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Encyclopedia > Identity Cards Act 2006


Enabling legislation for the British national identity card was passed under the Identity Cards Act 2006 [1]. The multi-billion pound scheme [2] has yet to enter procurement. China ID card, front (top) back (bottom). ...


The cards have a lesser role than the extensive database they are linked to, which is known as the National Identity Register (NIR). The Act specifies fifty categories of information that the NIR can hold on each citizen [3], including up to 10 fingerprints, digitised facial scan and iris scan, current and past UK and overseas places of residence of all residents of the UK throughout their lives and indexes to other Government databases - which allows them to be connected. The legislation also says that any further information can be added. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Residency is a stage of postgraduate medical training in North America which leads to eligibility for board certification in a primary care or referral specialty. ...


The legislation also says that those renewing or applying for passports must be entered on to the NIR. It is expected that this will happen soon after the UK Passport Service, which has now been renamed the Identity and Passport Service (IPS), start interviewing passport applicants to verify their identity.[4] The Identity and Passport Service is an Executive Agency of the Home Office in the United Kingdom which became operational on 1 April 2006 after the passing of the Identity Cards Act 2006. ...


Various degrees of concern about the scheme have been expressed by human rights experts, security experts and IT experts amongst others. Enabling legislation for the British national identity card was passed under the Identity Cards Act 2006 [1]. The multi-billion pound scheme [2] has yet to enter procurement. ...

Contents

Timescale and implementation progress

On October 11, 2006, the Government announced a timescale described as "highly ambitious" by computer experts. [5] The Home Office said they will publish an ID management action plan in the months from November 2006, followed by agreements with departments on their uses for the system. There will be a report on potential private sector uses for the scheme before 2007 Budget. October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The modern concept of Small Office and Home Office or SoHo , or Small or Home Office deals with the category of business which can be from 1 to 10 workers. ... November 2006 is the eleventh month of that year and has yet to occur. ... 2007 (MMVII) will be a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On September 25, 2006, Home Office Minister Liam Byrne said that "There are opportunities which give me optimism to think that actually there is a way of exploiting systems already in place in a way which brings down the costs quite substantially" [6] September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Emails leaked in June 2006 [7] indicate that the plan is already in difficulty, with plans for the early introduction of a limited register and ID card with reduced biometrics known as the 'early variant' described as a "huge risk".


The schedule for putting passport applicants & renewers details on the National Identity Register (NIR) has not been and may never be announced. It is not expected to happen until Spring 2007 according to NO2ID. Applicants will be able to opt out of having a card issued until 2010 although they cannot opt out of having their details recorded on the NIR. Identity cards will be compulsory for anyone getting a new or renewed passport after January 1st 2010. Registration will become compulsory for non-UK passport holders resident in the UK by 2013. The Home Office currently estimates ID cards will be available from 2009. [8]


Historical and international comparisons

ID cards during the World Wars

Compulsory identity cards were first issued in the United Kingdom during World War I, and abandoned in 1919. Cards were re-introduced during World War II under the National Registration Act 1939, but were abandoned seven years after the end of that war in 1952, amid widespread public resentment. Opposition reached its peak with the 1951 court case of Willcock v Muckle, after Clarence Henry Willcock refused to produce his identity card. The judge in the case said that the cards were an "annoyance" and "tended to turn law-abiding subjects into law breakers". Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... Clarence Henry Willcock was the last person in the UK to be prosecuted for refusing to carry an Identity Card. ...


International comparisons

If introduced, Britain would become the fifth (mostly) common law country in the world to accept ID cards in peacetime, along with Cyprus, Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore. This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ...


Whilst 21 of 25 other countries in the EU have some form of ID card, these are not necessarily compulsory, biometric, or linked to a national database, and may have a far lower cost than that proposed for the British ID card. [citation needed]


There has been a move to introduce biometrics into identity and travel documents. The ICAO has recommended that all countries adopt biometric passports, and the United States has made it a future requirement for entering the US under the visa waiver programme. Biometric border control systems have been established in the United States and the United Arab Emirates and the EU is introducing biometric visas. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), an agency of the United Nations, codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth. ... Symbol for biometric passports, usually printed on the cover of the passports A biometric passport is a combined paper and electronic identity document that uses biometrics to authenticate the citizenship of travelers. ...


The system

Legal requirements

Under the NIR UK Residents will be required to:

  • Attend in person to be photographed, have their fingerprints taken and iris scanned.
  • To promptly inform the police or Home Office if a card is lost or damaged.
  • To promptly inform the National Identity Register of any change of address.
  • To promptly inform the National Identity Register of significant changes to their personal life.

Failure to comply with these requirements may result in a fine or imprisonment.


National Identity Register

National Identity Register
According to the published legislation, the database will record the following information for each UK resident:

  • Personal information:
    • full name;
    • other names by which he is or has been known;
    • date of birth;
    • place of birth;
    • gender;
    • principal UK place of residence;
    • every other UK place of residence;
    • past places of UK and overseas residence during a prescribed period.
  • Identifying information:
    • head and shoulder photograph;
    • signature;
    • fingerprints;
    • other biometric information.
  • Residential status:
    • nationality;
    • entitlement to remain in the United Kingdom;
    • the terms and conditions of leave to enter or remain in the UK, if applicable.
  • Personal reference numbers etc:
    • National Identity Registration Number;
    • the number of any ID card issued;
    • any national insurance number;
    • the number of any immigration document;
    • the number of any United Kingdom passport;
    • the number of any non-UK passport;
    • the number of any document that can be used instead of a passport;
    • the number of any overseas identity card;
    • any reference number in connection with an application to enter or to remain in the UK;
    • the number of any work permit;
    • any driving licence number;
    • the number of any other designated document;
    • the date of expiry or period of validity of a document listed above.
  • Record history:
    • previous records of the above information;
    • changes affecting the above information and changes made to the Register entry;
    • date of death.
  • Registration and ID card history:
    • the date of every application for registration;
    • the date of every application for a modification of the registry entry;
    • the date of every application confirming the contents of the registry entry;
    • the reason for any omission from the information recorded;
    • particulars (in addition to its number) of every ID card issued;
    • whether each such card is in force and, if not, why not;
    • particulars of every person who has countersigned an application;
    • particulars of every notification given by him (lost, stolen and damaged cards, etc);
    • particulars of every requirement to surrender an ID card.
  • Validation information:
    • the information provided in connection with every application or modification;
    • the information provided in connection with every registry entry confirmation;
    • the steps taken to identify the applicant or verify the information provided;
    • any other steps or information used to ensure a complete, up-to-date, accurate entry;
    • particulars of every notification given by that individual.
  • Security information:
    • a PIN used in connection with applications or information provision;
    • a password used for the above purpose;
    • questions and answers to be used for security when applying or modifying information.
  • Records of provision of information:
    • particulars of every occasion on which the registry entry has been accessed;
    • particulars of every person to whom such information has been provided;
    • other particulars associated with the registry access.


Key to the ID Card scheme will be a centralised computer database, the National Identity Register (NIR). To identify someone it will always not be necessary to check their card, since identity could be determined by a taking a biometric scan and matching it against a database entry. A personal identification number (PIN) is a numeric value (sometimes expressed as text using the standard telephone dial mapping) that is used in certain systems to gain access, and authenticate. ...


The Home Office said ID cards will be issued and thus the National Identity Register will be in place by 2009.


Identity Registration Number

One entry on the NIR is the Identity Registration Number. The Home Office have recognised that a unique identifier is needed as a primary key for the database.


The Home Office Benefits Overview document [9] describes how the IRN enables data sharing amongst police databases (including the Police DNA database), legal databases, and even corporate databases (including bank and travel operators).


Penalties

Failure to inform the Government of a change of address or other personal details will result in a fine of £1,000. Fines for refusing to register have been removed until a later Bill instead you may be denied a passport and/or other designated documents (eg driving licence). Failure to inform the Government if the card is tampered with, damaged, lost or stolen may result in a prison sentence of up to 51 weeks [10].


Universal children's database

Under the provisions of the Children Act 2004, the Government plan to create a Universal Child Database of all children living in the UK with the aim of helping to identify and protect children at risk. In the United Kingdom, the Government plans to construct a Universal Child Database under the provisions of the Children Act 2004. ...


Reaction

Public reaction

2003

The announcement of the scheme followed a public consultation, particularly among 'stakeholder groups' pdf. At March 2003 the government stated that the overall results were:

in favour: 2606 responses (61%)
against: 1587 responses (38%)
neutral: 48 responses (1%)

However the government has been criticised for ignoring the overwhelming majority of those replying who stated that they did not want national identity cards. The government claimed that over five thousand negative online responses through a single portal site, organised by stand, represented one lobby group so treated them as one reply, thus reversing what would otherwise have been recognised as an overwhelming vote against national identity cards. However, the Government claimed that many supportive organisations did not number their entire membership numbers in their submissions and thus, it would not be a true representation to include each individual submission by this campaign.


2004

Some polls have indicated that public opinion on the issue varies across the UK. The 2004 State of the Nation poll [11] by the Joseph Rowntree Reform Trust showed that opinion in Scotland was far less supportive than that in the rest of the UK. Although that trend is reversed in other polls. [citation needed] The four Rowntree Trusts are funded from the legacies of the Quaker chocolate entrepreneurs and social reformers Joseph Rowntree and Benjamin Seebohm Rowntree. ... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots 2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen of the UK Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification...


In a poll for Detica conducted by MORI in March 2004 [12] showed that 80% of those polled were in favour of a national identity card (11% opposed), although 67% of them have little or no knowledge about the Government's proposed national ID card scheme. Furthermore, only 54% were prepared to pay for a card, with 80% unwilling to pay more that £25. 83% were in favour of carrying the card at all times, though only 44% were in favour of the police being given powers to see it on demand. 58% doubted that the Government could bring in such a scheme smoothly. Detica LSE: DCA is a UK-based Consultancy firm, specialising in Information Intelligence. The new m. ... Mori (森) is a Japanese family name. ...


In May 2004 a YouGov poll for Privacy International [13] indicated that 61% of the population supported compulsory identity cards. However in respect of the database maintenance elements, 47% opposed the legal requirement to notify a change of address (compared to 41% in favour), while 45% were against the legal requirement to report lost, stolen or damaged cards (44% in favour). 27% of those polled were 'strongly opposed' to fines. In the under 30 age group, 61% were opposed to fines. Of those opposing the scheme (percentage unstated), 28% would take part in demonstrations, 16% would take part in civil disobedience, and 6% would prefer prison to registering. YouGov is a British Internet-based opinion pollster. ... Privacy International (PI) has been instrumental in establishing the modern international privacy movement. ...


2005

National opinion polls suggest that the expected cost of the cards affects levels of support. An estimate from the Home Office placed the cost of a 10-year passport and ID card package at £85, while after the 2005 General Election in May 2005 they issued a revised figure of over £93, which a subsequent announcement that a "standalone" ID card would cost £30. Two polls conducted by TNS at the end of 2005 amongst British Citizens and Foreign Residents demonstrated over 65% support for identity cards backed by a central database with a cost of an identity card at £30 and a passport/identity card package at approximately £100 [citation needed]. However, the research conducted by MORI in 2004 showed that only 20% were willing to pay more than £25. The modern concept of Small Office and Home Office or SoHo , or Small or Home Office deals with the category of business which can be from 1 to 10 workers. ...


A 2005 poll on the BBC web site indicated that of the nearly 9,000 voting, 17% were in favour, 83% against [14]. However, internet polls cannot be considered as being very reliable - indeed, the wording under the poll result states that results of such polls cannot be taken as indicative of public opinion.


Before the July 2005 London bombings, a Telegraph/YouGov poll [15] showed that 66% of people were opposed to the scheme if it cost £6bn and 81% opposed if it cost £10-19bn. However, the questions in such polls have often failed to reflect that the costs issued by the Government already included the running costs of the existing Passport Service [citation needed]. The July 2005 London bombings were synchronised terrorist attacks. ...


The NO2ID opposition group announced in September 2005 that 11,369 people have pledged to refuse to register for an ID card and will donate £10 to a legal defence fund if the Bill becomes law. In Australia, concerted opposition by organisations and individuals refusing to cooperate with their identity scheme led to it being abandoned in 1987 [16], however, more recently the idea of a national identity card has again been raised in Australia [17]. The NO2ID coalition was formed in 2004 to campaign against the United Kingdom governments plans to introduce UK ID Cards and the associated National Identity Register. ... ISO 4217 Code GBP User(s) United Kingdom Inflation 2. ...


2006

In February 2006, a YouGov/Daily Telegraph poll [18] indicated that public support for the scheme had fallen to 52% (with 37% opposed), despite 60% of those polled stating that those with nothing to hide should have no objection to the scheme. It revealed that the following percentages of people thought that the scheme would:

  • 64% - cut benefit fraud
  • 62% - cut health tourism
  • 55% - cut bogus asylum-seekers
  • 43% - help catch criminals
  • 42% - will make life simpler and more convenient
  • 21% - cut chances of terrorist atrocities

At the same time, it showed that the following percentages thought:

  • 80% - determined criminals and terrorists will forge the cards
  • 74% - the scheme will be enormously expensive
  • 71% - information will be hacked or leaked
  • 61% - information will be improperly passed to foreign governments
  • 60% - will be time consuming and inconvenient
  • 55% - will contain incorrect information
  • 51% - card readers will often malfunction or read inaccurately

In July 2006, an ICM poll[19] indicated that public support had fallen further to 46%, with opposition growing to 51%:


Q1. The government has proposed the introduction of identity cards that in combination with your passport, will cost around £93. From what you have seen or heard do you think the proposal is...?

  • Very good idea 12%
  • Good idea 34%
  • Bad idea 29%
  • Very bad idea 22%

Q2. As part of the National Identity Scheme the government has also proposed that everyone is required to attend an interview to give personal details about themselves for use by the police, tax authorities and all other government departments. From what you have seen or heard do you think that this is a..?

  • Very good idea 10%
  • Good idea 31%
  • Bad idea 33%
  • Very bad idea 23%

Terrorism and crime

Eliza Manningham-Buller, the current head of the Security Services is on record in her support of the introduction of identity cards, as is Sir Ian Blair, Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police and his predecessor, Sir John (now Lord) Stevens. The Association of Chief Police Officers are also supportive. The Honourable Elizabeth Lydia Manningham-Buller (born July 14, 1948) is the current Director-General of MI5, the British internal national security agency, appointed in October 2002. ...


However, in November 2005 Dame Stella Rimington, former Director General of Britain's counter-intelligence and security agency MI5, questioned the usefulness of the proposed scheme. Addressing the Association of Colleges annual conference, she stated[20]: Dame is the female equivalent to Sir for a British knighthood. ... Dame Stella Rimington in her official photo as Director-General of MI5 Dame Stella Rimington, DCB (born May 1935) was the Director-General (DG) of MI5 from 1992 to 1996. ... Link titleThe head of the Security Service (MI5), the U.Ks internal counter terrorism and counter espionage service. ... Current MI5 headquarters in Thames House, London The Security Service, usually called MI5, is the British counter-intelligence and security agency. ... The Association of Colleges sometimes shortend to the AoCis a registered charity representing further education colleges in the U.K. The Association was created in 1996 and provides a broad range of services to its subscribers, the subscribers being FE colleges. ...

My angle on ID cards is that they may be of some use but only if they can be made unforgeable - and all our other documentation is quite easy to forge.
ID cards may be helpful in all kinds of things but I don't think they are necessarily going to make us any safer.
ID cards have possibly some purpose. But I don't think that anybody in the Intelligence Services, particularly in my former service, would be pressing for ID cards

Her intervention caused a good deal of controversy amongst supporters and opponents of the scheme, especially as Manningham-Buller stated that ID cards would in fact disrupt the activities of terrorists, noting that significant numbers of terrorists take advantage of the weaknesses of current identification methods to assist their activities.


ID cards will not help fight crime or terrorism. Generally, the police’s problem is not identifying those arrested but catching criminals in the first place. The terrorists responsible for 9/11 and the Madrid bombings all carried valid identity documents. Knowing someone’s identity is different from knowing how they will behave. No one can seriously tell that ID cards would have prevented the London bombings. The fight against crime and terrorism needs more police and better police work, not ID cards.[1] A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... The 2004 Madrid train bombings (also known as 11-M, 3/11, 11/3 and M-11) were a series of coordinated bombings against the commuter train system of Madrid, Spain on the morning of 11 March 2004, which killed 191 people and wounded over 1700. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ...


Lord Carlile and Lord Stevens

Lord Carlile was appointed on 11 September 2001 to independently review the working of British Terrorism Act and subsequent anti-terrorist laws [21]. Talking on GMTV on January 29th, 2006, he expressed his views on the proposed legislation, saying[22]: Alexander Charles Carlile, Baron Carlile of Berriew (born 12 February 1948) is a Liberal Democrat member of the House of Lords. ... The Terrorism Act 2000 is a current United Kingdom Act of Parliament - An Act to make provision about terrorism; and to make temporary provision for Northern Ireland about the prosecution and punishment of certain offences, the preservation of peace and the maintenance of order. ... GMTV (Good Morning Television) is a national British breakfast television station owned by ITV plc (75%) and The Walt Disney Company (25%). It has held the license for the breakfast Channel 3 franchise since 1993, when it outbid the previous 6am-9. ...

ID cards could be of some value in the fight against terrorism but they are probably of quite limited value.
They would be an advantage but that advantage has to be judged against the disadvantages which Parliament may see in ID cards.
There may be a gain from the security viewpoint in the curtailment of civil liberties, but Parliament has to be the judge about whether the proportion is right.

However, speaking on the same programme, Lord Stevens of Kirkwhelpington, former Met Police Commissioner, argued in favour for the need for identity cards, saying they had benefits in tackling serious crimes, such as money laundering and identity theft.


Concerns

Feature creep

Even without new primary legislation, the Identity Cards Act allows the potential scope of the scheme to be much greater than that usually publicised by the Government.


For example, Gordon Brown was reported to be "planning a massive expansion of the ID cards project that would widen surveillance of everyday life by allowing high-street businesses to share confidential information with police databases." [23] He apparently described how "police could be alerted as soon as a wanted person used a biometric-enabled cash card or even entered a building via an iris-scan door." [24]


The British ID cards went from 3 functions during World War II to 39 by the time it was abolished. [25]


Database access and usage

Privacy campaigners have raised concerns over the uses to which the national database might be put. Intended uses so far discussed by ministers have included countering illegal immigration and health tourism where the government hopes to save £50 million a year. [citation needed] now. ... Health tourism is travel to improve ones health, such as a visit to a health resort or weight-loss camp. ...


Home Office forecasts envisage that "265 government departments and as many as 48,000 accredited private sector organisations" would have access to the database, and that 163 million identity verifications or more may take place each year [26]. The private sector of a nations economy consists of those entities which are not controlled by the state - i. ...


Concerns raised by the Information Commissioner

In a press release on July 30, 2004 (.doc file), Richard Thomas the Information Commissioner stated that: a NIR raise substantial data protection and personal privacy concerns. He sought clarification of why so much personal information needed to be kept as part of establishing an individual's identity and indicated concern about the wide range of bodies who would view the records of services individuals have used. The Commissioner has also pointed out that those who renew or apply for a driving licence or passport will be automatically added to the National Identity Register, so losing the option of not registering. July 30 is the 211th day (212th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 154 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Office of the Information Commissioner (OIC) in the United Kingdom, is an independent government authority and reports directly to Parliament. ... Current EU driving licence, German version - front 1. ... The title page of European Union member state passports bears the name European Union, then the name of the issuing country, in the official languages of all EU countries. ...


In February 2003, on BBC Radio 4's Today programme, he warned that ID cards could become a target for identiy theft by organised crime. BBC Radio 4 is a British domestic radio station which broadcasts a wide variety of chiefly spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history. ... Today, commonly referred to as the Today programme to avoid ambiguity, is BBC Radio 4s long-running early morning news and current affairs programme, which is now broadcast from 6am to 9am from Monday to Friday and from 7am to 9am on Saturdays. ... Organized crime is crime carried out systematically by formal criminal organizations. ...


Human rights

On February 2, 2005, Parliament's Joint Committee on Human Rights questioned the compatibility of the Bill with Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights (the right to respect for private life) and Article 14 (the right to non-discrimination) [27], both of which are encapsulated with the UK's own Human Rights Act. The British Parliament (that is, the Houses of Commons and Lords) has a number of Committees – small numbers of members appointed to deal with particular areas or issues; most are made up of members of the Commons. ... The Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, also known as the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), was adopted under the auspices of the Council of Europe[1] in 1950 to protect human rights and fundamental freedoms. ... The Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, also known as the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), was adopted under the auspices of the Council of Europe[1] in 1950 to protect human rights and fundamental freedoms. ... A Human Rights Act is a piece of legislation that sets out individual rights and freedoms under law. ...


Ethnic minorities

The Government's Race Equality Impact Assessment pdf indicates that there is significant concern among some ethnic groups over how the Police would use their powers under an Identity Cards Act, with 64% of black and 53% of Indian respondents expressing concern, particularly about the potential for abuse and discrimination. In their January 2005 report doc on the Bill, the Commission for Racial Equality state that the fear of discrimination is neither misconceived nor exaggerated, and note that this is also an ongoing issue in Germany, the Netherlands and France. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caribbean British. ... An African-American drinks out of a water fountain marked for colored in 1939 at a street car terminal in Oklahoma City. ... The Commission for Racial Equality is a non-governmental organisation in the United Kingdom which tackles racial discrimination and promotes racial equality. ...


The CRE are also concerned that disproportionate requirement by employers and the authorities for ethnic minorities to identify themselves may create a two tiered structure amongst racial groups, with foreign nationals and British ethnic minorities feeling compelled to register while British white persons do not. They also comment that the impact on those who have been living and working illegally in the UK for many years would entrench an underclass, undermining community cohesion. A social class is, at its most basic, a group of people that have similar social status. ...


According to the CRE, certain groups who move location frequently and who tend to live on low incomes (such as gypsies, travellers, asylum-seekers and refugees) risk being criminalised under the legislation through failing to update their registration each time they move due to lack of funds to pay the fee that may be charged. The Roma people (pronounced rahma, singular Rom, sometimes Rroma, and Rrom) along with the closely related Sinti people are commonly known as Gypsies in English, and as Tsigany in most of Europe. ... Irish Travellers are a nomadic or itinerant people of Irish origin living in Ireland, Great Britain and the United States. ... Power lines leading to a trash dump hover just overhead in El Carpio, a Nicaraguan refugee camp in Costa Rica Under international law, a refugee is a person who is outside his/her country of nationality or habitual residence; has a well-founded fear of persecution because of his/her...


ID cards will also lead to discrimination and harassment. As the Government encourage the police to detect illegal immigrants and terrorist suspects, black, Muslim, and Asian people will inevitably be targeted. The damage to community relations will compound an already tinderbox climate post 7 July 2005 London bombings.[1] The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ...


Vulnerable individuals

The CRE have also recommended that more work is required to protect the interests of vulnerable individuals. For example, women escaping a violent partner or a forced marriage may be at risk if their previous names or addresses are disclosed. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Forced marriage is a term used in the Occident to describe traditional arranged marriages in which one or more of the parties (usually the woman) is married without his/her consent or against his/her will. ...


Identity theft

Tony Blair said "ID cards are needed to stop the soaring costs of identity theft" in May 2005 [28]. However, security experts have claimed that placing trust in a single document may make identity theft easier, since only this document needs to be targeted [29]. Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the UK Labour Party, and Member of the UK Parliament for the constituency of Sedgefield in North East England. ... Identity theft occurs when someone wrongfully acquires or uses another persons personal data, typically for their own financial gain. ...


Falsely obtaining such a 'secure' identity becomes very valuable because people are less likely to question its validity. This has happened in Australia, where identity theft has risen above British levels since the introduction of a widely used Tax File Number. Identity theft surrounding the Social Security Number is also a major problem in the USA. However, it can be argued that part of the problem in these countries arises from the lack of a national ID card as no positive identification exists which links one to one's unique ID number such as the Social Security Number. It is the lack of such means of identification, not necessarily the existence of the unique number itself, which promotes ID theft since there are no easily available means to verify one's SSN (such as a card with a person's SSN and photograph). Tax File Number (TFN) is an 8 or 9 digit number issued by the Australian Taxation Office (ATO) to each taxpayer (individual, company, superannuation fund, partnership or trust) to identify their Australian tax dealings. ... Sample United States Social Security Card In the United States, a Social Security number (or SSN) is a number issued to citizens, permanent residents, and temporary (working) residents under section 205(c)(2) of the Social Security Act, codified as . ...


However, others claim that such comparisons cannot be directly compared with the introduction of identity cards and point out that such critiques usually offer not any alternative solutions to identity theft as it continues to grow.


Opponents to the scheme state that in order to apply for the new identity cards, existing documents such as passports will be used to prove identity; however, such identification is proficiently forged, allowing identity thieves posing as someone else to apply for cards. While new applications could be made using false documentation, existing cards and database entries would also be targets. Supporters note that such claims ignore that actual process, which allows for electronic checks of applications rather than a solely paper based system.


The NIR database would make an attractive target for computer hackers. Opponents also claim that any system involving human operators is liable to social engineering attacks, infiltration or bribery or blackmail of staff. Supporters claim that there are potential ways of organising working processes to stop such attacks. Hackers are sometimes portrayed as mysterious and strange. ... Social engineering is the practice of obtaining confidential information by manipulation of legitimate users. ... See: espionage, urban exploration, entryism, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. ... Bribery is a crime implying a sum or gift given alters the behaviour of the person in ways not consistent with the duties of that person. ... For other uses, see Blackmail (disambiguation). ...


Due to the supposed security of the British system, proving that your identity has been stolen could prove problematic. If a person's biometric information is discovered and exploited by an identity thief the subject has little recourse, since such information by definition cannot be changed or reissued.


Card tampering and forging

In addition to problems affecting the database, there may be the tampering or superficial forging of the actual biometric identity cards. In a recent case in Germany, criminals forged an ID card that included biometric data.[1]


A number of academics also point to problems of removing human interaction from security systems. Such problems can be seen with Chip and PIN credit card systems [30]. While not a criticism of the technology itself, the work notes that operators cannot simply leave the security up to the technology and must remain vigilant in preventing suspicious behaviour. Chip and PIN is the name of a government-backed initiative in the United Kingdom to implement the EMV standard for secure payments. ...


Technology

Elsewhere, doubts remain concerning the practicability of the scheme, relying on unproven technologies such as iris scanning, and even the very best system will be liable to a small error rate. In some cases this error rate can disproportionately affect certain ethnic minorities (eg Afro-Caribbeans, for iris scanning). Existing government systems are not appropriate for the issuing to UK citizens from 2009.[31] 2009 (MMIX) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Costs

By the start of 2005 the expected cost of the scheme had doubled to £5.5 billion in six months [32]. Estimated running costs were revised upward by the Home Office to £584 million per year after the 2005 General Election. However, they refused to give a cost for setting up the scheme as the information was deemed commercially sensitive. ISO 4217 Code GBP User(s) United Kingdom Inflation 2. ...


Setting out a detailed case against the ID cards in a report by Peter Lilley MP, the centre-right think tank the Bow Group suggested that the costs could easily double pdf. In May 2005 a leaked draft report by the London School of Economics [33] suggested that costs in the range £12 billion - £18 billion (double to triple the government's estimates), which for the top estimate works out at £300 per registration. Among other factors for the higher estimate was the LSE's conclusion that people may need to be re-scanned every 5 years (rather than every 10 as had previously been expected), as biometric measurements change with age. The Right Honourable Peter Bruce Lilley (born August 23, 1943, Hayes, Kent) is a British MP. He currently represents the constituency of Hitchin and Harpenden and, prior to boundary changes, represented St Albans which was its predecessor seat. ... This article is about the institution. ... The Bow Group is the oldest centre-right think tank in the United Kingdom. ... The London School of Economics and Political Science, often referred to as the London School of Economics or simply the LSE, is a specialist university, located on Houghton Street in Central London, off the Aldwych and next to the Royal Courts of Justice. ...


However, supporters claim that the reliabilty of such reports has come into question, arguing that a number of important failings in the research behind the LSE costings have been revealed. In the course of Parliamentary debate, the Government has pointed out basic errors in the report. It is claimed that research demonstrated that the claim that biometrics would have to be re-recorded every 5 years does not match reputable research and was not supported by any research in the London School of Economics report, and that biometric experts quoted in the LSE reports have sought to distance themselves from its findings.


The Government has also claimed that the authors of these estimates are established opponents to the scheme and cannot be considered unbiased academic sources.


However, a number of other major government IT projects have been expensive failures yet none are as complex as the ID card scheme.


Tony McNulty, Home Office minister responsible for the scheme, has responded to this criticism by saying a "ceiling" on costs would be announced in October 2005 (BBC). There are now indications that the Government is looking at ways of subsidising the scheme by charging other Government Departments, with the implication that this would result in increased charges for other Government services to individuals or businesses [34]. Anthony James McNulty (born 3 November 1958, London) is a politician in the United Kingdom. ... The modern concept of Small Office and Home Office or SoHo , or Small or Home Office deals with the category of business which can be from 1 to 10 workers. ...


As of October 10, 2005, over £20m had been spent on preliminary work [35].


In October 2006, the Government declared it would cost £5.4bn to run the ID cards scheme for the next 10 years.[36] The overall price tag will be put before Parliament in the week of October 11, 2006. Most of the cost will be for the biometric passport scheme that will act as a first step to ID cards. 70 per cent of the cost will be incurred just to keep British passports up to international standards. Only about 15 per cent is to be spent on technology. Until it is clear what the government is procuring, it is difficult to define the cost. It was reported on October 12, 2006 that, concerning the technology for the national biometric identity card scheme, the government expects to spend about £800m.[37] The introduction of biometric passports has increased the cost of a passport to £66. And the introduction of controversial ID cards could increase costs to nearly one hundred pounds.[38] October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Symbol for biometric passports, usually printed on the cover of the passports A biometric passport is a combined paper and electronic identity document that uses biometrics to authenticate the citizenship of travelers. ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Poor use of funds

Irrespective of the exact costs of the scheme, critics have suggested that it would be better to use any available cash to increase funding to bodies tasked with tackling the various issues involved, for example to enhance immigration controls at all ports of entry [39], or to increase the budget of MI5. Current MI5 headquarters in Thames House, London The Security Service, usually called MI5, is the British counter-intelligence and security agency. ...


As an example of the funds involved, the disputed government 2005 estimate for the annual cost of the ID card scheme is greater than the 2006-07 funding for the new Serious Organised Crime Agency, believed to be £400m [40]. The SOCA logo;.[1] The Serious Organised Crime Agency (SOCA) is a policing agency of the United Kingdom that acts against organised crime, including the illegal drugs trade, money laundering, and people smuggling. ...


Effectiveness

The Bow Group are also of the opinion that ID cards offer a "largely illusory solution"; police have problems proving people guilty, not identifying suspects; terrorists normally conceal their intentions rather than their identities; benefit fraudsters usually misrepresent their circumstances, not who they are; and all illegal immigrants can, and most do, claim asylum whereupon they are already required to have an identity card containing their finger prints and photo. The Bow Group is the oldest centre-right think tank in the United Kingdom. ...


There is also scepticism among opponents over the ability of the cards to help identify illegal workers. Employers are already required to check identities but in 2003 there were only two prosecutions for employing an illegal worker[verification needed]. ID cards will not thwart unscrupulous employers or suddenly turn a beleaguered Home Office into a well-oiled machine. Neither will ID cards shore up our porous borders. Countries that have ID cards still have benefit fraud.[1] 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


David Blunkett himself stated that "ID Cards won't stop terrorism". His successor, Charles Clarke, said the same in the aftermath of the 7 July 2005 London bombings [41], but claimed that they might help identify the perpetrators. ID card opponents have cited the failure of Spanish ID cards to prevent the Madrid train bombings as an example of the ineffectiveness of ID cards as an anti-terrorism measure. Terrorist redirects here. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... The 2004 Madrid train bombings (also known as 11-M, 3/11, 11/3 and M-11) were a series of coordinated bombings against the commuter train system of Madrid, Spain on the morning of 11 March 2004, which killed 191 people and wounded over 1700. ...


Totalitarian drift

A further concern among some is that the identity cards scheme is just one part of an unwitting drift towards totalitarianism, a reverse in the relationship between citizen and state, and a diminution of the individual liberty for which the nation was famous. In this view, the Identity Cards Bill is only one element, others being: Adolf Hitler, Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, infamous and commonly-cited autocrat, usually said to have lead Germany into totalitarianism. ... Liberty is generally considered a concept of political philosophy and identifies the condition in which an individual has immunity from the arbitrary exercise of authority. ...

Supporters of these changes claim that they are necessary due to the international terrorist threat, that any reduction in individual liberty is justified by the greater common good, and that accusations of totalitarianism are alarmist. Opponents claim that they damage the values of freedom for which the country has long stood and which citizens gave their lives to protect during World War II. Mass surveillance is the pervasive surveillance of an entire population, or a substantial fraction thereof. ... Enabling legislation for the British national identity card was passed under the Identity Cards Act 2006 [1]. The multi-billion pound scheme [2] has yet to enter procurement. ... In common law countries, habeas corpus (/heɪbiəs kɔɹpəs/), Latin for you [should] have the body, is the name of a legal instrument or writ by means of which detainees can seek release from unlawful imprisonment. ... Charles Clarke as former Home Secretary held primary responsibility for the Terrorism Bill The Terrorism Act is a UK Act made law on March 30, 2006, after being introduced on October 12, 2005. ... The Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001 or ATCSA is a British Act of Parliament introduced as emergency legislation after the September 11, 2001 attacks in New York. ... Freedom of speech is enshrined in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights and is granted formal recognition by the laws of most nations. ... The Racial and Religious Hatred Act 2006 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (citation 2006 c. ... Charles Clarke as former Home Secretary held primary responsibility for the Terrorism Bill The Terrorism Act is a UK Act made law on March 30, 2006, after being introduced on October 12, 2005. ... The Terrorism Act 2000 is a current United Kingdom Act of Parliament - An Act to make provision about terrorism; and to make temporary provision for Northern Ireland about the prosecution and punishment of certain offences, the preservation of peace and the maintenance of order. ... The Serious Organised Crime and Police Act 2005 is an Act of the United Kingdom Parliament aimed primarily at creating the Serious Organised Crime Agency. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Arrest. ... The Serious Organised Crime and Police Act 2005 is an Act of the United Kingdom Parliament aimed primarily at creating the Serious Organised Crime Agency. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead...


Criticisms of Tony Blair's authoritarianism This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Opposition campaigns

In May 2006, NO2ID launched the "Renew for Freedom" campaign [45], urging passport holders to renew their passports in the summer of 2006 to delay being entered on the National Identity Register. This followed the comment made by Charles Clarke in the House of Commons that anyone who feels strongly enough about the linkage [between passports and the ID scheme] not to want to be issued with an ID card in the initial phase will be free to surrender their existing passport and apply for a new passport before the designation order takes effect [46]. The NO2ID coalition was formed in 2004 to campaign against the United Kingdom governments plans to introduce UK ID Cards and the associated National Identity Register. ... After many years of discussion through successive governments, in 2003 Home Secretary David Blunkett announced that the government intends to introduce a British national identity card linked to a national identity database, the National Identity Register. ... The Rt Hon. ... The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ...


In response, the Home Office said that it was hard to see what would be achieved, other than incurring unnecessary expense by renewing passports early [47]. However, it should be remembered that the cost of a passport is set to rise in October 2006 and nearly double once identity cards are introduced.


See also

The NO2ID coalition was formed in 2004 to campaign against the United Kingdom governments plans to introduce UK ID Cards and the associated National Identity Register. ... Defy-ID is a network of groups and people in the United Kingdom opposed to the introduction of the proposed National Identity Register and national identity card scheme. ... Reform is a London, United Kingdom-based think tank whose mission is to set out a better way to deliver public services and economic prosperity. ... Kiss Ya Lips (No I.D.) is a song by Ian Brown, from his well-received fourth solo album, Solarized. ... The French national identity card (Carte nationale d’identité sécurisée or CNIS) is an official non-compulsory identity document consisting of a laminated plastic card bearing a photograph, name and address. ... Burgundy UK passport cover, issued since the late 1990s. ... Symbol for biometric passports, usually printed on the cover of the passports A biometric passport is a combined paper and electronic identity document that uses biometrics to authenticate the citizenship of travelers. ... The United Kingdom has a long and established tradition of respect for its citizens human rights. ... This is a list of topics related to the United Kingdom. ... The Common Travel Area or, informally the passport free zone, refers to the fact that citizens of the Republic of Ireland, the United Kingdom and Crown Dependencies (the Isle of Man and the Bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey) may travel between their countries without a passport. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d ID cards. Lynne Featherstone. Retrieved on September 8, 2006.

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Guides

  • Mar 2005 London School of Economics An Assessment of the UK Identity Cards Bill and its Implications
  • Feb 2005 Bow Group report The Case Against ID Cards, by Rt Hon Peter Lilley MP
  • Dec 2004 BBC Identity card Q&A
  • Jun 2004 Electricinca An analysis of the British national identity card
  • May 2004 The Register Everything you never wanted to know about the UK ID card
  • Nov 2003 Guardian Q&A
  • Sep 2001 Telegraph The case for and against identity cards
  • Trevor Mendham UK ID Cards - the case against

Opposition groups

  • No2ID: UK campaign against ID Cards and mass surveillance
  • Defy-ID
  • Liberty - human rights concerns
  • Reform
  • idFolly
  • Haringey Against Identity Cards
  • Youth Against ID

 
 

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