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Encyclopedia > Ignaz Semmelweis
Ignaz Semmelweis (1860 portrait): advised handwashing with a chlorinated-lime solution in 1847.
Ignaz Semmelweis (1860 portrait): advised handwashing with a chlorinated-lime solution in 1847.
Semmelweis on an old Austrian postage stamp.

Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis (July 1, 1818 - August 13, 1865), also Ignac Semmelweis (born Semmelweis Ignác Fülöp), [1] was an Austrian-Hungarian physician called the "savior of mothers" [2] [3] who discovered, by 1847,[2] that the incidence of puerperal fever could be drastically cut by use of hand washing standards in obstetrical clinics.[2] Puerperal fever (or childbed fever) was common in mid-19th-century hospitals and often fatal, with mortality at 10%-35%. [4] Semmelweis [spelling[5]] postulated the theory of washing with "chlorinated lime solutions"[3] in 1847[2] as head of Vienna General Hospital's First Obstetrical Clinic, where doctor wards had 3 times the mortality of midwife wards.[3] In 1851, Semmelweis moved to work in Hungary, which accepted the theory by 1857 (see below). Image File history File links Ignaz_Semmelweis. ... Image File history File links Ignaz_Semmelweis. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Ignaz Semmelweis on an old Austrian postage stamp. ... Ignaz Semmelweis on an old Austrian postage stamp. ... A selection of Hong Kong postage stamps A postage stamp is evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... August 13 is the 225th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (226th in leap years), with 140 days remaining. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The incidence of disease is defined as the number of new cases of disease occurring in a population during a defined time interval. ... Puerperal fever (from the latin puer, child), also called childbed fever or puerperal sepsis, is a serious form of septicemia contracted by a woman during or shortly after childbirth or abortion. ... Schoolchildren washing their hands before eating lunch. ... Obstetrics (from the Latin obstare, to stand by) is the surgical specialty dealing with the care of a woman and her offspring during pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium (the period shortly after birth). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Midwifery is a blanket term used to describe a number of different types of health practitioners, other than doctors, who provide prenatal care to expecting mothers, attend the birth of the infant and provide postnatal care to the mother and infant. ... 1851 (MDCCCLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Despite his publications by 1861[4] of statistical/clinical trials where hand-washing reduced mortality below 1%,[4] Semmelweis' practice only earned widespread acceptance years after his death, when Louis Pasteur confirmed the germ theory. A nervous breakdown (or possibly Alzheimer's) landed him in an asylum, where Semmelweis died of injuries, at age 47 [see details below]. 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar) // January 1 - Benito Juárez captures Mexico City January 2 - Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia dies and is succeeded by... For Wikipedia statistics, see m:Statistics Statistics is the science and practice of developing human knowledge through the use of empirical data expressed in quantitative form. ... See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that treat patients. ... Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist best known for his remarkable breakthroughs in microbiology. ... The germ theory of disease, also called the pathogenic theory of medicine, is a theory that proposes that microorganisms are the cause of many diseases. ... Alzheimers disease (AD), also known simply as Alzheimers, is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive cognitive deterioration together with declining activities of daily living and neuropsychiatric symptoms or behavioral changes. ... A psychiatric hospital (also called, at various places and times, mental hospital or mental ward), is a hospital specialising in the treatment of persons with mental illness. ...

Contents

Early history

Semmelweis was born on July 1, 1818 in Tabán, an old commercial sector of Buda, the fifth child of a prosperous shopkeeper of German origin. He received his elementary education at the Catholic Gymnasium of Buda, then completed his schooling at the University of Pest from 1835 to 1837. Semmelweis' father wanted him to become a military advocate in the service of the Austrian bureaucracy, but when Semmelweis travelled to Vienna in the fall of 1837 to enroll in its law school he was instead attracted to medicine. Apparently without parental opposition, he enrolled in the medical school instead. 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... Tabán is a small neighborhood in central Budapest that is situated just west of Castle Hill. ... Buda (German: Ofen, Croatian: Budim, Slovak: Budín, Serbian: Будим or Budim, Turkish: Budin) is the western part of the Hungarian capital Budapest on the right bank of the Danube. ... This article is about Eötvös Loránd University, which is often referred to as University of Budapest. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... // A law school is an institution where future lawyers obtain legal degrees. ... medicines, see medication and pharmacology. ... Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center in Lubbock, Texas, USA. A medical school or faculty of medicine is a tertiary educational institution or part of such an institution that teaches medicine. ...


Semmelweis returned to Pest after his first year and continued his studies at the local university from 1839-1841. However, displeased by the backward conditions at Pest University, he moved to the Second Vienna Medical School in 1841. The latter school combined laboratory and bedside medicine and became one of the most prominent centers of medicine for the next century. In the last two years some of his teachers included Carl von Rokitansky, Josef Skoda and Ferdinand von Hebra. Semmelweis completed his botanically-oriented dissertation early in 1844 and remained in Vienna after graduation to repeat a two-month course in practical midwifery. He received a Magister degree in the subject. He also completed some surgical training and spent almost fifteen months (October 1844 - February 1846) with Skoda learning diagnostic and statistical methods. Afterward he became assistant in the First Obstetrical Clinic of the Vienna General Hospital (German: Wiener Allgemeines Krankenhaus), the university's teaching hospital. Pest (in Slovak Pešť, pron. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... For other uses of lab, see Lab. ... Carl Freiherr von Rokitansky (Czech: Karel Rokytanský) (b. ... Josef Å koda Josef Å koda (b. ... Ferdinand von Hebra Ferdinand Ritter von Hebra was an Austrian physician and dermatologist, b. ... Pinguicula grandiflora Botany is the scientific study of plantlife. ... This article is about the thesis in dialectics and academia. ... Jan. ... Midwifery is a blanket term used to describe a number of different types of health practitioners, other than doctors, who provide prenatal care to expecting mothers, attend the birth of the infant and provide postnatal care to the mother and infant. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Surgery Surgery is the medical specialty that treats diseases or injuries by operative manual and instrumental treatment. ... Jan. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Diagnosis (from the Greek words dia = by and gnosis = knowledge) is the process of identifying a disease by its signs, symptoms and results of various diagnostic procedures. ... A graph of a bell curve in a normal distribution showing statistics used in educational assessment, comparing various grading methods. ... Obstetrics and gynaecology (often abbreviated OB/GYN in the U.S. and O&G elsewhere) form a single medical speciality and have a combined postgraduate training program. ... The Vienna General Hospital (German: ) (AKH) is the University clinic of the city of Vienna, Austria. ...


In the mid-19th century it was common for a doctor to move directly from one patient to the next without washing his hands, or to move from performing an autopsy on a diseased body to examining a living person. Semmelweis hypothesized that "particles" introduced into the women caused puerperal fever, and that these particles were spread on the hands of the doctors and students. Semmelweis ordered that hands be washed in a chlorine solution before each examination. Mortality rates among women attended by doctors and medical students quickly dropped from 18.27 to 1.27 percent.[1] In 1861, Semmelweis published a book that described his findings and recommendations. He influenced Joseph Lister but years passed before the importance of disinfection was widely appreciated. 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar) // January 1 - Benito Juárez captures Mexico City January 2 - Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia dies and is succeeded by... Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister (April 5, 1827-February 10, 1912) was a famous British surgeon who promoted the idea of sterile surgery while working at the Glasgow Infirmary. ...


Discovery of the importance of hygiene

It was at the Vienna General Hospital that Semmelweis began investigating the causes of puerperal fever, against the resistance of his superiors who believed it to be non-preventable. Semmelweis became the titular house officer of the First Obstetrical Clinic in July 1846, which had a maternal mortality rate due to puerperal fever of 13.10%. This was well known at the time and many women preferred to give birth to their children on the street rather than being brought there. The Second Obstetrical Clinic had a mortality rate due to puerperal fever of only 2.03%, however; both were located in the same hospital and used the same techniques, with the only difference being the individuals who worked there. The first was the teaching service for medical students, while the second had been selected in 1839 for the instruction of midwives. 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Mother with her child (Sculpture) A mother is typically the biological or social female parent of a child or offspring while the male parent is the father. ... Crude death rate by country Mortality rate is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in some population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit time. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


The breakthrough for Ignaz Semmelweis occurred in 1847 with the death of his friend Jakob Kolletschka from an infection contracted after his finger was accidentally punctured with a knife while performing a postmortem examination. Kolletschka's own autopsy showed a pathological situation similar to that of the women who were dying from puerperal fever. Semmelweis immediately proposed a connection between cadaveric contamination and puerperal fever and made a detailed study of the mortality statistics of both obstetrical clinics. He concluded that he and the students carried the infecting particles on their hands from the autopsy room to the patients they examined in the First Obstetrical Clinic. The germ theory of disease had not yet been developed at the time. Thus, Semmelweis concluded that some unknown "cadaveric material" caused childbed fever. He instituted a policy of using a solution of chlorinated lime for washing hands between autopsy work and the examination of patients and the mortality rate dropped from its then-current level of 12.24% to 2.38%, comparable to the Second Clinic's. 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Post-mortem, postmortem and post mortem redirect here. ... Pathology (in ancient Greek pathos = pain/pation and logos = word) is the study of diseases. ... A cadaver is a dead body. ... The germ theory of disease, also called the pathogenic theory of medicine, is a theory that proposes that microorganisms are the cause of many diseases. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Rejection by the medical establishment

His observations went against the current scientific opinion of the time, which blamed diseases (among other quite odd causes) on an imbalance of the basic "four humours" in the body, a theory known as dyscrasia. It was also "argued" that even if his findings were correct, washing one's hands each time before treating a pregnant woman, as Semmelweis advised, would be too much work. Nor were doctors eager to admit that they had caused so many deaths. The term disease refers to an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs function. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Dyscrasia (from Greek Dyskrasia, meaning bad mixture), in Ancient Greek medicine, is the imbalance of the four humours, and was believed to be the direct cause of all disease. ... A pregnant woman Pregnancy is the process by which a mammalian female carries a live offspring from conception until it develops to the point where the offspring is capable of living outside the womb. ...


There were ideological issues at the time that prevented the medical establishment from recognizing and applying the findings of Semmelweis. One was that Semmelweis' claims were thought to lack scientific basis, since no explanation was given to his findings. Such a scientific explanation was only made possible some decades later when the germ theory of disease was developed (see Pasteur, Lister, and others). Another ideological problem was the fact that Semmelweis' ideas were thought to give special significance to death and dying (it was mainly doctors not washing their hands after autopsies who transferred germs), an idea which was deemed "religious" or "superstitious" in the post-Enlightenment intellectual environment that dominated scientific circles at the time. The germ theory of disease states that many diseases are caused by microorganisms, and that microorganisms grow by reproduction, rather than being spontaneously generated. ... Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French microbiologist and chemist who demonstrated the germ theory of disease and developed techniques of inoculation, most notably the first vaccine against rabies. ... Lister is a surname, and may refer to Alton Lister Anne Lister Aynsley Lister Charles J. Lister Dave Lister, fictional television character in the BBC television sitcom Red Dwarf David Cunliffe-Lister, 2nd Earl of Swinton David Lister (Origami Historian) Dean Lister General Enrique Líster, Spanish Communist politician and... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ...


During 1848 Ignaz Semmelweis widened the scope of his washing protocol to include all instruments coming in contact with patients in labor and he statistically documented success in virtually eliminating puerperal fever from the hospital ward. Despite this dramatic result, Semmelweis refused to communicate his method officially to the learned circles of Vienna,[6] nor was he eager to explain it on paper. Ferdinand von Hebra finally wrote two articles in his behalf but although foreign physicians and the leading members of the Viennese school were impressed by Semmelweis' apparent discovery the papers failed to generate widespread support. Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Skoda attempted to create an official commission to investigate the results. The commission proposal was ultimately rejected by the Ministry of Education due to a political conflict in the university and government bureaucracies. Semmelweis was an active liberal, but a conservative movement gained power in 1848 and in 1849 he was fired from his position. Skoda delivered an address on the subject in the Imperial and Royal Academy of Sciences in October of 1849, but Semmelweis had neglected to correct his friends' papers to make known their mistakes in describing his work. Semmelweis was finally persuaded to present his findings personally in 1850 with some success. However, Semmelweis abruptly left Vienna later that year to return to Pest, apparently due to financial difficulties, without notifying even his closest friends. This hasty decision ruined his chances to overcome the Viennese sceptics. 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) Year 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


In Hungary, Semmelweis took charge of the maternity ward of Pest's St. Rochus Hospital from 1851 to 1857. His hand- and equipment-washing protocols reduced the mortality rate from puerperal fever to 0.85% there, and his ideas were soon accepted throughout Hungary. He married, had five children, and built a large private practice. He became chair of theoretical and practical midwifery at the University of Pest in July 1855. Semmelweis turned down an offer in 1857 to chair obstetrics in Zurich. Vienna remained quite hostile to him, however. In the autumn of 1860 at Vienna General Hospital, long after the dismissal of Semmelweis, in the same ward where he demonstrated how to virtually eradicate childbed fever, 35 of 101 patients died.[4] 1851 (MDCCCLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Location within Switzerland   Zürich[?] (German pronunciation IPA: ; usually spelled Zurich in English) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 366,145 in 2004; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and capital of the canton of Zürich. ...


In 1861, Semmelweis finally published his discovery in the book[4] "Die Ätiologie, der Begriff und die Prophylaxis des Kindbettfiebers" (German for "The Etiology, Concept and Prophylaxis of Childbed Fever")[1] of which Semmelweis sent copies to medical societies and also to leading obstetricians in Germany, France, and England.[4] A number of unfavorable foreign reviews of the book prompted Semmelweis to lash out against his critics in series of open letters written in 1861-1862, which did little to advance his ideas. At a conference of German physicians and natural scientists, most of the speakers rejected his doctrine, including Rudolf Virchow.[1] 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar) // January 1 - Benito Juárez captures Mexico City January 2 - Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia dies and is succeeded by... This article needs cleanup. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the Queen England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 967 AD  Area  -  Total 130,395 km²  50,346 sq mi  Population  -  2007 estimate 50... The term natural science as the way in which different fields of study are defined is determined as much by historical convention as by the present day meaning of the words. ... [[ Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow (born October 13, 1821, in Schivelbein (Pomerania); died September 5, 1902, in Berlin) was a German doctor, anthropologist, public health activist, pathologist, prehistorian, biologist and politician. ...


The establishment's failure to recognize his findings earlier led to the tragic and unnecessary death of thousands of young mothers, but he was ultimately vindicated. This case is sometimes put forward as an example of a situation where scientific progress was slowed down by the inertia of established professionals. It has been contended, however[7] that Semmelweis could have had an even greater impact if he had managed to communicate his findings more effectively and avoid antagonising the medical establishment, even given the opposition from entrenched viewpoints.


Breakdown and Death

In July 1865 Semmelweis suffered what appeared to be a nervous breakdown, though some modern historians believe his symptoms may have indicated the onset of Alzheimer's disease or senile dementia. After a journey to Vienna imposed by friends and relatives he was committed to a mental asylum, the Niederösterreichische Landesirrenanstalt in Wien Döbling, where he died only two weeks later. Traditionally, he is said to have died the victim of a generalized blood poisoning similar to that of puerperal fever, which had been contracted from a surgically infected finger. According to an article in the Journal of Medical Biography by H. O. Lancaster, however, this is not true: This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Dementia (from Latin demens) is progressive decline in cognitive function due to damage or disease in the brain beyond what might be expected from normal aging. ... A psychiatric hospital (also called a mental hospital or asylum) is a hospital specializing in the treatment of persons with mental illness. ... Blood poisoning, also known as septicaemia, is a bacterial infection that occurs when bacteria get into the bloodstream and multiply rapidly. ... Puerperal fever (from the latin puer, child), also called childbed fever or puerperal sepsis, is a serious form of septicemia contracted by a woman during or shortly after childbirth or abortion. ...

"Much biographical material has been written on Semmelweis, yet the true story of his death on 13 August 1865 was not confirmed until 1979, by S. B. Nuland. After some years of mental deterioration, Semmelweis was committed to a private asylum in Vienna. There he became violent and was beaten by asylum personnel; from the injuries received he died within a fortnight. Thus some dramatic theories have been destroyed, including that he was injured and infected at an autopsy, which if true would have been a wonderful case of Greek irony."

A psychiatric hospital (also called, at various places and times, mental hospital or mental ward), is a hospital specialising in the treatment of persons with mental illness. ... A fortnight is a unit of time equal to two weeks: that is 14 days, or literally 14 nights. ... Post-mortem, postmortem and post mortem redirect here. ...

Legacy

The legacy of Ignaz Semmelweis continues in various ways:

The germ theory of disease, also called the pathogenic theory of medicine, is a theory that proposes that microorganisms are the cause of many diseases. ... An antiseptic solution of iodine applied to a cut Antiseptics (Greek αντί, against, and σηπτικός, putrefactive) are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. ... // Nosocomial infections are those which are a result of treatment in a hospital or hospital-like setting, but secondary to the patients original condition. ... Semmelweis University, university for medicine and health-related disciplines, located in Budapest, Hungary, named after the Hungarian physician Ignaz Semmelweis. ... See Budapest (band) for the British melancholic post-grunge band. ...

Semmelweis Reflex

The Semmelweis Reflex is the dismissing or rejecting out of hand any information, automatically, without thought, inspection, or experiment. The phrase stems from a number of people's personal experiences with the phenomenon, and denotes the reactions of anyone who engages in such behaviour. The expression "Semmelweis Reflex" has been attributed to author Robert Anton Wilson.[4] Robert Anton Wilson Robert Anton Wilson or RAW (January 18, 1932 – January 11, 2007) was a prolific American novelist, essayist, philosopher, psychologist, futurologist, anarchist, and conspiracy theory researcher. ...


See also

Semmelweis University, university for medicine and health-related disciplines, located in Budapest, Hungary, named after the Hungarian physician Ignaz Semmelweis. ... Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister (April 5, 1827-February 10, 1912) was a famous British surgeon who promoted the idea of sterile surgery while working at the Glasgow Infirmary. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d "Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis - Britannica Concise" (history), Imre Zoltán, Britannica Concise, 2006, Concise.Britannica.com webpage: CBrit-Semmelweis: birthname, doctorate 1844, objections of superiors, mortality 18.27 to 1.27 percent, fired for politics of 1848 rebellion, 1861 book Die Ätiologie, pathologist Rudolf Virchow rejected his doctrine.
  2. ^ a b c d "Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis, the prophet of bacteriology" ("savior of mothers"), O. Hanninen, M. Farago, E. Monos, Department of Physiology, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland, 1983, webpage: GA-Semmelweis-Life-Ideas.
  3. ^ a b c "Wanted at birth: clean hands, clean hearts - treating newborns with sensitivity and respect" (on Semmelweis), David B. Chamberlain, Mothering, Winter, 1993, webpage: FindArticles-x8159.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "HOW TO IMPROVE YOUR INFORMATION" (various tactics), Frederick Mann, 1993, webpage: Mind-TrekCom-Reports-t103: notes in 1860, 35 of 101 died = 35% mortality.
  5. ^ The name "Semmelweis" is not spelled with "ss" as "-weiss" (the German word for white color), but uses the shorter suffix "-weis" (omits extra "s"). "Ignaz Semmelweis" is pronounced, using typical German pronunciation rules, as "igg-nahts sem-mull-vice" ("w" is spoken like "v").
  6. ^ Robert Reid, Microbes and Men, 1975 pp 37
  7. ^ e.g. by Nuland, Sherwin B. (2003). The Doctors' Plague: Germs, Childbed Fever and the Strange Story of Ignac Semmelweis. W W Norton & Co Ltd. ISBN 0-393-05299-0. 

[[ Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow (born October 13, 1821, in Schivelbein (Pomerania); died September 5, 1902, in Berlin) was a German doctor, anthropologist, public health activist, pathologist, prehistorian, biologist and politician. ... Kuopio is a Finnish city located in the province of Eastern Finland and the region of Northern Savonia. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Nuland, Sherwin B, The Doctors' Plague: Germs, Childbed Fever, and the Strange Story of Ignác Semmelweis, 2003.

William J. Broad is a U.S. journalist and author of at least 3 books. ... Nicholas Wade is a U.S. journalist and author of at least 2 books. ... Jean-François Millet Le Semeur (The Sower) Simon & Schuster logo, circa 1961. ... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... line Louis-Ferdinand Destouches as C line (May 27, 1894 - July 1, 1961) was a French writer, physician and nihilist. ... Éditions Gallimard is the second most important French publisher, and probably the most respected. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ignaz Semmelweis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1560 words)
Semmelweis was born on July 1, 1818 in Tabán, an old commercial sector of Buda, the fifth child of a prosperous shopkeeper of German origin.
Semmelweis' father wanted him to become a military advocate in the service of the Austrian bureaucracy, but when Semmelweis travelled to Vienna in the fall of 1837 to enroll in its law school he was instead attracted to medicine.
During 1848 Ignaz Semmelweis widened the scope of his washing protocol to include all instruments coming in contact with patients in labor and he statistically documented success in virtually eliminating puerperal fever from the hospital ward, leading Skoda to attempt to create an official commission to investigate the results.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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