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Encyclopedia > Igor Smirnov

Igor Nikolaevich Smirnov (Russian: Игорь Николаевич Смирнов), (b. 23 October 1941) is the President of the internationally unrecognized Pridnestrovian Moldovan Republic, also known as Transnistria. He has held this post since 1991. October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Abraham Lincoln, 16th President of the United States (1861-1865) The majority of this article is about heads of states. ... Several geo-political entities in the world have no general international recognition, but they want to be recognized as sovereign states. ... Motto: For the right to live on this land[citation needed] Anthem: Anthem of Transnistria Capital (and largest city) Tiraspol Russian, Ukrainian, Moldovan Government Semi-presidential  - President Igor Smirnov Independence from Moldova   - Declared September 2, 1990   - Recognition unrecognized  Area  - Total 4,163 km² 1,607 sq mi   - Water (%) 2. ...

Igor Smirnov, December 2006
Igor Smirnov, December 2006

Contents

Image File history File links Igorsmirnov. ... Image File history File links Igorsmirnov. ...

Childhood

Igor Smirnov was born in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Soviet Union (now in Russian Federation) during World War II. He was the son of Nikolai Stepanovich Smirnov, a worker within the Soviet Communist Party apparatus and Zinaida Grigor’evna Smirnova, a journalist and newspaper editor. As the Party promoted Nikolai Stepanovich to ever more important positions, the family moved from Petropavlosk to the Ukrainian SSR, where the Red Army had recently expelled the Nazi German military. The Smirnovs initially benefited from Nikolai Stepanovich’s successes—he reached the position of First Secretary of the Golopristanskiy rayon committee in Soviet Ukraine. Petropavlovsk, as seen from Avacha Bay Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (Russian: ) is the administrative, industrial, scientific, and cultural center of Kamchatka Oblast, Russia. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union ( Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = &#1050... State motto: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Official language None. ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The term General Secretary (alternatively First Secretary) denotes a leader of various unions, parties or associations. ...


However, in the summer of 1952 Nikolai Stepanovich was arrested for irregularities in supply distribution among the rayon’s collective farms.[1] He was sentenced to fifteen years in the Soviet forced labor camps with a following period of five years’ internal exile. As the family of an enemy of the people, life was difficult for Zinaida Grigor’evna and her three sons, Vladimir, Oleg and Igor. In the wake of Joseph Stalin’s death in 1953, Nikolai Stepanovich was released together with a great number of Soviet inmates. The Smirnov family was reunited in central Russia near the Ural Mountains where Nikolai Stepanovich, directed a primary school and Zinaida Grigor’evna worked as the editor of a local Komsomol newspaper.[2] Collective farming is an organizational unit in agriculture in which peasants are not paid wages, but rather receive a share of the farms net output. ... The term enemy of the people (Russian language: враг народа, vrag naroda) was a fluid designation under the Bolsheviks rule in regards to their real or suspected political or class opponents, sometimes including former allies. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Map of the Ural Mountains The Village of Kolchedan in Ural Mountains in 1912 The Ural Mountains (Russian: , Uralskiye gory) also known simply as the Urals and as the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, is a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ... Komsomol (Комсомол) is a syllabic abbreviation word, from the Russian Kommunisticheski Soyuz Molodiozhi (Коммунистический союз молодёжи), or Communist...

Igor Smirnov presidential election poster
Igor Smirnov presidential election poster

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (400x900, 48 KB) Summary Transnistrian presidential election poster used in Igor Smirnov campaign saying: The 9th of December 2001 Transnistrian presindetial election Igor Nikolayevich Smirnov - our president Licensing This image is of a historical political poster, and the copyright for it... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (400x900, 48 KB) Summary Transnistrian presidential election poster used in Igor Smirnov campaign saying: The 9th of December 2001 Transnistrian presindetial election Igor Nikolayevich Smirnov - our president Licensing This image is of a historical political poster, and the copyright for it...

Professional life

In 1959, Igor Smirnov began work at the Zlatoust Metallurgical Factory at the age of eighteen. Soon, however, he moved back to Ukraine to work on the construction of a new hydroelectric power station in the town of Nova Kakhovka in the Kherson Oblast. Nova Kakhovka is a town in southern Ukraine, center of the Novokakhovskyi district within Khersonska oblast. It is an important riverport on Dnieper River and Kakhovske artificial lake. ... Kherson Oblast (Херсонська область, Khersons’ka oblast’ or Херсонщина, Khersonshchyna in Ukrainian) is an oblast of southern Ukraine, just north of Crimea. ...


Smirnov displayed a great enthusiasm for Soviet life, pursuing higher education in the evenings and weekends after work and participating in a number of athletic and cultural activities. He met and married a young engineer named Zhannetta Nikolaevna Lotnik in the early 1960s and served in the Red Army from 1963-1966 as a Second Lieutenant. In 1963, Smirnov joined the CPSU and served as a Komsomol organizer (komsorg) after returning to civilian life. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = КПСС) was the name used by the successors of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party from 1952 to 1991, but the wording Communist Party was present in the partys name since 1918 when the Bolsheviks became the Russian... Komsomol (Комсомол) is a syllabic abbreviation word, from the Russian Kommunisticheski Soyuz Molodiozhi (Коммунистический союз молодёжи), or Communist...


Once back from the military, Smirnov also continued the correspondence courses he had begun in the early 1960s, receiving a degree from the Zaporizhia Machine-Building Institute in 1974.[3] Meanwhile he worked his way up from the shop floor to be an assistant director of one of the shops of the Novaia Kakhovska Machine-Building Factory. With his college diploma, Smirnov continued to be promoted. He soon became the shop director, then assistant to the factory’s chief industrial upgrades and new technologies engineer and finally an assistant director. Location Map of Ukraine with Zaporizhia highlighted. ...


While he was not made director in 1987 when that position’s erstwhile occupant retired, he was given the directorship of the “Elektromash” Electronics Concern in the nearby Moldovan city of Tiraspol. Fatefully, the boy from the Soviet Far East accepted this position near the USSR’s Western border. It would be just over two years before Smirnov led the city’s municipal government as the chairman of the Tiraspol city soviet and just under three before he held the most powerful position in the embryonic — and unrecognized — Pridnestrovian Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic.[4] County Transnistria Status Municipality/Capital Mayor Viktor Kostyrko, since 2003 Area 85 km² Population (2005) 159 163 Geographical coordinates 46°51′ N 29°38′ E Web site http://www. ... The term Russian Far East (Russian: Да́льний Восто́к Росси́и; English transliteration: Dalny Vostok Rossii) refers to the extreme south-east parts of Russia, between Siberian Federal District and the Pacific. ...


The strike campaign

As communism began to collapse at the end of the 1980s, people throughout the Soviet Union began to demand national sovereignty. As the citizens of the Moldavian SSR debated the merits of introducing Moldovan as the official language of the republic—at first with Russian as a second official language and later without—the republic exploded over the issue of nationalizing Moldova. One side believed that Moldova should be independent from the Kremlin and turned into a nation-state, possibly in a union with Romania where a virtually identical language is spoken. The other believed that Moldova should remain a part of the supranationalist — citizens being of many nationalities — USSR, possibly in a post-communist, but still united country. State motto: Пролетарь дин тоате цэриле, униць-вэ! Official language None. ... The Moscow Kremlin, as seen from the Balchug. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... Romanian (limba română IPA ) is the fifth of the Romance languages in terms of number of speakers. ... International Socialism redirects here. ...


Smirnov and many of his colleagues were suspicious of the possibility of language laws from the very beginning — they suspected this to be the first step towards “nationalization” of the republic at the expense of “their country,” the Soviet Union. However, in August 1989, when it was leaked that Moldovan would be made the only official language,[5] Smirnov and other industrial workers in Tiraspol banded together to create the United Work Collective Council (OSTK— Объединенный Совет трудовых коллективов) and called an immediate strike that eventually led to the shutdown of most major industrial activity (concentrated in the Transnistrian region) throughout the SSR. The United Work Collective Council (Объединенный Совет трудовых коллективов) is an organization which led a political movement for the independence of Transnistria (also called Pridnestrovie) from the Republic of Moldova. ...


Entry into politics

When the strike campaign, from August 16 to September 22, 1989, failed to produce much of an effect in Chişinău, the OSTK re-examined its tactics. Smirnov and others saw the upcoming Moldovan elections as an opportunity to effect change through different means. Smirnov won two seats in the elections of February 1990, the 32nd district seat for the city soviet (municipal government) of Tiraspol and the 125th district seat for the Supreme Soviet of MSSR (republican government). Once in the city soviet, Smirnov ran for chairmanship of that body. In a dramatic demonstration of how much the Communist Party’s power had waned, Smirnov beat his challenger, the First Secretary of the city’s Party Committee, Leonid Tsurkan, by a 2-to-1 margin.[6] From this time forward, Tiraspol was an OSTK-controlled city. County ChiÅŸinău Status Municipality Mayor Vasile Ursu, since 2005 Area 635 km² Population (2004) 647,513 [1] Density 1114 inh/km² Geographical coordinates Founded in 1436 Dialing code +373 22 Web site http://www. ... The Supreme Soviet (Russian: , Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ...


Things did not go quite as smoothly for Igor Smirnov in the Moldovan Supreme Soviet. The OSTK candidates, mostly from Transnistria in the country’s eastern periphery, were a small fraction of the body’s overall membership—approximately 15 percent. In May 1990, these Transnistrian Supreme Soviet deputies were attacked and beaten by pro-independence protestors and quickly left the body for their homes in the East.[7] Unable to affect the course of events in Chişinău, these deputies acted to establish their own Soviet republic, a republic that would remain a part of the Soviet Union and not secede with the rest of the Moldova. Many Moldovans reacted with outrage at this infringement of their sovereignty and the Soviet central government publicly rebuked the separatists for making the situation worse and pushing Moldova further toward independence.


Proclamation of independence

Igor Smirnov emerged as a leader of the OSTK on a regional level as Transnistrian politicians and activists worked towards sovereignty from the Moldovan SSR in the summer and fall of 1990. When the First All-region Congress of Transnistrian Deputies created a self-contained Transnistrian economic zone in June 1990, Smirnov was elected chair of a coordinating council charged with carrying momentum forward to sovereignty. A second congress held on September 2 proclaimed the creation of the Pridnestrovian Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic (PMSSR) and deputies elected him to chair the Provisional Supreme Soviet of the PMSSR.[8]


In his new role as chairman of the PMSSR Supreme Soviet, and later, president of the Pridnestrovian Moldovan Republic (PMR), Smirnov worked to gain recognition for the state. While this was never a likely outcome, Smirnov was successful at securing the cooperation of a locally stationed Red Army unit; as the conflict grew increasingly violent at the end of 1991 and going into 1992, Red Army leaders and enlisted men, often themselves from Transnistria, gave moral support, weapons and ammunition to PMR separatists. Eventually a number of Red Army soldiers joined the PMR Army.[9]


In December 1991 Smirnov beat Grigorii Marakutsa, his successor as chairman of the PMSSR Supreme Soviet and another challenger in an election for president of the Pridnestrovian Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic. He won with 64% of the vote.[10] Grigore Mărăcuţă (Russian: ) (born 15 October 1942 in Teia, Grigoriopol district) is a Transnistrian politician and member of Transnistrias parliament. ...


Smirnov after the war

Igor Smirnov, September 2005
Igor Smirnov, September 2005

The Pridnestrovian Moldovan Republic has held three further presidential elections since the first in 1991. Image File history File links Igor_Smirnov. ... Image File history File links Igor_Smirnov. ...


Igor Smirnov has won all by a wide margin. On December 23, 1996, he took 72% of the vote against 20% for Vladimir Malakhov and on December 9, 2001, he took 81.9% of the vote against 6.7% for Tom Zenovich and 4.6% for Alexander Radchenko. On December 10, 2006, Smirnov was re-elected for a third time with 82.4% of the vote. His Communist Party opponent, Nadezhda Bondarenko claimed only 8.1% of the vote, while two other candidates polled below 3%.[11] The international legitimacy of the 2001 election was undermined by reports of irregularities.[12][13] Tom Zenovich, is a politician and former presidential candidate from Transnistria, a country which declared independence from Moldova in 1990. ... Alexander Radchenko, an ethnic Russian, is a politician and human rights activist in Transnistria, a country which declared independence from Moldova in 1990. ...


He has announced that he will retire from politics when the Pridnestrovian Moldovan Republic obtains international recognition as a sovereign state and has called this goal his life's work.[14]


Igor Smirnov usually drives around Transnistria in a Skoda[15] and without bodyguards.[16] Škoda Auto ( (help· info)) is a Czech automobile manufacturer and one of the four oldest car producers in the world. ...


The Vice President of the PMR is Aleksandr Korolev.


See also

Politics of Transnistria, a de facto independent region of the Republic of Moldova in Eastern Europe, takes place in a framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of Transnistria is both head of state and head of government. ...

References

  • Leader (Olvia Press)

External links

  • President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (official site)
  • Igor Smirnov bio / profile
  • Regions and territories: Trans-Dniester#Leaders, BBC News profile
  • Interview with Igor Smirnov: "What matters first of all is the opinion of the people who live here"
  • The Permanent President, Kommersant, 11 December 2006
Preceded by
formation of Soviet republic
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Pridnestrovian Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic
1990-1991
Succeeded by
dissolution of the Soviet Union
Preceded by
formation of republic
President of the Pridnestrovian Moldovan Republic
1991-present
Succeeded by
incumbent

The current BBC News logo BBC News and Current Affairs is a major arm of the BBC responsible for the corporations newsgathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Kommersant (Cyrillic: Коммерсантъ) (which literally translates as The Businessman) was a commerce-oriented newspaper published in Russia. ... The Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Pridnestrovian Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic led that state from the time of its creation until the government was reorganized in late 1991. ... This article is about the year. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: For the right to live on this land[citation needed] Anthem: Anthem of Transnistria Capital (and largest city) Tiraspol Russian, Ukrainian, Moldovan Government Semi-presidential  - President Igor Smirnov Independence from Moldova   - Declared September 2, 1990   - Recognition unrecognized  Area  - Total 4,163 km² 1,607 sq mi   - Water (%) 2. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Notes

  1. ^ In his memoirs, Igor Smirnov reports that his father "had seen to it that the families of those killed on the front [of WWII] were supplied with necessities (free of charge)." Igor Smirnov, Zhit’ na nashei zemle. (Moscow: Sovetskii pisatel’, 2001), 9.
  2. ^ Anna Volkova, Lider (Tiraspol’: [s.n.], 2001). Available online at: http://www.olvia.idknet.com/soderjanie.htm
  3. ^ "Igor' Smirnov - kandidat [v prezident PMR] naroda," in Nepriznannaia respublika: ocherki, dokumenty, khronika: dokumenty gosudarstvennykh organov Pridnestrovia, Vol. II, Gryzlov, V.F., ed. (Moscow: Rossiiskaia akademiia nauk, TIMO, 1997), 19.
  4. ^ A collection of writings by participants in the OSTK movement printed in the PMR provides many personal, though uniformly positive, memories of Smirnov in this transition period. L. Alfer’eva, ed., Slavy ne iskali: sbornik vospominanii uchastnikov sozdaniia i stanovleniia PMR (Bendery: Poligrafist, 2000).
  5. ^ A deputy to the Supreme Soviet of the Moldovan SSR, unhappy with the changes, leaked the new draft to the newspaper of the "Tochlitmash" Machine-Building Concern in Tiraspol. See: Efim Bershin, Dikoe pole: Pridnestrovskii razlom (Moscow: Tekst, 2002), 19-20.
  6. ^ Volkova, Lider.
  7. ^ Moscow Domestic Service, May 23, 1990, trans. in FBIS, May 24, 1990, 117.
  8. ^ Viktor Diukarev, Pridnestrov’e—proshloe, nastoiashchee, budushchee, za kulisami politiki. Dubossary 1989-1992 gg. (Tiraspol’: Uprpoligrafizdat PMR, 2000), see esp. 198-203 for a first-hand, though partisan account of the proceedings.
  9. ^ The flow of Red Army men and materiel to PMR armed forces was widely reported in the CIS press at the time. See for ex., Nezavisimaya Gazeta, June 18, 1992 trans. in FBIS, June 19, 1992, 63; and Radio Rossii, June 20, 1992, trans. in FBIS, June 22, 1992, 62.
  10. ^ “Vybory, referendumy, oprosy,” in Nepriznania respublika, Vol. II, Gryzlov, ed., 179.
  11. ^ "Final vote results of 10 Dec 2006 Presidential elections in PMR" Tiraspol Times & Weekly Review, December 13, 2006. http://www.tiraspoltimes.com/node/449
  12. ^ http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2003/27854.htm
  13. ^ http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2005/61664.htm
  14. ^ "Transdnestr president: Recognition of Transdnestr is the matter of my life" Regnum, September 14, 2006. http://www.regnum.ru/english/704901.html
  15. ^ Ex-Soviet Region Feeling More Isolated Associated Press, October 2, 2006
  16. ^ Igor Smirnov

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Igor Smirnov - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (239 words)
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