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Encyclopedia > Igla
Igla
Function short-range anti-air missile
Contractor KBM
Unit cost 60 000 - 80 000 (in 2003)
Deployment 1990s
General characteristics
Engine solid rocket motor
Launch weight 11 kg
Length 1.7 m
Diameter 72 mm
Wing span
Speed 700 m/s, about Mach 2
Range * Horizontal: 5.2 km
  • Vertical: 3.5 km
Flying altitude
Warhead 2 kg with 390 g explosive
Guidance 2-color infra-red (use of 2 colors reduces susceptibility to flares)
Fuzes contact and grazing fuzes
Launch platform

The 9K38 "Igla" (Russian 9К38 "Игла́" - needle) is a Russian/Soviet man-portable infra-red homing surface-to-air missile (SAM) system. Its NATO reporting name is SA-18 Grouse. The most advanced version, the Igla, has an all-aspect engagement capability. Line Drawing of Russian Manportable SAM System SA-18/GROUSE from http://www. ... Mach number (Ma) (pronounced as mack in International English or mock in the American English) is defined as a ratio of speed to the speed of sound in the medium in case. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Anthems: The Internationale (1922-1944) / Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944-1991) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Socialist republics/ Communist state Last Premier Ivan Silayev Last President Mikhail Gorbachev Area... Infra-red homing refers to a guidance system which uses the infra-red light emissions of a target to track it. ... A surface-to-air missile (SAM) is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft. ... NATO reporting names were code names for Soviet and Chinese military equipment. ... An all-aspect missile is one which is able to track a target no matter which way the target faces relative to the missile. ...


A variant is the 9K310 "Igla-1", which has the NATO reporting name SA-16 Gimlet.


The Igla-M (NATO SA-N-10 Grouse) is a naval variant.

Contents


History

Development of the Igla short-range man-portable air defence missile (MANPADS) began in the Kolomna OKB in 1971. Contrary to what is commonly reported, the Igla is not an improved version of the earlier Strela family (Strela-2/SA-7 and Strela-3/SA-14), but an all new project. The main goals were to create a missile with better resistance to countermeasures and wider engagement envelope than the earlier Strela series MANPADS systems. An SA-7 in use Russian Manportable SAM System SA-18/GROUSE MANPADS (Human-Portable Air-Defence System) are shoulder-launched surface-to-air missiles. ... A soldier posing with a Strela launcher The 9K32 Strela-2 (Russian 9К32 стрела-2 - arrow, NATO reporting name SA-7 Grail) is a man-portable, shoulder-fired, low-altitude surface-to-air missile (SAM) system similar to the US Army REDEYE, with a high explosive warhead and passive infrared... A soldier posing with a Strela launcher. ... The 9K34 Strela-3 (Russian 9К34 Стрела-3 - arrow, NATO reporting name SA-14 Gremlin) man-portable air defence missile system ( MANPADS) was developed in Soviet Union as a response to the poor performance of the earlier 9K32 Strela-2 (NATO reporting name SA-7 Grail) system. ...


Technical difficulties in the development quickly made it obvious that the development would take far longer than anticipated, however, and in 1978 the program split in two: while the development of the full-capability Igla would continue, a simplified version (Igla-1) with a simpler IR seeker based on that of the earlier Strela-3/SA-14 would be developed to enter service earlier than the full-capability version could be finished.


Igla-1

The 9K310 Igla-1 system (NATO reporting name SA-16 Gimlet) and its 9M313 missile were accepted into service in the Soviet army on 11 March 1981. Main differences from the Strela-3 include: 11 March is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (71st in Leap year). ... 1981 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • Optional IFF (Identification-Friend-or-Foe) system to prevent firing on friendly aircraft.
  • Automatic lead and super elevation to simplify shooting and reduce minimum firing range.
  • Slightly larger rocket, reduced drag and better guidance system extend maximum range and improve performance against fast and maneuverable targets.
  • Improved lethality on target achieved by a combination of delayed impact fusing, terminal maneuver to hit the fuselage rather than jet nozzle, and an additional charge to set off the remaining rocket fuel (if any) on impact.
  • Improved resistance to countermeasures (both decoy flares and ALQ-144 series jamming emitters).
  • Slightly improved seeker sensitivity.

According to the manufacturer, South African tests have shown the Igla's superiority over the contemporary (1982 service entry) but smaller and lighter American FIM-92A Stinger missile. However, other tests in Croatia did not support any clear superiority, but effectively equal seeker performance and only marginally shorter time of flight and longer range for the Igla. Two soldiers preparing to fire a shoulder-mounted Stinger missile launcher A Stinger System: Launcher, Missile and Battery Light to carry and easy to operate, the FIM-92 Stinger is a passive infrared homing/seeking missile, shoulder-fired by a single operator (although officially 2 crew members are suggested) and...


According to Kolomna OKB, the Igla-1 has a Pk (probability of kill) of 0.30 to 0.48 against unprotected targets which is reduced to 0.24 in the presence of decoy flares and jamming. In another report the manufacturer claimed a Pk of 0.59 against an approaching and 0.44 against receding F-4 fighter not employing infra-red countermeasures or evasive manoeuvers. PK may stand for: Pakistan (ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code) Pakistan International Airlines (IATA code) Paperinik Penalty kick in football matches PariahKing, Administrator and Co-Creator of The Source Peak or park (map abbreviation) Pharmacokinetics Pickoff (baseball) pK - negative logarithm of the dissociation constant K (-logK) Placekicker (American... Computer games, simulations, models, and operations research programs often require a mechanism to determine statistically whether the engagement between a weapon and a target resulted in a kill. ... Image of a small dog taken in mid-infrared (thermal) light (false color) Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than visible light, but shorter than microwave radiation. ...


Igla

The full-capability 9K38 Igla (NATO reporting name SA-18 Grouse) with 9M39 missile was finally accepted to service in the Soviet Army in 1983. The main improvements over the Igla-1 include:

  • much improved resistance against flares and jamming.
  • more sensitive seeker, expanding forward-hemisphere engagement capability to include straight-approaching fighters (all-aspect capability) under favourable circumstances.
  • slightly longer range.
  • a higher-impulse, shorter-burning rocket with higher peak velocity (but approximately same time of flight to maximum range), and a propellant that performs as high explosive when detonated by the warhead's secondary charge on impact.

Tests in Finland have shown that compared to the French Mistral, the 9K38 Igla has inferior range and seeker sensitivity and smaller warhead, but superior resistance to countermeasures. An all-aspect missile is one which is able to track a target no matter which way the target faces relative to the missile. ... Mistral is an infrared homing surface-to-air missile manufactured by the European multinational company MBDA missile systems (formerly by Matra BAe Dynamics). ...


Other variants

A soldier showing off an Igla-1 launcher. Photo by GulfLINK.
Enlarge
A soldier showing off an Igla-1 launcher. Photo by GulfLINK.
Dual mount for the Igla
Dual mount for the Igla

Several variants of the Igla were developed for specific applications: A U.S. military photo taken from http://www. ... A U.S. military photo taken from http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x800, 97 KB) fr: Missile russe Igla anti-aérien en tourelle double Image by B. Harry From http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x800, 97 KB) fr: Missile russe Igla anti-aérien en tourelle double Image by B. Harry From http://www. ...

  • Igla-1E - Export version?.
  • Igla-1M - Naval version (NATO reporting name SA-N-10).
  • Igla-1D - A version for paratroopers and special forces with separate launch tube and missile.
  • Igla-1V - Air-launched version, mainly for combat helicopters.
  • Igla-1N - A version with heavier warhead at the cost of a slight reduction in range and speed.
  • Igla-1A - Export version?.
  • The newest variant is Igla-1S, which is a substantially improved variant with longer range, more sensitive seeker, improved resistance to latest countermeasures, and a heavier warhead.

In contrast to the American Stinger which underwent numerous improvement and modernization programs during 1980s and 1990s, there were no significant upgrades to the Igla between the 9K38 Igla (1983) and Igla-S (2002). 1983 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2002(MMII) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Comparison chart to other MANPADS

Weapon 9K36 Strela-3 9K38 Igla 9K310 Igla-1 FIM-92A Stinger
Service Entry 1974 1983 1981 1982
Weight, full system, ready to shoot 17.0 kg (37.5 lb) 17.9 kg (39.5 lb) 17.9 kg (39.5 lb) 14.3 kg (31.5 lb)
Weight, missile 10.3 kg (22.7 lb) 10.8 kg (23.8 lb) 10.8 kg (23.8 lb) 10.1 kg (22.3 lb)
Warhead weight 2 kg (4.4 lb), 390 g (13.75 oz) TNT 2 kg (4.4 lb), 390 g (13.75 oz) TNT 2 kg (4.4 lb), 390 g (13.75 oz) TNT 2 to 3 kg (4 to 6 lb), 450 g (15.9 oz) HE
Warhead type Directed-energy blast fragmentation warhead with impact and grazing fuze. Directed-energy blast fragmentation warhead with delayed impact, magnetic and grazing fuze. Directed-energy blast fragmentation warhead with delayed impact, magnetic and grazing fuze. Annular blast fragmentation with delayed impact fuze.
Flight speed, average / peak 470 m/s (1050 mph) sustained 600 m/s (1350 mph) sustained 600 m/s (1350 mph) / 800 m/s (1800 mph) 700 m/s (1500 mph) / 750 m/s (1700 mph)
Maximum range 4100 m (13,500 ft) 5200 m (17,000 ft) 5000 m (16,400 ft) 4500 to 4800 m (14,800 to 15,700 ft)
Maximum target speed, approaching 260 m/s (580 mph) 360 m/s (805 mph) 360 m/s (805 mph) ?
Maximum target speed, approaching 310 m/s (690 mph) 320 m/s (715 mph) 320 m/s (715 mph) ?
Seeker head type Nitrogen-cooled, lead sulfide (PbS) Nitrogen-cooled, Indium antimonide (InSb) main channel, uncooled lead sulfide (PbS) for countermeasures channel Nitrogen-cooled, Indium antimonide (InSb) Argon-cooled, Indium antimonide (InSb)
Seeker head detail FM-modulated FM-modulated, with aerospike to reduce supersonic wave drag FM-modulated, with tripod-mounted nosecone to reduce supersonic wave drag FM-modulated

The 9K34 Strela-3 (Russian 9К34 Стрела-3 - arrow, NATO reporting name SA-14 Gremlin) man-portable air defence missile system ( MANPADS) was developed in Soviet Union as a response to the poor performance of the earlier 9K32 Strela-2 (NATO reporting name SA-7 Grail) system. ... Two soldiers preparing to fire a shoulder-mounted Stinger missile launcher A Stinger System: Launcher, Missile and Battery Light to carry and easy to operate, the FIM-92 Stinger is a passive infrared homing/seeking missile, shoulder-fired by a single operator (although officially 2 crew members are suggested) and... 1974 is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ... 1983 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1981 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1982 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lead sulfide and several other lead salts are used as detection element material in various infra-red sensors. ... PBS re-directs here; for alternate uses see PBS (disambiguation) PBS logo The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is a non-profit public broadcasting television service with 349 member TV stations in the United States. ... Indium antimonide - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Indium antimonide (InSb) is a narrow gap semiconductor group the (III-V group) used in infrared detectors, including thermal imaging cameras. ... Lead sulfide and several other lead salts are used as detection element material in various infra-red sensors. ... PBS re-directs here; for alternate uses see PBS (disambiguation) PBS logo The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is a non-profit public broadcasting television service with 349 member TV stations in the United States. ... Indium antimonide - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Indium antimonide (InSb) is a narrow gap semiconductor group the (III-V group) used in infrared detectors, including thermal imaging cameras. ... Indium antimonide - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Indium antimonide (InSb) is a narrow gap semiconductor group the (III-V group) used in infrared detectors, including thermal imaging cameras. ...

Use in alleged plot against Air Force One

On August 12, 2003, as a result of a sting operation arranged as a result of cooperation between the American, British and Russian intelligence agencies, Hemant Lakhani, a British national, was intercepted attempting to bring what he had thought was an older-generation Igla into the USA. He is said to have intended the missile to be used in an attack on Air Force One, the American presidential plane, or on a commercial US airliner, and is understood to have planned to buy 50 more of these weapons. Air Force One is the air traffic control call sign of any U.S. Air Force aircraft carrying the President of the United States. ... August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2003(MMIII) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In law enforcement a sting operation is an operation designed to catch a person committing a crime, by means of deception. ... Hemant Lakhani (born 1935) is a British arms dealer accused of supplying an Igla missile to terrorists. ... Air Force One is the air traffic control call sign of any U.S. Air Force aircraft carrying the President of the United States. ...


Allegedly, after the Federalnaya Sluzhba Bezopasnosti detected the dealer in Russia, he was approached by US undercover agents posing as terrorists wanting to down a commercial plane. He was then provided with a non-working Igla by undercover Russian agents, and arrested in Newark, New Jersey, when making the delivery to the undercover US agent. A Malaysian, Moinuddeen Ahmed Hameed and an American Yehuda Abraham who allegedly provided money to buy the missile were also arrested. The FSB (ФСБ) is a state security organisation in Russia. ... Newark, nicknamed The Brick City, is the largest city in New Jersey and the county seat of urban Essex County. ...


Igla and Igla-1 SAMs have been exported from Russia to over 30 countries, including Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Germany, Malaysia, Finland, India, Iraq, Poland, Singapore, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovenia, South Korea and Syria. Several guerrilla and terrorist organizations are also known to have Iglas. In 2003 the unit cost was approximately USD 60,000 - 80,000. The probability of kill against an unprotected fighter isestimated at 30 to 48%, if infra-red countermeasures (IRCM) jammers used, estimated at 24 to 30%. Users include Russia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Finland, Poland and Slovenia 2003(MMIII) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


 
 

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