later claimed that his intention had been to give listeners a definitive version of the performances of his music, but since the rolls were not recordings, it is difficult to see how effective this intention could have been in practice. While many of these works are now part of the standard repertoire, at the time many orchestras found his music beyond their capabilities and unfathomable. Major compositions issued on Pleyela piano rolls include The Rite of Spring, Petrushka, Firebird, Les Noces and Song of the Nightingale. During the 1920s he also recorded Duo-Art rolls for the Aeolian Company in both London and New York, not all of which survive.[14] The player piano is a type of piano that plays music without the need for a human pianist to depress the normal keys or pedals. ... It has been suggested that Music roll be merged into this article or section. ...


After a short stay near Paris, he moved with his family to the south of France; he returned to Paris in 1934, to live at the rue Faubourg St.-Honoré. Stravinsky later remembered this as his last and unhappiest European address; his wife's tuberculosis infected his eldest daughter Ludmila, and Stravinsky himself. Ludmila died in 1938, Katerina in the following year. While Stravinsky was in hospital, where he was treated for five months, his mother also died. Stravinsky already had contacts in the United States; he was working on the Symphony in C for the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, and had agreed to lecture in Harvard during the academic year of 1939-40. When World War II broke out in September, he set out for the United States. This article is about the capital of France. ... Igor Stravinskys Symphony in C (French: Symphonie en ut) was written in 1939-40, during a particularly turbulent period of the composers life. ... Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and a member of the Ivy League. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Although his marriage to Katerina endured for 33 years, the true love of his life, and later his partner until his death, was his second wife Vera de Bosset (1888-1982). When Stravinsky met Vera in Paris in February 1921, she was married to the painter and stage designer Serge Sudeikin, but they soon began an affair which led to her leaving her husband. From then until Katerina's death from cancer in 1939, Stravinsky led a double life, spending some of his time with his first family and the rest with Vera. Katerina soon learned of the relationship and accepted it as inevitable and permanent. Around this time both left France for the USA, to escape World War II (Stravinsky in 1939 after Katerina's death, Vera following in 1940). Stravinsky and Vera were married in Bedford, MA, USA, on 9 March 1940. Vera de Bosset Soudeikine (1888 – 1982) was a long-term mistress and ultimately second wife of the Russian composer Igor Stravinsky, who married her in 1940 after the death of his first wife Katerina Nossenko. ... Sudeikins poster for the Chauve-Souris Theatre 1922. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Bedford is a town located in USA. As of the 2000 census, the town had a total population of 12,595. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


America

At first Stravinsky took up residence in Hollywood, but he moved to New York in 1969. He continued to live in the United States until his death in 1971; he became a naturalized citizen in 1945. Stravinsky had adapted to life in France, but moving to America at the age of 58 was a very different prospect. For a time, he preserved a ring of emigré Russian friends and contacts, but eventually found that this did not sustain his intellectual and professional life. He was drawn to the growing cultural life of Los Angeles, especially during World War II, when so many writers, musicians, composers, and conductors settled in the area; these included Otto Klemperer, Thomas Mann, Franz Werfel, George Balanchine and Arthur Rubinstein. He lived fairly near to Arnold Schoenberg, though he did not have a close relationship with him. Bernard Holland notes that he was especially fond of British writers who often visited him in Beverly Hills, "like W. H. Auden, Christopher Isherwood, Dylan Thomas (who shared the composer's taste for hard spirits) and, especially, Aldous Huxley, with whom Stravinsky spoke in French."[15] He settled into life in Los Angeles and sometimes conducted concerts with the Los Angeles Philharmonic at the famous Hollywood Bowl as well as throughout the U.S. When he planned to write an opera with W. H. Auden, the need to acquire more familiarity with the English-speaking world[citation needed] coincided with his meeting the conductor and musicologist Robert Craft. Craft lived with Stravinsky until the composer's death, acting as interpreter, chronicler, assistant conductor, and factotum for countless musical and social tasks. This article is about the state. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... The United States flag The Seal of the United States Article I, section 8, clause 4 of the United States Constitution expressly gives the United States Congress the power (t)o establish a uniform rule of naturalization. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Otto Klemperer (May 14, 1885 – July 6, 1973) was a German-born conductor and composer. ... For other persons named Thomas Mann, see Thomas Mann (disambiguation). ... Franz Werfel, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1940 Werfels grave in the Zentralfriedhof, Vienna Franz Werfel (September 10, 1890 – August 26, 1945) was an Austrian-Bohemian novelist, playwright, and poet who wrote in German. ... George Balanchine (January 9 (O.S.) = January 22 (N.S.), 1904–April 30, 1983) was one of the 20th centurys foremost choreographers, and one of the founders of American ballet. ... For the 19th century Russian pianist and composer, see Anton Rubinstein Arthur Rubinstein photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1937 Arthur Rubinstein (January 28, 1887 – December 20, 1982) was a Polish pianist who is widely considered as one of the greatest piano virtuosos of the 20th Century. ... Arnold Schoenberg, Los Angeles, 1948 Arnold Schoenberg (pronounced [ˈaːrnÉ”lt ˈʃøːnbÉ›rk]) (13 September 1874 – 13 July 1951) was an Austrian and later American composer, associated with the expressionist movement in German poetry and art, and leader of the Second Viennese School. ... Wystan Hugh Auden (21 February 1907 – 29 September 1973) IPA: ;[1], who signed his works W. H. Auden, was an Anglo-American poet, regarded by many as one of the greatest writers of the 20th century. ... Christopher Isherwood (left) and W.H. Auden (right), photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1939 Christopher Isherwood (prior to 1946 Christopher William Bradshaw-Isherwood) (August 26, 1904 – January 4, 1986), Anglo-American novelist, was born in the ancestral seat of his family, Wybersley Hall, High Lane, in the north west of... Dylan Marlais Thomas (27 October 1914 - 9 November 1953) was a Welsh poet. ... Aldous Leonard Huxley (26 July 1894 – 22 November 1963) was an English writer and one of the most prominent members of the famous Huxley family. ... The Los Angeles Philharmonic (LAP) is an American orchestra based in Los Angeles, California, United States. ... Hollywood Bowl in 2005. ... Wystan Hugh Auden (21 February 1907 – 29 September 1973) IPA: ;[1], who signed his works W. H. Auden, was an Anglo-American poet, regarded by many as one of the greatest writers of the 20th century. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A musicologist is someone who studies musicology. ... Robert Lawson Craft (October 20th, 1923 - ) is an American conductor and writer on music best known for his intimate working friendship with Igor Stravinsky, a relationship which has resulted in a number of recordings and books. ... Factotum is a 1975 novel by Charles Bukowski in which Henry Chinaski, Bukowskis alter ego, gets and loses jobs. ...


In 1962, Stravinsky accepted an invitation to return to Saint Petersburg (Leningrad) for a series of concerts. He spent more than two hours speaking with Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev, who urged him to return to the Soviet Union.[citation needed] Despite the invitation, Stravinsky remained settled in the West. In the last few years of his life, Stravinsky lived at Essex House in New York City. Leningrad (Russian: Ленинград) may mean: St. ... Khrushchev redirects here. ... Essex House can refer to: Essex House (publisher) - publisher of erotic writing [1] Essex House (London) - a historic house in London Jumeirah Essex House - a luxury hotel in New York City ^ http://www. ...

Grave of Stravinsky in San Michele
Grave of Stravinsky in San Michele

He died at the age of 88 in New York City and was buried in Venice on the cemetery island of San Michele. His grave is close to the tomb of his long-time collaborator Diaghilev. Stravinsky's professional life had encompassed most of the 20th century, including many of its modern classical music styles, and he influenced composers both during and after his lifetime. He has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6340 Hollywood Boulevard and posthumously received the Grammy Award for Lifetime Achievement in 1987. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (726x1214, 247 KB) Summary Grave of Igor Stravinsky in San Michele. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (726x1214, 247 KB) Summary Grave of Igor Stravinsky in San Michele. ... San Michele, nicknamed The Island of the Dead, is the cemetery island of Venice. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... San Michele, nicknamed The Island of the Dead, is the cemetery island of Venice. ... Buskers perform on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award is awarded by the Recording Academy to performers who, during their lifetimes, have made creative contributions of outstanding artistic significance to the field of recording [1]. This award is distinct from the Grammy Hall of Fame Award, which honors specific recordings rather than individuals, and...


Personality

Stravinsky displayed an inexhaustible desire to explore and learn about art, literature, and life. This desire manifested itself in several of his Paris collaborations. Not only was he the principal composer for Sergei Diaghilev's Ballets Russes, but he also collaborated with Pablo Picasso (Pulcinella, 1920), Jean Cocteau (Oedipus Rex, 1927) and George Balanchine (Apollon musagète, 1928). His taste in literature was wide, and reflected his constant desire for new discoveries. The texts and literary sources for his work began with a period of interest in Russian folklore, progressed to classical authors and the Latin liturgy, and moved on to contemporary France (André Gide, in Persephone) and eventually English literature, including Auden, T. S. Eliot and medieval English verse. At the end of his life, he set Hebrew scripture in Abraham and Isaac. Portrait of Sergei Diaghilev by Valentin Serov (1904) Sergei Pavlovich Diaghilev (Russian: / Sergei Pavlovich Dyagilev), also referred to as Serge, (March 31, 1872 – August 19, 1929) was a Russian art critic, patron, ballet impresario and founder of the Ballets Russes from which many famous dancers and choreographers would later arise. ... Picasso redirects here. ... Pulcinella is a ballet by Igor Stravinsky based on an 18th-century play. ... Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau (5 July 1889 – 11 October 1963) was a French poet, novelist, dramatist, designer, boxing manager and filmmaker. ... George Balanchine (January 9 (O.S.) = January 22 (N.S.), 1904–April 30, 1983) was one of the 20th centurys foremost choreographers, and one of the founders of American ballet. ... Apollon musagète is a ballet in two tableaux composed between 1927 and 1928 by Igor Stravinsky. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Latin Rite, in the singular and accompanied, in English, by the definite article, refers to the sui juris particular Church of the Roman Catholic Church that developed in the area of western Europe and northern Africa where Latin was for many centuries the language of education and culture. ... Gide redirects here. ... For other persons named Thomas Eliot, see Thomas Eliot (disambiguation). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ...

Stravinsky and Pablo Picasso collaborated on Pulcinella in 1920. Picasso took the opportunity to make several sketches of the composer.
Stravinsky and Pablo Picasso collaborated on Pulcinella in 1920. Picasso took the opportunity to make several sketches of the composer.

Patronage was never far away. In the early 1920s, Leopold Stokowski gave Stravinsky regular support through a pseudonymous "benefactor".[citation needed] The composer was also able to attract commissions: most of his work from The Firebird onwards was written for specific occasions and was paid for generously. From http://www. ... Picasso redirects here. ... Pulcinella is a ballet by Igor Stravinsky based on an 18th-century play. ... Leopold Stokowski (born Antoni Stanisław Bolesławowicz April 18, 1882 in London, England, died September 13, 1977 in Nether Wallop, England) was the conductor of the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, the Philadelphia Orchestra, the NBC Symphony Orchestra, Hollywood Bowl Orchestra and the Symphony of the Air. ...


Stravinsky proved adept at playing the part of "man of the world", acquiring a keen instinct for business matters and appearing relaxed and comfortable in many of the world's major cities. Paris, Venice, Berlin, London and New York City all hosted successful appearances as pianist and conductor. Most people who knew him through dealings connected with performances spoke of him as polite, courteous and helpful. For example, Otto Klemperer, who knew Arnold Schoenberg well, said that he always found Stravinsky much more co-operative and easy to deal with.[citation needed] At the same time, he had a marked disregard for those he perceived to be his social inferiors: Robert Craft was embarrassed by his habit of tapping a glass with a fork and loudly demanding attention in restaurants.[citation needed] This article is about the capital of France. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Otto Klemperer (May 14, 1885 – July 6, 1973) was a German-born conductor and composer. ... Arnold Schoenberg, Los Angeles, 1948 Arnold Schoenberg (pronounced [ˈaːrnɔlt ˈʃøːnbɛrk]) (13 September 1874 – 13 July 1951) was an Austrian and later American composer, associated with the expressionist movement in German poetry and art, and leader of the Second Viennese School. ... Robert Lawson Craft (October 20th, 1923 - ) is an American conductor and writer on music best known for his intimate working friendship with Igor Stravinsky, a relationship which has resulted in a number of recordings and books. ...


Although a notorious philanderer (who was rumoured to have affairs with high-profile partners such as Coco Chanel[citation needed]), Stravinsky was also a family man who devoted considerable amounts of his time and expenditure to his sons and daughters. Gabrielle Bonheur Coco Chanel (August 19, 1883 – January 10, 1971)[1] was a pioneering French fashion designer whose modernist philosophy, menswear-inspired fashions, and pursuit of expensive simplicity made her arguably the most important figure in the history of 20th-century fashion. ...


Stylistic periods

Stravinsky's career may be divided roughly into three stylistic periods.


Nationalism

The first period (excluding some early minor works) began with Feu d'artifice and achieved prominence with the three ballets composed for Diaghilev. These three works have several characteristics in common: they are scored for an extremely large orchestra; they use Russian folk themes and motifs; and they are influenced by Rimsky-Korsakov's imaginative scoring and instrumentation. They also exhibit considerable stylistic development: from the L'oiseau de feu, which emphasizes certain tendencies in Rimsky-Korsakov and features pandiatonicism conspicuously in the third movement, to the use of polytonality in Petrushka, and the intentionally brutal polyrhythms and dissonances of Le Sacre du printemps. Ballet as musical form is a musical composition intended for ballet performance. ... Folk song redirects here. ... The musical use of more than one key simultaneously is polytonality. ...


The first of the ballets, L'Oiseau de feu, is noted for its imaginative orchestration, evident at the outset from the introduction in 12/8 time, which exploits the low register of the double bass. Petrushka, the first of Stravinsky's ballets to draw on folk mythology, is also distinctively scored. In the third ballet, The Rite of Spring, the composer attempted to depict musically the brutality of pagan Russia, which inspired the violent motifs that recur throughout the work. Once again, Stravinsky's originality is evident: the opening theme, played on a bassoon at the very top of its register, has become one of the most famous passages in classical music, as has the pulsing syncopated eighth-note motif in the strings, its accents marked by horn.[citation needed] Orchestration is the study or practice of writing music for orchestra (or, more loosely, for any musical ensemble) or of adapting for orchestra music composed for another medium. ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... French horn redirects here. ...


If Stravinsky's stated intention was "to send them all to hell",[16] then he may have rated the 1913 première of Le sacre du printemps as a success: it is among the most famous classical music riots, and Stravinsky referred to it frequently as a "scandale" in his autobiography.[17] There were reports of fistfights among the audience, and the need for a police presence during the second act. The real extent of the tumult, however, is open to debate, and these reports may be apocryphal.[18] A classical music riot is a riot that occurs upon (usually) the premiere of a controversial piece of classical music. ...


Stravinsky later commented about the première of The Rite: "As for the actual performance, I am not in a position to judge, as I left the auditorium at the first bars of the prelude, which had at once evoked derisive laughter. I was disgusted. These demonstrations, at first isolated, soon became general, provoking counter-demonstrations and very quickly developing into a terrific uproar. During the whole performance I was at Nijinsky's side in the wings. He was standing on a chair, screaming 'Sixteen, seventeen, eighteen'--they had their own method of counting to keep time. Naturally the poor dancers could hear nothing by reason of the row in the auditorium and the sound of their own dance-steps. I had to hold Nijinsky by his clothes, for he was furious, and ready to dash on to the stage at any moment and create a scandal. Diaghilev kept ordering the electricians to turn the lights on or off, hoping in that way to put a stop to the noise. That is all I can remember about that first performance."[19] Nijinsky can refer to: Vaslav Nijinsky Nijinsky II This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Sergei Pavlovich Diaghilev (Сергей Павлович Дягилев) (March 19, 1872 – August 19, 1929), often known as Serge, was a Russian ballet impresario and founder of the Ballets Russes from which many famous dancers and choreographers would later arise. ...


Other pieces from this period include: Le Rossignol (The Nightingale); Renard (1916); Histoire du soldat (The Soldier's Tale) (1918); and Les Noces (The Wedding) (1923). The Nightingale (Solovyei) is a Russian conte lyrique in three acts by Igor Stravinsky. ... Histoire du soldat (sometimes written Lhistoire du soldat; translated as The Soldiers Tale or A Soldiers Tale) is a 1918 theatrical work to be read, played, and danced (lue, jouée et dansée) set to music by Igor Stravinsky. ... Les Noces (English: The Wedding; Russian: Свадебка) is a dance cantata, or ballet with singers, with a libretto in Russian composed by Igor Stravinsky and choreographed by Bronislava Nijinska that was premiered on June 13, 1923, by the Ballets Russes. ...


Neoclassical

The next phase of Stravinsky's compositional style extended from roughly 1920 to about 1950. Pulcinella (1920) and the Octet (1923) for wind instruments are Stravinsky's first compositions to feature his re-examination of the classical music of Mozart and Bach and their contemporaries. For this "neo-classical" style Stravinsky abandoned the large orchestras demanded by the ballets, and turned instead largely to wind instruments, the piano, and choral and chamber works. Pulcinella is a ballet by Igor Stravinsky based on an 18th-century play. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... “Bach” redirects here. ... For the subgenre of darkwave, see Neoclassical (Dark Wave). ...


Other works such as Oedipus Rex (1927), Apollon musagète (1928, for the Russian Ballet) and the Dumbarton Oaks Concerto (1937–38) continued this re-thinking of eighteenth-century musical styles. Other musical works on the same subject include Oedipus Rex by Tom Lehrer, and Oedipus Tex by P. D. Q. Bach. ... Apollon musagète is a ballet in two tableaux composed between 1927 and 1928 by Igor Stravinsky. ... Concerto in E-flat (Dumbarton Oaks) (1937-38) is a chamber concerto by Igor Stravinsky, named for the Dumbarton Oaks estate of Robert Woods Bliss in Washington, DC, who commissioned it for his thirtieth wedding anniversary. ...


Works from this period include the three symphonies: the Symphonie des Psaumes (Symphony of Psalms) (1930), Symphony in C (1940) and Symphony in Three Movements (1945). Apollon, Persephone (1933) and Orpheus (1947) exemplify not only Stravinsky's return to music of the Classical period, but also his exploration of themes from the ancient Classical world such as Greek mythology. The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ...


Stravinsky completed his last neo-classical work, the opera The Rake's Progress, in 1951, to a libretto by W. H. Auden based on the etchings of Hogarth. It was almost ignored[citation needed] after it was staged by the Metropolitan Opera in 1953. It was presented by the Santa Fe Opera in its first season in 1957 with Stravinsky in attendance, and this marked the beginning of his long association with the company. The music is direct but quirky; it borrows from classic tonal harmony but also interjects surprising dissonances; it features Stravinsky's trademark off-rhythms; and it harks back to the operas and themes of Monteverdi, Gluck and Mozart. The opera was revived by the Metropolitan Opera in 1997. The Rakes Progress is an English opera in three acts and an epilogue by Igor Stravinsky. ... Wystan Hugh Auden (21 February 1907 – 29 September 1973) IPA: ;[1], who signed his works W. H. Auden, was an Anglo-American poet, regarded by many as one of the greatest writers of the 20th century. ... William Hogarth (November 10, 1697 – October 26, 1764) was a major English painter, printmaker, pictorial satirist, and editorial cartoonist who has been credited as a pioneer in western sequential art. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the lead section of this article may need to be expanded. ... Solid rod stays support the roof of the Crosby Theater at the Santa Fe Opera. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Monteverdi redirects here. ... Gluck redirects here. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ...


Serial

Stravinsky began using dodecaphony, the twelve-tone technique originally devised by Arnold Schoenberg, in the early 1950s (after Schoenberg's death). Robert Craft encouraged this undertaking.[20] Twelve-tone technique is a system of musical composition devised by Arnold Schoenberg. ... Arnold Schoenberg, Los Angeles, 1948 Arnold Schoenberg (pronounced [ˈaːrnɔlt ˈʃøːnbɛrk]) (13 September 1874 – 13 July 1951) was an Austrian and later American composer, associated with the expressionist movement in German poetry and art, and leader of the Second Viennese School. ... Robert Lawson Craft (October 20th, 1923 - ) is an American conductor and writer on music best known for his intimate working friendship with Igor Stravinsky, a relationship which has resulted in a number of recordings and books. ...


He first experimented with non-twelve-tone serial technique in small-scale vocal and chamber works such as the Cantata (1952), Septet (1953), and Three Songs from Shakespeare (1953), and his first composition to be fully based on these non-twelve-tone serial techniques is In Memoriam Dylan Thomas (1954). Agon (1954–57) is his first work to include a twelve-tone series, and Canticum Sacrum (1955) is his first piece to contain a movement entirely based on a tone row ("Surge, aquilo").[21] Stravinsky later expanded his use of dodecaphony in works including Threni (1958), A Sermon, a Narrative, and a Prayer (1961), and The Flood (1962), which are based on biblical texts. Agon (1957), a twelve-tone technique composition for a 12-dancer ballet, was a collaborative effort between composer Igor Stravinsky and choreographer George Balanchine. ... Saint Marks Basilica in the evening Canticum Sacrum ad Honorem Sancti Marci Nominis is a 17-minute choral-orchestral piece composed in 1955 by Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971) in tribute To the City of Venice, in praise of its Patron Saint, the Blessed Mark, Apostle. ... In music, a tone row or note row is a permutation, an arrangement or ordering, of the twelve notes of the chromatic scale. ... The Flood: A musical play (1962) is a short biblical drama by Igor Stravinsky on the allegory of Noah, originally written as a television opera in response to a commission by CBS Television. ...


Agon, written from 1954 to 1957, is a ballet choreographed for twelve dancers. It is an important transitional composition between Stravinsky's neo-classical period and his serial style. Some numbers of Agon are reminiscent of the "white-note" tonality of the his neo-classic period, while others (for example Bransle Gay) display his re-interpretation of serial methods.


Innovation

Stravinsky's work embraced several compositional styles, revolutionized orchestration, and practically reinvented ballet as a musical form. He was inspired by different cultures, languages and literatures. As a consequence, his influence on composers both during his lifetime and after his death was, and remains, considerable.


Composition

Stravinsky's use of motivic development (the use of musical figures that are repeated in different guises throughout a composition or section of a composition) included additive motivic development. This is where notes are subtracted or added to a motif without regard to the consequent changes in meter. A similar technique may be found as early as the sixteenth century, for example in the music of Cipriano de Rore, Orlandus Lassus, Carlo Gesualdo, and Giovanni de Macque, music with which Stravinsky exhibited considerable familiarity.[22] In music, a motif is a perceivable or salient reoccurring fragment or succession of notes that may used to construct the entirety or parts of complete melodies, themes. ... Cypriano de Rore or Cipriano de Rore (1515 or 1516 – 11 September to 20 September 1565) was a Flemish composer and teacher. ... Composer Orlande de Lassus Orlande de Lassus (also Orlandus Lassus, Orlando di Lasso, Roland de Lassus, or Roland Delattre) (1532 (possibly 1530) – June 14, 1594) was a Franco-Flemish composer of late Renaissance music. ... Carlo Gesualdo, Prince of Venosa. ... Giovanni de Macque (Jean de Macque) (?1548-1550 – September 1614) was a Franco-Flemish composer of the late Renaissance and early Baroque, who spent almost his entire life in Italy. ...


The Rite of Spring is also notable for its relentless use of ostinati; for example in the eighth note ostinato on strings accented by eight horns in the section Auguries of Spring (Dances of the Young Girls). The work also contains passages where several ostinati clash against one another. In music, an ostinato (derived from Italian: stubborn, compare English: obstinate) is a motif or phrase which is persistently repeated at the same pitch. ... French horn redirects here. ...


Twentieth-century American composer Frank Zappa openly credited Stravinsky as a major influence.[23] While Zappa composed mainly avant-garde rock, jazz and blues, he also composed orchestral pieces. Stravinsky's name is mentioned on several of his albums, including a song called Igor's Boogie included in the album Burnt Weeny Sandwich. Frank Vincent Zappa[1] (December 21, 1940 – December 4, 1993) was an American composer, musician, and film director. ... Burnt Weeny Sandwich is an album by Frank Zappa and the Mothers of Invention, released in 1970 (see 1970 in music). ...


Rhythm

Stravinsky was noted for his distinctive use of rhythm, especially in The Rite of Spring.[24] For other uses, see Rhythm (disambiguation). ...


According to Philip Glass:[25] Philip Glass (born January 31, 1937) is a three-times Academy Award-nominated American composer. ...

the idea of pushing the rhythms across the bar lines [...] led the way [...] the rhythmic structure of music became much more fluid and in a certain way spontaneous

Glass also praises Stravinsky's "primitive, offbeat rhythmic drive".[26]


According to Andrew J. Browne, "Stravinsky is perhaps the only composer who has raised rhythm in itself to the dignity of art."[27]


Stravinsky's rhythm and vitality greatly influenced composer Aaron Copland.[28] Aaron Copland Aaron Copland (November 14, 1900 – December 2, 1990) was an American composer of concert and film music, as well as an accomplished pianist. ...


Neoclassicism

Stravinsky's first neo-classical works were the ballet Pulcinella of 1920, and the stripped-down and delicately scored Octet for winds of 1923. Stravinsky may have been preceded in his use of neoclassical devices by earlier composers (such as Erik Satie). Selfportrait of Erik Satie. ...


By the late 1920s and 1930s, the use by composers of neoclassicism had become widespread.


Quotation

Stravinsky continued a long tradition, stretching back at least to the fifteenth century in the form of the quodlibet and parody mass, by composing pieces which elaborate on individual works by earlier composers. An early example of this is his Pulcinella of 1920, in which he used music which at the time was attributed to Giovanni Pergolesi as source material, at times quoting it directly and at other times reinventing it. He developed the technique further in the ballet The Fairy's Kiss of 1928, based on the music—mostly piano pieces—of Tchaikovsky. Later examples of comparable musical transformations include Stravinsky's use of Schubert in Circus Polka (1942) and Happy Birthday to You in Greeting Prelude (1955). A quodlibet is a piece of music which combines several different melodies in counterpoint, usually popular tunes, and often in a light-hearted manner. ... A parody mass is a mass that uses a piece of secular music, typically a fragment of a motet or chanson as part of its melodic material. ... Pulcinella is a ballet by Igor Stravinsky based on an 18th-century play. ... Giovanni Battista Pergolesi. ... “Tchaikovsky” redirects here. ... For similarly titled songs, see Happy Birthday (disambiguation). ...


Folk material

In Le Sacre du Printemps Stravinsky stripped folk themes to their most basic melodic outlines, and often contorted them beyond recognition with added notes, and other techniques including inversion and diminution. Only in recent scholarship, such as described in Richard Taruskin's Stravinsky and the Russian Traditions,[citation needed] have analysts uncovered the original source material for some of the music in The Rite. InVersion are a heavy metal band from Essex who came together with the aim to blend the melody of old school metal with the aggression and rhythm of more modern bands. ... Diminution, from Italian diminuimento, is a musical term used to mean different things in the context of melodies and intervals or chords. ...


Orchestra

Like many of the late romantic composers, Stravinsky often called for huge orchestral forces, especially in the early ballets. His first breakthrough The Firebird proved him the equal of Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov and lit the "fuse under the instrumental make up of the 19th century orchestra". In The Firebird he took the orchestra apart and analyzed it.[29] The Rite of Spring on the other hand has been characterized by Aaron Copland as the foremost orchestral achievement in 20th century.[30] The expression romantic music and the homophone phrase Romantic music have two essentially different meanings. ... The Firebird (French: LOiseau de feu; Russian: Жар-птица, Žar-ptica) is a 1910 ballet by Igor Stravinsky. ... Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov (Russian: , Nikolaj Andreevič Rimskij-Korsakov), also Nikolay, Nicolai, and Rimsky-Korsakoff, (March 6 (N.S. March 18), 1844 – June 8 (N.S. June 21) 1908) was a Russian composer, one of five Russian composers known as The Five, and was later a... Aaron Copland Aaron Copland (November 14, 1900 – December 2, 1990) was an American composer of concert and film music, as well as an accomplished pianist. ...


Stravinsky also wrote for unique combinations of instruments in smaller ensembles, chosen for their precise tone colours. For example, Histoire du soldat (The Soldier's Tale) is scored for clarinet, bassoon, cornet, trombone, violin, double bass and percussion, a strikingly unusual combination for 1918. Histoire du soldat (sometimes written Lhistoire du soldat; translated as The Soldiers Tale or A Soldiers Tale) is a 1918 theatrical work to be read, played, and danced (lue, jouée et dansée) set to music by Igor Stravinsky. ... Two soprano clarinets: a B♭ clarinet (left, with capped mouthpiece) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ... The bassoon is a woodwind instrument in the double reed family that typically plays music written in the bass and tenor registers and occasionally even higher. ... B♭ cornet The cornet is a brass instrument very similar to the trumpet, distinguished by its conical bore, compact shape, and mellower tone quality. ... The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... For the Anne Rice novel, see Violin (novel). ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ... Percussion redirects here. ...


Stravinsky occasionally exploited the extreme ranges of instruments, most famously at the opening of the Rite of Spring where Stravinsky uses the extreme upper reaches of the bassoon to simulate the symbolic "awakening" of a spring morning.


Criticism

Erik Satie wrote an article about Igor Stravinsky that was published in Vanity Fair (1922). Satie had met Stravinsky for the first time in 1910. Satie's attitude towards the Russian composer is marked by deference, as can be seen from the letters he wrote him in 1922, preparing for the Vanity Fair article. With a touch of irony, he concluded one of these letters "I admire you: are you not the Great Stravinsky? I am but little Erik Satie." In the published article, Satie argued that measuring the "greatness" of an artist by comparing him to other artists, as if speaking about some "truth", is illusory: every piece of music should be judged on its own merits, not by comparing it to the standards of other composers. That was exactly what Jean Cocteau had done, when commenting deprecatingly on Stravinsky in his 1918 book Le Coq et l'Arlequin.[31] Selfportrait of Erik Satie. ... American actress Demi Moore, on a typical Vanity Fair cover (August, 1991) Vanity Fair is a glossy American glamour magazine monthly that offers a mixture of articles based on sensational exaggerations, jet-set and entertainment-business personalities, politics, and lies. ... Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau (5 July 1889 – 11 October 1963) was a French poet, novelist, dramatist, designer, boxing manager and filmmaker. ...

All the signs indicate a strong reaction against the nightmare of noise and eccentricity that was one of the legacies of the war.... What has become of the works that made up the program of the Stravinsky concert which created such a stir a few years ago? Practically the whole lot are already on the shelf, and they will remain there until a few jaded neurotics once more feel a desire to eat ashes and fill their belly with the east wind.[32]

In 1935, American composer Marc Blitzstein compared Stravinsky to Jacopo Peri and C. P. E. Bach, conceding that "There is no denying the greatness of Stravinsky. It is just that he is not great enough".[33] Blitzstein's Marxist position is that Stravinsky's wish was to "divorce music from other streams of life," which is "symptomatic of an escape from reality", resulting in a "loss of stamina his new works show", naming specifically Apollo, the Capriccio, and Le Baiser de la fée.[34] Marc Blitzstein (March 2, 1905 – January 22, 1964) was an American composer. ... Jacopo Peri Jacopo Peri (August 20, 1561 – August 12, 1633) was an Italian composer and singer of the transitional period between the Renaissance and Baroque styles, and is often called the inventor of opera. ... Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (March 8, 1714 – December 14, 1788) was a German musician and composer, the second of five sons of Johann Sebastian Bach and Maria Barbara Bach. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ...


Composer Constant Lambert described pieces such as Histoire du soldat (The Soldier's Tale) as containing "essentially cold-blooded abstraction".[35] Lambert continued, "melodic fragments in Histoire du Soldat are completely meaningless themselves. They are merely successions of notes that can conveniently be divided into groups of three, five, and seven and set against other mathematical groups", and he described the cadenza for solo drums as "musical purity...achieved by a species of musical castration". He compared Stravinsky's choice of "the drabbest and least significant phrases" to Gertrude Stein's: "Everyday they were gay there, they were regularly gay there everyday" ("Helen Furr and Georgine Skeene", 1922), "whose effect would be equally appreciated by someone with no knowledge of English whatsoever".[36] Leonard Constant Lambert (August 23, 1905 – August 21, 1951) was a British composer and conductor. ... Gertrude Stein (February 3, 1874 – July 27, 1946) was an American writer who became a catalyst in the development of modern art and literature. ...


In his book Philosophy of Modern Music (1949), Theodor Adorno called Stravinsky an acrobat, a civil servant, a tailor's dummy, hebephrenic, psychotic, infantile, fascist, and devoted to making money.[cite this quote] Part of the composer's error, in Adorno's view, was his neo-classicism,[37] but more important was his music's "pseudomorphism of painting," playing off le temps espace (time-space) rather than le temps durée (time-duration) of Henri Bergson.[38] "One trick characterizes all of Stravinsky's formal endeavors: the effort of his music to portray time as in a circus tableau and to present time complexes as though they were spatial. This trick, however, soon exhausts itself."[39] His "rhythmic procedures closely resemble the schema of catatonic conditions. In certain schizophrenics, the process by which the motor apparatus becomes independent leads to infinite repetition of gestures or words, following the decay of the ego."[40] Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg. ... Henri-Louis Bergson (October 18, 1859–January 4, 1941) was a major French philosopher, influential in the first half of the 20th century. ...


Awards

The Léonie Sonning Music Prize, or Sonning Award, which is recognized as Denmarks highest musical honor, is given annually to an international musician. ...

Recordings

Igor Stravinsky found recordings to be a practical and useful tool in preserving his own thoughts on the interpretation of his music. As a conductor of his own music, he recorded primarily for Columbia Records, beginning in 1928 with a performance of the original suite from The Firebird and concluding in 1967 with the 1945 suite from the same ballet. In the late 1940s, he made several recordings for RCA Victor at the Republic Studios in Los Angeles. Although most of his recordings were made with studio musicians, he also worked with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, the Cleveland Orchestra, the CBC Symphony Orchestra, the New York Philharmonic Orchestra, and the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra. Columbia Records is the oldest brand name in recorded sound, dating back to 1888, and was the first record company to produce pre-recorded records as opposed to blank cylinders. ... Sony BMG Music Entertainment is the result of a 50/50 joint venture between Sony Music Entertainment (part of Sony) and BMG Entertainment (part of Bertelsmann AG) completed in August 2004. ... Republic Pictures Corporation (aka Republic Entertainment) is an independent film, television, and video distribution company that was originally a movie production-distribution corporation with studio facilities, best known for its specialization in quality B pictures, westerns and movie serials. ... The Chicago Symphony Orchestra, based in Chicago, Illinois, is one of the leading orchestras in the world. ... The Cleveland Orchestra is one of the major symphony orchestras in the United States. ... The New York Philharmonic is an American orchestra based in New York City. ... The Royal Philharmonic Orchestra (RPO) is an English orchestra based in London. ...


Media

  • 3 Pieces for Clarinet Alone
  • Problems playing the files? See media help.

Image File history File links Igor_Stravinsky_-_3_Pieces_for_Clarinet_Alone. ...

List of works

See also: Category:Compositions by Igor Stravinsky
See also: List of compositions by Igor Stravinsky

Although Stravinsky is best known for his stage works, in particular his ballets, his compositions cover a diverse range of musical forms. List of compositions by Igor Stravinsky. ...


See also

  • List of coupled cousins

// This is a list of prominent individuals who have been romantically or maritally coupled with a cousin, niece, nephew, aunt or uncle. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Page 2006; Robinson 2004; Anonymous 1940; Théodore and Denise Strawinsky 2004, 166; Cohen 2004, 30.
  2. ^ Glass 1998[1].
  3. ^ Stravinsky 1936, 91-92.
  4. ^ The names of uncredited collaborators are given in Walsh (2001).
  5. ^ Stravinsky and Craft 1959.
  6. ^ Stravinsky 1936, quoted in Dubal 2001, 564
  7. ^ Walsh 2001.
  8. ^ Dubal, 564.
  9. ^ Glazunov, though, thought little of the young Stravinsky's composition skills, calling him unmusical (Dubal 2001, 564).
  10. ^ Dubal 2001, 565.
  11. ^ Walsh 2001.
  12. ^ Dubal 2001, 565.
  13. ^ Orthodox Church in Switzerland
  14. ^ Lawson 1986, and Stravinsky and the Pianola, under External Links.
  15. ^ Holland 2001
  16. ^ Wenborn 1985, 17, alludes to this comment, without giving a specific source.
  17. ^ Stravinsky 1936[citation needed]
  18. ^ See Eksteins 1989, 10–16, for an overview of contradictory reportage of the event by participants and the press.
  19. ^ Stravinsky 1936,[citation needed] cited in Siegmeister 1943,[citation needed])
  20. ^ NPR show, under External links
  21. ^ Straus 2001, 4.
  22. ^ Stravinsky and Craft 1960, 116–17.
  23. ^ Zappa and Occhiogrosso 1989, 34, 49, 88, 89, 112, 116, 167, and 195.
  24. ^ The Primitive Pulse of Stravinsky's 'Rite of Spring' : NPR Music
  25. ^ Simeone, Craft, and Glass [n.d.] (External links, below).
  26. ^ Time Magazine Profile, under External links
  27. ^ Browne 1930, 360
  28. ^ BBC Radio 3 programme, "Discovering Music" near 33:30
  29. ^ Hazlewood n.d. (External links, below).
  30. ^ Copland 1952, 37
  31. ^ Cocteau 1918[cite this quote], cited in Volta 1989,[cite this quote]
  32. ^ English translation from the Musical Times, London, October 1923, quoted in Slonimsky 1953,[cite this quote]).
  33. ^ Blitzstein 1935, 330.
  34. ^ Blitzstein 1935, 346–47.
  35. ^ Lambert 1936, 94.
  36. ^ Lambert 1936, 101–105.
  37. ^ Adorno 1973, 206–9.
  38. ^ Adorno 1973, 191–93.
  39. ^ Adorno 1973, 195.
  40. ^ Adorno 1973, 178.

Portrait by Ilya Repin, 1887. ...

References

  • Adorno, Theodor. 1973. Philosophy of Modern Music. Translated by Anne G. Mitchell and Wesley V. Blomster. New York: Continuum. ISBN 0-8264-0138-4 Original German edition, as Philosophie der neuen Musik. Tübingen: J. C. B. Mohr, 1949.
  • Anonymous. 1940. "Musical Count". Time Magazine (Monday, March 11).
  • Blitzstein, Marc. 1935. "The Phenomenon of Stravinsky". Musical Quarterly 21, no. 3 (July): 330–47. Reprinted 1991, Musical Quarterly 75, no. 4 (Winter): 51-69.
  • Browne, Andrew J. 1930. "Aspects of Stravinsky's Work". Music & Letters 11, no. 4 (October): 360–66. Online link accessed 2007-11-19 (subscription access)
  • Cocteau, Jean. 1918. Le Coq et l'arlequin: notes de la musique. Paris: Éditions de la Sirène. Reprinted 1979, with a preface by Georges Auric. Paris: Stock. ISBN 2234010810 English edition, as Cock and Harlequin: Notes Concerning Music, translated by Rollo H. Myers, London: Egoist Press, 1921.
  • Cohen, Allen. 2004. Howard Hanson in Theory and Practice. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Publishers. ISBN 0-313-32135-3
  • Copland, Aaron. 1952. Music and Imagination. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
  • Craft, Robert. 1993. Stravinsky: Glimpses of a Life, St Martins Press.
  • Craft, Robert. 1997. Stravinsky: Chronicle of a Friendship. Vanderbilt University Press.
  • Dubal, David. 2001. The Essential Canon of Classical Music. New York: North Point Press.
  • Eksteins, Modris. 1989. Rites of Spring: The Great War and the Modern Era. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-395-49856-2 (Reprinted 1990, New York: Anchor Books ISBN 0-385-41202-9; reprinted 2000, Boston: Mariner Books ISBN 0-395-93758-2)
  • Glass, Philip. 1998. “Igor Stravinsky” Time (Monday, 8 June).
  • Greene, David Mason (1985). Biographical Encyclopaedia of Composers. New York: Doubleday.
  • Holland , Bernard. 2001. "Stravinsky, a Rare Bird Amid the Palms: A Composer in California, at Ease if Not at Home", The New York Times (11 March).
  • Lambert, Constant. 1936. Music Ho! A Study of Music in Decline. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
  • Lawson, Rex. 1986. Stravinsky and the Pianola, in Confronting Stravinsky, ed. Pasler. Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-05403-2.
  • Page, Tim. 2006. "Classical Music: Great Composers, a Less-Than-Great Poser and an Operatic Impresario". Washington Post (Sunday, 30 July): BW13.
  • Robinson, Lisa. 2004. "Opera Double Bill Offers Insight into Stravinsky's Evolution". The Juilliard Journal Online 19, no. 7 (April). (No longer accessible as of March 2008.)
  • Siegmeister, Elie (ed.). 1943. The Music Lover's Handbook. New York:William Morrow and Company.
  • Slonimsky, Nicolas. 1953. Lexicon of Musical Invective: Critical Assaults on Composers Since Beethoven's Time. New York: Coleman-Ross. Second edition, New York: Coleman-Ross, 1965, reprinted Washington Paperbacks WP-52, Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1969, reprinted again Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1974 ISBN 0-295-78579-9, and New York: Norton, 2000 ISBN 039332009X (pbk).
  • Straus, Joseph N. 2001. Stravinsky's Late Music. Cambridge Studies in Music Theory and Analysis 16. Cambridge, New York, Port Melbourne, Madrid, and Cape Town: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-80220-2 (cloth) ISBN 0-521-60288-2 (pbk)
  • Stravinsky, Igor. 1936. Chronicle of My Life. London: Gollancz. Reprinted as An Autobiography (1903-1934). London: Marion Boyars, 1990. ISBN 0-714-51082-3. Reprinted, New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1998. ISBN 0-393-31856-7.
  • Stravinsky, Igor, and Robert Craft. 1959. Conversations with Igor Stravinsky. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. OCLC 896750 Reprinted Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980. ISBN 0520040406
  • Stravinsky, Igor, and Robert Craft. 1962. Expositions and Developments. London: Faber & Faber.
  • Stravinsky, Igor, and Robert Craft. 1960. Memories and Commentaries. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday. Reprinted 1981, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-04402-9 Reprinted 2002, London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0571212425
  • Strawinsky, Théodore, and Denise Strawinsky. 2004. Catherine and Igor Stravinsky: A Family Chronicle 1906–1940. New York: Schirmer Trade Books; London: Schirmer Books. ISBN 0825672902
  • Taruskin, Richard. 1996. Stravinsky and the Russian Traditions: A Biography of the Works Through Mavra. Two vols. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-07099-2
  • Volta, Ornella. 1989. Satie Seen through His Letters. London: Boyars. ISBN 0-7145-2980-X.
  • Walsh, Stephen. 2000. Stravinsky. A Creative Spring: Russia and France 1882-1934. London: Jonathan Cape.
  • Walsh, Stephen. 2001. "Stravinsky, Igor." New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2nd edition. London: MacMillian.
  • Wenborn, Neil. 1985. Stravinsky. London: Omnibus Press. ISBN 0711976511.
  • Zappa, Frank, and Peter Occhiogrosso. 1989. The Real Frank Zappa Book. New York: Poseidon Press. ISBN 067163870X (reprinted twice in 1990, New York: Fireside Books, ISBN 0671705725 and New York: Picador Books ISBN 0330316257)

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nicolas Slonimsky (April 27, 1894 - December 25, 1995) was a Russian-American composer, conductor, music critic, musician, and author. ...

Further reading

  • Cross, Jonathan (1999). The Stravinsky Legacy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521563659. 
  • Joseph, Charles M. (2001). Stravinsky Inside Out. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0300075375. 
  • Joseph, Charles M. (2002). Stravinsky and Balanchine, A Journey of Invention. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-08712-8. 
  • Kohl, Jerome (1979–80). "Exposition in Stravinsky's Orchestral Variations". Perspectives of New Music 18 (1/2): 391–405. doi:10.2307/832991. (subscription access)
  • Kundera, Milan; Asher, Linda (translator) (1995). Testaments Betrayed: An Essay in Nine Parts. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0060171456. 
  • Kuster, Andrew T. (2005). Stravinsky's Topology, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder D.M.A. Dissertation, Morrisville, NC: Lulu.com. ISBN 1411664582. 
  • Stravinsky, Igor (1947). Poetics of Music in the Form of Six Lessons. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. OCLC 155726113. 
  • White, Eric Walter (1979). Stravinsky: The Composer and His Works, Second edition, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 0520039831. 

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... The International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP) is a project for the creation of a virtual library of public domain music scores, based on the wiki principle. ... Philip Glass (born January 31, 1937) is a three-times Academy Award-nominated American composer. ... Charles M. E. Hazlewood is a British conductor and broadcaster on music. ... Robert Lawson Craft (October 20th, 1923 - ) is an American conductor and writer on music best known for his intimate working friendship with Igor Stravinsky, a relationship which has resulted in a number of recordings and books. ... Philip Glass (born January 31, 1937) is a three-times Academy Award-nominated American composer. ...

Recordings

  • Three Pieces for Solo Clarinet, performed by Ted Gurch, clarinet:
  • No. 1
  • No. 2
  • No. 3
Persondata
NAME Stavinsky, Igor Fyodorovich
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Stravinskij, Igor Fëdorovič
SHORT DESCRIPTION Russian composer
DATE OF BIRTH Spring June 17, 1882
PLACE OF BIRTH Lomonosov, Russia, Russia
DATE OF DEATH April 6, 1971
PLACE OF DEATH New York City, New York, United States

is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Lomonosov (Ломоно́сов), formerly Oranienbaum (Ораниенба́ум), is a city and in northwestern Russia, on the shore of the Bay of Finland west of St. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the state. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Stravinsky - MSN Encarta (1096 words)
Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (Russian : Игорь Фёдорович Стравинский, Igor' Fjodorovič Stravinskij) (June 17, 1882 – April 6, 1971) was a Russian...
The Russian composer Igor Stravinsky was one of the most influential composers of the twentieth century.
Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky was born June 17, 1882, in Oranienbaum (now Lomonosov), the son of a leading bass singer at the imperial opera house in Saint Petersburg.
Igor Stravinsky - definition of Igor Stravinsky in Encyclopedia (3357 words)
When Stravinsky met Vera in the early 1920s she was married to the painter and stage designer Serge Sudeikin, but they soon began an affair which led to her leaving her husband.
Stravinsky first began to dabble in the twelve tone technique in smaller vocal works such as the Cantata (1952), Three Songs from Shakespeare (1953) and In Memoriam Dylan Thomas (1954), as if he were testing the system.
Stravinsky may have been preceded in these devices by earlier composers such as Erik Satie, but no doubt when Copland was composing his Appalachian Spring ballet he was taking Stravinsky as his model.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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