FACTOID # 12: It's not the government they hate: Washington DC has the highest number of hate crimes per capita in the US.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Iconoclasm
Statues in the Cathedral of Saint Martin, Utrecht, attacked in Reformation iconoclasm in the 16th century.
Statues in the Cathedral of Saint Martin, Utrecht, attacked in Reformation iconoclasm in the 16th century.[1]

Iconoclasm is the deliberate destruction within a culture of the culture's own religious icons and other symbols or monuments, usually for religious or political motives. It is a frequent component of major domestic political or religious changes. It is thus generally distinguished from the destruction by one culture of the images of another, for example by the Spanish in their American conquests. The term does not generally encompass the specific destruction of images of a ruler after his death or overthrow (damnatio memoriae), for example Akhenaten in Ancient Egypt. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1228x1637, 767 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Flanders Iconoclasm Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1228x1637, 767 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Flanders Iconoclasm Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... , drawing by Pieter Jansz Saenredam The Cathedral of Saint Martin or Dom Church was the Cathedral of the Province of Utrecht during the Middle Ages. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... Look up icon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... Tondo of the Severan family, with portraits of Septimius Severus, Julia Domna, Caracalla, and Geta. ... Neferkheperre-waenre Beautiful are the Manifestations of Re[2] the one of Re Nomen Akhenaten Servant of the Aten[1] (after Year 4 of his reign) Amenhotep Horus name Kanakht-Meryaten The strong bull, beloved of the Aten Nebty name Wernesytemakhetaten Great of kingship in Akhetaten Golden Horus Wetjesrenenaten Who... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ...


People who engage in or support iconoclasm are called iconoclasts, a term that has come to be applied figuratively to any person who breaks or disdains established dogmata or conventions. Conversely, people who revere or venerate religious images are called iconodules in a Byzantine context, or iconophiles. Iconodules (or Iconophile) is someone who supports or is in favour of religious images, or icons, also known as Iconography, and is in opposition to an Iconoclast (someone against Iconography). ...


Iconoclasm may be carried out by people of a different religion, but is often the result of sectarian disputes between factions of the same religion. The two Byzantine outbreaks during the 8th and 9th centuries were unusual in that the use of images was the main issue in the dispute, rather than a by-product of wider concerns. In Christianity, iconoclasm has generally been motivated by a literal interpretation of the Ten Commandments, which forbid the making and worshipping of "graven images". Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... This 1768 parchment (612x502 mm) by Jekuthiel Sofer emulated the 1675 Decalogue at Amsterdam Esnoga synagogue. ...

Contents

Major periods of iconoclasm

Shooting at a statue of Jesus during the Spanish Civil War
  • The Roman Empire's polytheist state religion's images were destroyed during the process of Christianisation.
  • In the world of Islam, there have been various periods of iconclasm against images of other religions and those produced within Islam itself.
  • In the Eastern Orthodox Church in the Byzantine period, of its own religious imagery.
  • In Europe during the Reformation and the religious conflicts following there were several outbreaks, with Protestants destroying Catholic or sometimes Protestant imagery.
  • During the French Revolution, there was destruction of religious and secular imagery.
  • During and after the Russian Revolution, there was widespread destruction of religious and secular imagery.
  • During and after the Communist takeover of China, especially in the Cultural Revolution there was widespread destruction of religious and secular imagery in both Han and Tibetan areas of China.
  • There have been many other episodes, some as part of peasant revolts or similar uprisings, others encouraged by central government.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... It has been suggested that Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War be merged into this article or section. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Polytheism is belief in, or worship of, multiple gods or divinities. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Eastern Orthodox Church (including Bulgarian... World map showing the location of Europe. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... “Red October” redirects here. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; literally Proletarian Cultural Great Revolution; often abbreviated to 文化大革命 wénhuà dà gémìng, literally Great Cultural Revolution, or even simpler, to 文革 wéngé, Cultural Revolution) in the Peoples Republic of China was a struggle for power within the... Tibet (see Name section below for other spellings) is a plateau region in Central Asia and the indigenous home to the Tibetan people. ... Peasant revolt is a term with broad application, typically meaning uprisings of rural or agricultural people against an existing order or establishment. ...

Byzantine Iconoclasm

As with other doctrinal issues in the Byzantine period, the controversy over iconoclasm was by no means restricted to the clergy, or to arguments from theology. The continuing cultural confrontation with, and military threat from, Islam probably had a bearing on the attitudes of both sides. Iconoclasm seems to have been supported by many from the East of the Empire, and refugees from the provinces taken over by the Muslims. It has been suggested that their strength in the army at the start of the period, and the growing influence of Balkan forces in the army (generally considered to lack strong iconoclast feelings) over the period may have been important factors in both beginning and ending imperial support for iconoclasm. A simple cross: example of iconoclast art in the Hagia Irene Church in Istanbul Iconoclasm is the deliberate destruction within a culture of the cultures own religious icons and other symbols or monuments, usually for religious or political motives. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


The use of images had probably been increasing in the years leading up to the outbreak of iconoclasm. One notable change came in 695, when Justinian II put a full-face image of Christ on the obverse of his gold coins. The effect on iconoclast opinion is unknown, but the change certainly caused Caliph Abd al-Malik to break permanently with his previous adoption of Byzantine coin types to start a purely Islamic coinage with lettering only.[2] A letter by the patriarch Germanus written before 726 to two Iconoclast bishops says that "now whole towns and multitudes of people are in considerable agitation over this matter" but we have very little evidence as to the growth of the debate.[3] Justinian II, known as Rhinotmetus (the Split-nosed) (669-711) was a Byzantine emperor of the Heraclian Dynasty, reigned from 685 to 695 and again from 704 to 711. ... In logic (and usually without being paired with reverse), obverse has a meaning close to contrapositive. ... For main article see: Caliphate Khalif is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, or global Islamic nation. ... Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (646-705) (Arabic: عبد المالك بن مروان ) was an Umayyad caliph. ...


The first iconoclastic period: 730-787

Sometime between 726-730, the Byzantine Emperor Leo III the Isaurian ordered the removal of an image of Jesus prominently placed over the Chalke gate, the ceremonial entrance to the Great Palace of Constantinople, and its replacement with a cross. Some of those who were assigned to the task were murdered by a band of iconodules. [4] Leo the Isaurian and his son Constantine V. Leo III the Isaurian or the Syrian (Greek: Λέων Γ΄, Leōn III ), (c. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... One of floor mosaics excavated at the Great Palace and dated to the reign of Justinian I. It is presumed to represent a conquered Gothic king. ... Iconodules (or Iconophile) is someone who supports or is in favour of religious images, or icons, also known as Iconography, and is in opposition to an Iconoclast (someone against Iconography). ...


Issues in Byzantine Iconoclasm

What accounts of iconoclast arguments remain are largely found in iconodule writings. To understand iconoclastic arguments, one must note the main points:

  1. Iconoclasm condemned the making of any lifeless image (e.g. painting or statue) that was intended to represent Jesus or one of the saints. The Epitome of the Definition of the Iconoclastic Conciliabulum held in 754 declared:

    "Supported by the Holy Scriptures and the Fathers, we declare unanimously, in the name of the Holy Trinity, that there shall be rejected and removed and cursed one of the Christian Church every likeness which is made out of any material and colour whatever by the evil art of painters.... If anyone ventures to represent the divine image (χαρακτήρ, charaktēr) of the Word after the Incarnation with material colours, let him be anathema! .... If anyone shall endeavour to represent the forms of the Saints in lifeless pictures with material colours which are of no value (for this notion is vain and introduced by the devil), and does not rather represent their virtues as living images in himself, let him be anathema!"

  2. For iconoclasts, the only real religious image must be an exact likeness of the prototype -of the same substance- which they considered impossible, seeing wood and paint as empty of spirit and life. Thus for iconoclasts the only true (and permitted) "icon" of Jesus was the Eucharist, which was believed to be his actual body and blood.
  3. Any true image of Jesus must be able to represent both his divine nature (which is impossible because it cannot be seen nor encompassed) and his human nature (which is possible). But by making an icon of Jesus, one is separating his human and divine natures, since only the human can be depicted (separating the natures was considered nestorianism), or else confusing the human and divine natures, considering them one (union of the human and divine natures was considered monophysitism).
  4. Icon use for religious purposes was viewed as an innovation in the Church, a Satanic misleading of Christians to return to pagan practice.

    "Satan misled men, so that they worshipped the creature instead of the Creator. The Law of Moses and the Prophets cooperated to remove this ruin...But the previously mentioned demiurge of evil...gradually brought back idolatry under the appearance of Christianity." [5] For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... Nestorianism is the doctrine that Jesus exists as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, or Logos, rather than as a unified person. ... Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning one, alone and physis meaning nature) is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. ...

    It was also seen as a departure from ancient church tradition, of which there was a written record opposing religious images.

The chief theological opponents of iconoclasm were the monks Mansur (John of Damascus), who, living in Muslim territory as advisor to the Caliph of Damascus, was far enough away from the Byzantine emperor to evade retribution, and Theodore the Studite, abbot of the Stoudios monastery in Constantinople. John of Damascus (Greek: Ιωάννης Δαμασκήνος/Ioannês Damaskinos; Arabic: Yaḥyā ibn Manṣūr; Latin: Iohannes Damascenus or Johannes Damascenus also known as John Damascene, Χρυσορρόας/Chrysorrhoas, streaming with gold—i. ... Theodore the Studite ( ca. ... Byzantine miniature depicting the Stoudios monastery. ...


John declared that he did not venerate matter, "but rather the creator of matter." However he also declared, "But I also venerate the matter through which salvation came to me, as if filled with divine energy and grace." He includes in this latter category the ink in which the gospels were written as well as the paint of images, the wood of the Cross, and the body and blood of Jesus.


The iconodule response to iconoclasm included:

  1. Assertion that the biblical commandment forbidding images of God had been superseded by the incarnation of Jesus, who, being the second person of the Trinity, is God incarnate in visible matter. Therefore, they were not depicting the invisible God, but God as He appeared in the flesh. This became an attempt to shift the issue of the incarnation in their favor, whereas the iconoclasts had used the issue of the incarnation against them.
  2. Further, in their view idols depicted persons without substance or reality while icons depicted real persons. Essentially the argument was "all religious images not of our faith are idols; all images of our faith are icons to be venerated." This was considered comparable to the Old Testament practice of only offering burnt sacrifices to God, and not to any other gods.
  3. Regarding the written tradition opposing the making and veneration of images, they asserted that icons were part of unrecorded oral tradition (parádosis, sanctioned in Orthodoxy as authoritative in doctrine by reference to 2 Thessalonians 2:15, Basil the Great, etc.).
  4. Arguments were drawn from the miraculous Acheiropoieta, the supposed icon of the Virgin painted with her approval by St Luke, and other miraculous occurrences around icons, that demonstrated divine approval of Iconodule practices.
  5. Iconodules further argued that decisions such as whether icons ought to be venerated were properly made by the church assembled in council, not imposed on the church by an emperor. Thus the argument also involved the issue of the proper relationship between church and state. Related to this was the observation that it was foolish to deny to God the same honor that was freely given to the human emperor.

The Epistles to the Thessalonians, also known as the Letters to the Thessalonians, are two books from the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Basil (ca. ... Image of the Saviour Not Made by Hand: a traditional Orthodox iconography in the interpretation of Simon Ushakov (1658). ...

Islamic Iconoclasm

In general, Islamic societies have avoided the depiction of living beings (animals and humans) within such sacred spaces as mosques and madrasahs. This opposition to figural representation is not based on the Qu'ran, but rather on various traditions contained within the Hadith. The prohibition of figuration has not always extended to the secular sphere, and a robust tradition of figural representation exists within Islamic art.[6] A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand, ca. ... The Quran ( Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; its literal meaning is the recitation and is often called Al Quran Al Karim: The Noble Quran, also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The term Islamic art denotes the arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people (not necessarily Muslim) who lived within the territory that was inhabited by culturally Islamic populations. ...


However, western authors have tended to perceive "a long, culturally determined, and unchanging tradition of violent iconoclastic acts" within Islamic society.[7] For example, the destruction of the monumental statues of the Buddha at Bamyan by the Taliban in 2001 was widely perceived in the Western media as a result of the Islamic prohibition against figural decoration. Such an account overlooks "the coexistence between the Buddhas and the Muslim population that marveled at them for over a millennium" before their destruction.[8] The Buddhas had however twice in the past been attacked by the less efficient artillery of Nadir Shah and Aurengzeb. According to Flood, analysis of the Taliban's own declarations regarding the Buddhas suggest that their destruction was motivated more by political than by theological concerns.[9] However, many different explanations of the motives for the destruction have been given by Taliban figures. The Buddhas of Bamyan (Pashto: د بودا بتان په باميانو کې De Buda butan pe bamiyano ke, Persian: تندیس‌های بودا در باميان tandis-ha-ye buda dar bamiyaan) were two monumental statues of standing Buddhas carved into the side of a cliff in the Bamyan valley of central Afghanistan, situated 230 km (143 miles) northwest of Kabul at an altitude... Buddhas of Bamyan, which dated back to Pre-Islamic Afghanistan, were destroyed by the Taliban in 2001 calling them Un-Islamic. Photo by Hadi Zaheer Bamyan is one of the most beautiful and fertile valleys in Afghanistan. ... The Taliban (Pashto: , stupid or seekers of ignorance) are a fundamentalist Sunni Muslim and ethnic Pashtun movement that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by American aerial bombardment and Northern Alliance ground forces. ... Nadir Shah’s portrait from the collection of Smithsonian Institute Nadir Shah (Persian: نادر شاه) (Nadir Qoli Beg (Persian: نادر قلی بیگ), also Tahmasp-Qoli Khan (Persian: تهماسپ قلی خان) also Nadir Shah Afshar (Persian: نادر شاه افشار) ) (October 22, 1688 - June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the short-lived Turkic Afsharid... Aurangzeb (from Persian, اورنگ‌زیب Aurang means throne and Zaib meant beauty or ornament),(November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707, also known as Alamgir I, was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1658 until 1707. ... The Buddhas of Bamyan (Pashto: د بودا بتان په باميانو کې De Buda butan pe bamiyano ke, Persian: تندیس‌های بودا در باميان tandis-ha-ye buda dar bamiyaan) were two monumental statues of standing Buddhas carved into the side of a cliff in the Bamyan valley of central Afghanistan, situated 230 km (143 miles) northwest of Kabul at an altitude...


The first act of Islamic iconoclasm was committed by Muslims in 630, when the various statues of Arabian deities housed in the Kaaba in Mecca were destroyed, although there is a tradition that Muhammad spared a fresco of Mary and Jesus. This act was intended to bring an end to the idolatry which, in the Muslim view, characterized Jahiliyya. A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Events Muhammad captures Mecca (January). ... Arabian mythology is the ancient beliefs of the Arabs. ... The Kaaba (Arabic: ; IPA: ) , also known as (), ( The Primordial House), or ( The Sacred House), is a large cuboidal building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... “Saint Mary” redirects here. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Idolatry is a major sin in the Abrahamic religions regarding image. ... Jahiliyyah is an Islamic concept referring to the spiritual condition of pre-Islamic Arabian society. ...


The destruction of the icons of Mecca did not, however, determine the treatment of other religious communities living under Muslim rule after the expansion of the caliphate. Most Christians under Muslim rule, for example, continued to produce icons and to decorate their churches as they wished. There was one major exception to this pattern of tolerance in early Islamic history: the "Edict of Yazīd," issued by the Umayyad caliph Yazid II in 722-723.[10] This edict ordered the destruction of crosses and Christian images within the territory of the caliphate. It seems to have been followed to a certain degree, particularly in present-day Jordan, where archaeological evidence exists for the removal of images from the mosaic floors of some, although not all, of the churches that stood at this time. However, Yazīd's iconoclastic policies were not maintained by his successors, and the production of icons by the Christian communities of the Levant continued without significant interruption from the sixth century to the ninth.[11] A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Yazid bin Abd al-Malik or Yazid II (687 - 724) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 720 until his death in 724. ... Events 3 January - Kinich Ahkal Mo Naab III takes throne of Maya state of Palenque Battle of Covadonga: First victory of a Christian army over a Muslim army in Spain (probable date) War between Wessex and Sussex Births Deaths Empress Gemmei of Japan Categories: 722 ... Events Saint Boniface fells Thors Oak near Fritzlar, marking the decisive event in the Christianization of the northern Germanic tribes The worlds first mechanical clock is allegedly built in China. ...


There is also evidence for destruction of icons by medieval Muslim rulers of South Asia. The most famous concerns a stone lingam, an aniconic representation of the Hindu god Shiva, which was housed in the temple complex at Somnath in Gujarat. According to a tradition preserved by the 16th century historian Mahommed Kasim Ferishta, the Ghaznavid emperor Mahmud of Ghazni raided Somnath in 1025, looting the temple. The temple Brahmins offered to buy the lingam back, but Mahmud refused, and his army carried it back to Ghazni. There the lingam was broken, and a portion of it was re-used as the threshold of the congregational mosque.[12] Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... A Linga. ... A Hindu ( , Devanagari: हिन्दु), as per modern definition, is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, and the religious, philosophical and cultural system that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Shiva (also spelled Siva; Sanskrit ) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism. ... The Somnath Temple located in the Prabhas Kshetra near Veraval in Saurashtra, on the western coast of Gujarat, India is one of the twelve Jyotirlings (golden lingas) symbols of the God Shiva. ... , Gujarat (Gujarati: , IPA:  ) is a state in the Republic of India. ... Firishta or Ferishta (c. ... The Ghaznavid Empire was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 977 to 1186. ... Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ... Events April 18 - Boleslaw I Chrobry is crowned as the first king of Poland. ... A Brahmin (anglicised from the Sanskrit adjective belonging to Brahma) also known as Brahman belonging to ; Vipra, Dvija twice-born, is considered to be the Priest class (varna) in the ancient universal Varna System and a caste found all over the world, especially India and Nepal in Indian caste system... Ghazni (Persian: غزنی , ÄžaznÄ«) is a city in eastern Afghanistan, with an estimated population of 149,998 people. ...


Despite a religious prohibition on destroying or converting houses of worship,[citations needed] certain conquering Muslim armies have used local temples or houses of worship as mosques. An example is Hagia Sophia in Istanbul (formerly Constantinople), which was converted into a mosque in 1453. At this time its mosaics were covered with plaster. In the 1920s, Hagia Sophia was converted to a museum, and the restoration of the mosaics was undertaken by the American Byzantine Institute beginning in 1932. More dramatic cases of iconoclasm by Muslims are found in parts of India where Hindu and Buddhist temples were razed and mosques raised on their place (for example, the Qutub Complex). Hagia Sophia The patriarchal basilica Hagia Sophia (Greek: ; Holy Wisdom), now known as the Ayasofya Museum, was the culmination of early Christian architecture. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Map of Constantinople. ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... A map of the Qutb complex. ...


There are also cases of iconoclasm targeted at specific objects of representation. For example, an allegorical statue of Muhammad on the State Appellate Division courthouse, in Madison Square, New York, was erected ca. 1900, but was removed in 1955 at the request of ambassadors from Muslim countries[13].


Certain Islamic denominations continue to pursue iconoclastic agendas, and there has been much controversy within Islam over the recent, and apparently on-going, destruction by the Wahhabist authorities of Mecca of historic buildings (not images as such) which they feared were or would become the subject of "idolatry".[14] [15] Wahhabism (Arabic: Al-Wahhābīyya الوهابية, Wahabism) is a branch of Islam practiced by those who follow the teachings of Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab, after whom the movement is named. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Idolatry is a major sin in the Abrahamic religions regarding image. ...


Reformation Iconoclasm

Illustration of the Beeldenstorm during the Dutch reformation
Illustration of the Beeldenstorm during the Dutch reformation

Some of the Protestant reformers, in particular Andreas Karlstadt, Huldrych Zwingli and John Calvin encouraged the removal of religious images by invoking the Decalogue's prohibition of idolatry and the manufacture of graven images of God. As a result, statues and images were damaged in spontaneous individual attacks as well as unauthorised iconoclastic riots. However, in most cases images were removed in an orderly manner by civil authorities in the newly reformed cities and territories of Europe. Download high resolution version (768x967, 442 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (768x967, 442 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Historically the Netherlands is characterized by multitude of religions. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms... Andreas Rudolph Bodenstein von Karlstadt (1486 – December 24, 1541), better known as Andreas Karlstadt, was a Christian theologian during the Protestant Reformation. ... Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli or Ulricus Zuinglius (January 1, 1484 – October 11, 1531) was the leader of the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland, and founder of the Swiss Reformed Churches. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... This 1768 parchment (612x502 mm) by Jekuthiel Sofer emulated the 1675 Decalogue at Amsterdam Esnoga synagogue. ...


Significant iconoclastic riots took place in Zürich (in 1523), Copenhagen (1530), Münster (1534), Geneva (1535), Augsburg (1537), and Scotland (1559). The Seventeen Provinces (now the Netherlands and Belgium and parts of Northern France) were hit by a large wave of Protestant iconoclasm in the summer of 1566. This is called the Beeldenstorm and included such acts as the destruction of the statuary of the Monastery of Saint Lawrence in Steenvoorde after a Hagenpreek, or field sermon, by Sebastiaan Matte; and the sacking of the Monastery of Saint Anthony after a sermon by Jacob de Buysere. The Beeldenstorm marked the start of the revolution against the Spanish forces and the Catholic church. See Flanders for more on its history. View of the inner city with the four main churches visible, and the Albis in the backdrop Zürich (German: , Zürich German: Züri , French: , in English generally Zurich, Italian: ) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 366,145 in 2004; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and... Events April - Battle of Villalar - Forces loyal to Emperor Charles V defeat the Comuneros, a league of urban bourgeois rebelling against Charles in Spain. ... Copenhagen (IPA: or ; Danish: IPA: ) is the capital of Denmark and the countrys largest city. ... June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ... For other places with the same or similar names, and other uses of the word, see Munster (disambiguation) Münster is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... 1534 (MDXXXIV) was a common year in the 16th century. ... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German:   //, Italian: Ginevra //, Romansh: Genevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich), and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ... Events January 18 - Lima, Peru founded by Francisco Pizarro April - Jacques Cartier discovers the Iroquois city of Stadacona, Canada (now Quebec) and in May, the even greater Huron city of Hochelaga June 24 - The Anabaptist state of Münster (see Münster Rebellion) is conquered and disbanded. ... Augsburg is a city in south-central Germany. ... Events January 6 - Alessandro de Medici assassinated August 25 - The Honourable Artillery Company, the oldest surviving regiment in the British Army, and the second most senior, was formed. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English (de facto)1; Gaelic[1]2 and Scots3 (recognised minority... January 15 - Elizabeth I of England is crowned in Westminster Abbey. ... Flag of the Seventeen Provinces The Seventeen Provinces were a personal union of states in the Low Countries in the 15th century and 16th century, roughly covering the current Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, a good part of the North of France (Artois, Nord) and a small part of the West of... Events January 7 - Pius V becomes Pope Selim II succeeds Suleiman I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Religious rioting in the Netherlands signifies the beginning of the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands. ... Saint Lawrence (225 – 258) (Latin Laurentius, laurelled) was one of the seven deacons of Rome who were martyred under the persecution of Roman Emperor Valerian in 258. ... Saint Anthony may be: Saints Anthony the Great (251–356) Anthony of Lérins Anthony of Lisbon (also of Padua) (1195–1231) Anthony of Kiev (? - 1073) Groups Order of St. ... Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt (1568[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Netherlands against the Spanish (Habsburg) Empire. ... Flanders (Dutch: ) is a large historical region overlapping Belgium, France and the Netherlands. ...


In England, Bishop Joseph Hall of Norwich described the events of 1643 when troops and citizens, encouraged by a Parliamentary ordinance against superstition and idolatry, behaved thus: Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total... Norwich (IPA: //) is a city in East Anglia, in Eastern England. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... Idolatry is a major sin in the Abrahamic religions regarding image. ...

Lord what work was here! What clattering of glasses! What beating down of walls! What tearing up of monuments! What pulling down of seats! What wresting out of irons and brass from the windows! What defacing of arms! What demolishing of curious stonework! What tooting and piping upon organ pipes! And what a hideous triumph in the market-place before all the country, when all the mangled organ pipes, vestments, both copes and surplices, together with the leaden cross which had newly been sawn down from the Green-yard pulpit and the service-books and singing books that could be carried to the fire in the public market-place were heaped together'.

An illustration from a 1563 edition of Foxe's Book of Martyrs depicts "The Temple well purged," "Burning of images", and "the Papists packing away their paltry."
An illustration from a 1563 edition of Foxe's Book of Martyrs depicts "The Temple well purged," "Burning of images", and "the Papists packing away their paltry."

The keen puritan William Dowsing was commissioned and salaried by the government to tour the towns and villages of East Anglia destroying images in churches. His detailed record of his trail of destruction through Suffolk and Cambridgeshire survives:[16] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 606 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1035 × 1024 pixel, file size: 349 KB, MIME type: image/png) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 606 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1035 × 1024 pixel, file size: 349 KB, MIME type: image/png) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Events February 1 - Sarsa Dengel succeeds his father Menas as Emperor of Ethiopia February 18 - The Duke of Guise is assassinated while besieging Orléans March - Peace of Amboise. ... William Tyndale, just before being burnt at the stake, cries out Lord, ope the King of Englands eies in this woodcut from an early edition of Foxes Book of Martyrs. ... Papist is a term, usually disparaging, referring to a member of the Roman Catholic Church. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... William Dowsing (1596 - 1668), was an English iconoclast who operated at the time of the English Civil War. ... Norfolk and Suffolk, the core area of East Anglia. ...

We brake [sic] down about a hundred superstitious pictures; and seven fryers [sic] hugging a nun; and the picture of God, and Christ; and divers others very superstitious. And 200 had been broke down afore I came. We took away 2 popish inscriptions with Ora pro nobis and we beat down a great stoneing cross on the top of the church. (Haverhill, Suffolk, January 6, 1644)

Protestant Christianity, however, was not uniformly hostile to the use of religious images. Martin Luther argued that Christians should be free to use religious images as long as they did not worship them in the place of God. Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ...


References and notes

  1. ^ The birth and growth of Utrecht
  2. ^ Robin Cormack, Writing in Gold, Byzantine Society and its Icons, 1985, George Philip, London, ISBN 054001085-5
  3. ^ C Mango, "Historical Introduction," in Bryer & Herrin, eds., Iconoclasm, pp. 2-3., 1977, Centre for Byzantine Studies, University of Birmingham, ISBN 0704402262
  4. ^ see Theophanes, Chronographia
  5. ^ Epitome, Iconoclast Council at Hieria, 754
  6. ^ F.B. Flood, "Between cult and culture: Bamiyan, Islamic iconoclasm, and the museum," The Art Bulletin 84 (2002), 643-44.
  7. ^ F.B. Flood, "Between cult and culture: Bamiyan, Islamic iconoclasm, and the museum," The Art Bulletin 84 (2002), 641.
  8. ^ F.B. Flood, "Between cult and culture: Bamiyan, Islamic iconoclasm, and the museum," The Art Bulletin 84 (2002), 654.
  9. ^ F.B. Flood, "Between cult and culture: Bamiyan, Islamic iconoclasm, and the museum," The Art Bulletin 84 (2002), 651-55.
  10. ^ A. Grabar, L'iconoclasme byzantin: le dossier archéologique (Paris, 1984), 155-56.
  11. ^ G.R.D. King, "Islam, iconoclasm, and the declaration of doctrine," Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 48 (1985), 276-7.
  12. ^ F.B. Flood, "Between cult and culture: Bamiyan, Islamic iconoclasm, and the museum," The Art Bulletin 84 (2002), 650.
  13. ^ "Images of Muhammad, Gone for Good", The New York Times, February 12, 2006. . Mirror at "Muslim News Network". Depictions of Muhammad are widespread in turn of the century allegorical art. In the U.S. other examples, still in visible, are the bas-relief frieze of the Supreme Court in Washington, D.C. (q.v.), or the statuary frieze on the Brooklyn Museum.
  14. ^ Independent Newspaper on-line, London, Jan 19,2007
  15. ^ Islamica Magazine
  16. ^ 1885 edition of the diaries of the English puritan iconoclast William Dowsing on-line from Canadian libraries

The Brooklyn Museum, located at 200 Eastern Parkway Brooklyn, New York City, is the second largest art museum in the City and one of the largest in the United States. ...

See also

Aniconism is the absence of representations, in a restricted sense that of God and living beings, and more generally of any type of artificial production of substitutes. ... Censorship is defined as the removal and/or withholding of information from the public by a controlling group or body. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article is about cultural prohibitions in general, for other uses, see Taboo (disambiguation). ... Natural theology is the knowledge of God accessible to all rational human beings without recourse to any special or supposedly supernatural revelation. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
iconoclasm - Encyclopedia.com (1241 words)
The movement was paralleled by the iconoclasm of Islam, Judaism, and Manichaeism and was certainly strengthened by the numerous Paulicians in the empire.
Eastern Iconoclasm was opposed in the West by Popes Gregory II, Gregory III, and Adrian I.
O for a muse of fire: the iconoclasm of Jonathan Williams and the Jargon Society.
Iconoclasm - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2544 words)
Iconoclasm is the destruction of religious icons and other symbols or monuments, usually for religious or political motives.
Iconoclasm may be carried out by people of a different religion, but is often the result of sectarian disputes between factions of the same religion.
The chief theological opponents of iconoclasm were the monks Mansur (John of Damascus), who, living in Muslim territory as advisor to the Caliph of Damascus, was far enough away from the Byzantine emperor to evade retribution, and Theodore the Studite, who lived within the Empire.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m