FACTOID # 19: Cheap sloppy joes: Looking for reduced-price lunches for schoolchildren? Head for Oklahoma!
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Icon
17th century Russian icon of Saint Mary of Egypt, with scenes from her life.
17th century Russian icon of Saint Mary of Egypt, with scenes from her life.

An icon (from Greek εἰκών, eikōn, "image") is an image, picture, or representation; it is a sign or likeness that stands for an object by signifying or representing it, or by analogy, as in semiotics; by extension, icon is also used, particularly in modern culture, in the general sense of symbol — i.e. a name, face, picture, edifice or even a person readily recognized as having some well-known significance or embodying certain qualities. one thing, and image or depiction, that represents something else of greater significance through literal or figurative meaning, usually associated with religious, cultural, political, and economic standing. The word icon can have the following meanings: The word icon in the general sense is used to mean symbol -- i. ... The Saviour Not Made By Hands (ca 1410), an Andrei Rublev icon discovered in the town of Zvenigorod in 1918. ... The Saviour Not Made By Hands (ca 1410), an Andrei Rublev icon discovered in the town of Zvenigorod in 1918. ... Christ the Redeemer is an icon painted by Andrei Rublev in 1409. ... Andrei Rublev (Andrey Rublev, Andrey Roublyov, Russian: Андре́й Рублёв) (1360? – 1430?) is considered to be the greatest Russian iconographer. ... The Temple of Portunus in Rome was preserved by being rededicated to Santa Maria Egiziaca in 872. ... Semiotics, semiotic studies, or semiology is the study of signs and symbols, both individually and grouped into sign systems. ...


Throughout history religious cults or religious cultures[1] have been inspired or supplemented by concrete images, whether in two dimensions or three. The degree to which images are used or permitted, and their functions, whether they are for instruction or inspiration, whether treated as sacred objects of veneration or worship or simply applied as ornament, depends upon the tenets of a given religion in a given place and time. In traditional usage, the cult of a religion, quite apart from its sacred writings (scriptures), its theology or myths, or the personal faith of its believers, is the totality of external religious practice and observance, the neglect of which is the definition of impiety. ... Veneration is a religious symbolic act giving honor to someone by honoring an image of that person, particularly applied to saints. ...


In Eastern Christianity and other icon-painting Christian traditions, the icon is generally a flat panel painting depicting a holy being or object such as Jesus, Mary, saints, angels, or the cross. Icons may also be cast in metal, carved in stone, embroidered on cloth, done in mosaic or fresco work, printed on paper or metal, etc. Creating free-standing, three-dimensional sculptures of holy figures was resisted by Christians for many centuries, out of the belief that daimones inhabited pagan sculptures, and also to make a clear distinction between Christian art and pagan. To this day, in obedience to the commandment not to make "graven images", Orthodox icons may never be more than three-quarter bas relief. This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Saint Mary and Saint Mary the Virgin both redirect here. ... General definition of saint In general, the term Saint refers to someone who is exceptionally virtuous and holy. ... The Annunciation - the Angel Gabriel announces to Mary that she will bear Jesus (El Greco, 1575) An angel is an ethereal being found in many religions, whose duties are to assist and serve God. ... A reliquary in the form of an ornate Christian Cross Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bas-relief (pronounced bah-relief, French for low relief) is a method of sculpting which entails carving or etching away the surface of a flat piece of stone or metal creating a sculpture portrayed as a picture. ...

Contents

Icons in Christianity

One of the few ceramic icons in existence, dated to ca. 900, from Preslav, Bulgaria.
One of the few ceramic icons in existence, dated to ca. 900, from Preslav, Bulgaria.

Christianity originated as a movement within Judaism during a time when there was great concern about idolatry. St. ... St. ... Preslav ( Bulgarian: Преслав) was capital of the First Bulgarian Empire from 893 to 972. ...


There is no evidence of the making and use of painted icons or of similar religious images by Christians in the New Testament or early apocrypha. However, Dr. Steven Bingham writes,[2] "The first thing to note is that there is a total silence about Christian and non-idolatrous images. It is important to note that the silence is in the New Testament texts, and this silence should not be interpreted as describing all the activities of the Apostles or 1st century Christians. St. John himself said that 'Jesus did many other signs in the presence of the disciples, which are not written in this book...' (Jn 20.30). We could easily add that the Apostles also did and said many things not recorded in the New Testament. It is obvious, therefore, that we do not have a complete account of the activities and sayings of the Apostles. So, if we want to find out if the first Christians made or ordered any kind of figurative art, the New Testament is of no use whatsoever. The silence is a fact, but the reason given for the silence varies from exegete to exegete depending on his assumptions." In other words, relying only upon the New Testament as evidence of no painted icons amounts to an argument from silence. In addition, it should also be noted that Christian symbolic art and iconography had already developed extensively before the New Testament Canon was finalized in the fourth century. The biblical apocrypha includes texts written in the Jewish and Christian religious traditions that either were accepted into the biblical canon by some, but not all, Christian faiths, or are frequently printed in Bibles despite their non-canonical status. ... The argument from silence (also called argumentum a silentio in Latin) is generally a conclusion based on silence or lack of contrary evidence. ...


Though the word eikon is found in the New Testament (see below), it is never in the context of painted icons though it is used to mean portrait. There were, of course, Christian paintings and art in the early catacomb churches. Many can still be viewed today, such as those in the catacomb churches of Domitilla and San Callisto in Rome. A procession in the catacomb of Callistus. ...


In Eastern Orthodoxy and other icon-painting Christian traditions, the icon is generally a flat panel painting depicting a holy being or object such as Jesus, Mary, saints, angels, or the cross. Icons may also be cast in metal, carved in stone, embroidered on cloth, done in mosaic work, printed on paper or metal, etc. This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Saint Mary and Saint Mary the Virgin both redirect here. ... General definition of saint In general, the term Saint refers to someone who is exceptionally virtuous and holy. ... The Annunciation - the Angel Gabriel announces to Mary that she will bear Jesus (El Greco, 1575) An angel is an ethereal being found in many religions, whose duties are to assist and serve God. ... A reliquary in the form of an ornate Christian Cross Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope...


Earliest icons and criticism

The earliest written records of Christian images treated like icons in a pagan or Gnostic context are offered by the fourth-century Christian Aelius Lampridius in the Life of Alexander Severus (xxix) that was part of the Augustan History. According to Lampridius, the emperor Alexander Severus (222–235), who was not a Christian, had kept a domestic chapel for the veneration of images of deified emperors, of portraits of his ancestors, and of Christ, Apollonius, Orpheus and Abraham. Irenaeus, (c. 130–202) in his Against Heresies (1:25;6) says scornfully of the Gnostic Carpocratians, “They also possess images, some of them painted, and others formed from different kinds of material; while they maintain that a likeness of Christ was made by Pilate at that time when Jesus lived among them. They crown these images, and set them up along with the images of the philosophers of the world that is to say, with the images of Pythagoras, and Plato, and Aristotle, and the rest. They have also other modes of honouring these images, after the same manner of the Gentiles [pagans].” St Irenaeus on the other hand does not speak critical of icons or portraits in a general sense, only of certain gnostic sectarians use of icons. Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... Gnosticism is a blanket term for various religions and sects most prominent in the first few centuries A.D. General characteristics The word gnosticism comes from the Greek word for knowledge, gnosis (γνῶσις), referring to the idea that there is special, hidden mysticism (esoteric knowledge) that only a few possess. ... The Augustan History (Lat. ... Alexander Severus Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexandrus (October 1, 208- March 18?, 235), commonly called Alexander Severus, Roman emperor from 222 to 235, was born at Arca Caesarea in Palestine. ... Apollonius of Tyana (Greek: ; 16—ca. ... St. ... On the Detection and Overthrow of the So-Called Gnosis, commonly called Against Heresies (Latin: Adversus haereses), is a five volume work written by St. ... Carpocrates was an early Gnostic from sometime in the second century A.D. who was mentioned by Clement of Alexandria in the Mar Saba letter discovered in 1958 by ancient historian Morton Smith. ... Saint Irenaeus (Greek: Ειρηναίος), (b. ...


Another criticism of image veneration is found in the non-canonical second-century Acts of John (generally considered a gnostic work), in which the Apostle John discovers that one of his followers has had a portrait made of him, and is venerating it: (27) “...he [John] went into the bedchamber, and saw the portrait of an old man crowned with garlands, and lamps and altars set before it. And he called him and said: Lycomedes, what do you mean by this matter of the portrait? Can it be one of thy gods that is painted here? For I see that you are still living in heathen fashion.” Later in the passage John says, "But this that you have now done is childish and imperfect: you have drawn a dead likeness of the dead." The Acts of John is a 2nd-century Christian collection of narratives and traditions, well described as a library of materials [1], inspired by the Gospel of John, long known in fragmentary form. ... Gnosticism is a blanket term for various religions and sects most prominent in the first few centuries A.D. General characteristics The word gnosticism comes from the Greek word for knowledge, gnosis (γνῶσις), referring to the idea that there is special, hidden mysticism (esoteric knowledge) that only a few possess. ...

Image of the Saviour Not Made by Hand: a traditional Orthodox iconography in the interpretation of Simon Ushakov (1658).
Image of the Saviour Not Made by Hand: a traditional Orthodox iconography in the interpretation of Simon Ushakov (1658).
Main article: Image of Edessa

Aside from the legend that Pilate had made an image of Christ, the fourth-century Eusebius of Caesarea, in his Church History, provides a more substantial reference to a “first” icon of Jesus. He relates that King Abgar of Edessa sent a letter to Jesus at Jerusalem, asking Jesus to come and heal him of an illness. In this version there is no image. Then, in the later account found in the Syriac Doctrine of Addai, a painted image of Jesus is mentioned in the story; and even later, in the account given by Evagrius, the painted image is transformed into an image that miraculously appeared on a towel when Christ pressed the cloth to his wet face.[3] Further legends relate that the cloth remained in Edessa until the tenth century, when it was taken to Constantinople. In 1204 it was lost when Constantinople was sacked by Crusaders, but its iconic type had been well fixed in numerous copies. Image File history File links Ru Нерукотворный Спас 1658 Uploaded from http://www. ... Image File history File links Ru Нерукотворный Спас 1658 Uploaded from http://www. ... Image of the Saviour Not Made by Hand: a traditional Orthodox iconography in the interpretation of Simon Ushakov (1658). ... Saviour Not Made by Hands, written by Ushakov for the Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra in 1658, is a key painting of the Stroganov School of Muscovite icon-painting. ... According to the legend, King Abgarus received the Image of Edessa from the apostle Thaddeus. ... Eusebius of Caesarea Eusebius of Caesarea (c. ...


Elsewhere in his Church History, Eusebius reports seeing what he took to be portraits of Jesus, Peter and Paul, and also mentions a bronze statue at Banias / Paneas, of which he wrote, "They say that this statue is an image of Jesus" (H.E. 7:18); further, he relates that locals thought the image to be a memorial of the healing of the woman with an issue of blood by Jesus (Luke 8:43-48), because it depicted a standing man wearing a double cloak and with arm outstretched, and a woman kneeling before him with arms reaching out as if in supplication. John Francis Wilson[4] thinks it possible to have been a pagan bronze statue whose true identity had been forgotten; some have thought it to be Aesculapius, the God of healing, but the description of the standing figure and the woman kneeling in supplication is precisely that found on coins depicting the bearded emperor Hadrian reaching out to a female figure symbolizing a province kneeling before him.


After Christianity was legalized by the emperor Constantine within the Roman Empire in 313, huge numbers of pagans became converts. This created the necessity for the transfer of allegiance and practice from the old gods and heroes to the new religion, and for the gradual adaptation of the old system of image making and veneration to a Christian context, in the process of Christianization. Robin Lane Fox states[5] "By the early fifth century, we know of the ownership of private icons of saints; by c. 480-500, we can be sure that the inside of a saint's shrine would be adorned with images and votive portraits, a practice which had probably begun earlier". St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once, also includes the practice of converting pagan practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar...


Images from Constantine to Justinian

Christ and Saint Menas. A 6th-century Coptic icon from Egypt (Musée du Louvre).
Christ and Saint Menas. A 6th-century Coptic icon from Egypt (Musée du Louvre).

After adoption of Christianity as the only permissible Roman state religion under Theodosius I, Christian art began to change not only in quality and sophistication, but also in nature. This was in no small part due to Christians being free for the first time to express their faith openly without persecution from the state, in addition to the faith spreading to the non-poor segments of society. Paintings of martyrs and their feats began to appear, and early writers commented on their lifelike effect, one of the elements a few Christian writers criticized in pagan art — the ability to imitate life. The writers mostly criticized pagan works of art for pointing to false gods, thus encouraging idolatry. Statues in the round were avoided as being too close to the principal artistic focus of pagan cult practices, as they have continued to be (with some small-scale exceptions) throughout the history of Eastern Christianity. Image File history File links Menas. ... Image File history File links Menas. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Coptic is an adjective referring to the original inhabitants of Egypt, the Copts. ... The Louvre Museum (Musée du Louvre) in Paris, France, is one of the largest and most famous museums in the world. ... An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ... Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, Russia, Armenia, the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ...


Nilus of Sinai, in his Letter to Heliodorus Silentiarius, records a miracle in which St. Plato of Ankyra appeared to a Christian in a dream. The Saint was recognized because the young man had often seen his portrait. This recognition of a religious apparition from likeness to an image was also a characteristic of pagan pious accounts of appearances of gods to humans, and was a regular topos in hagiography. One critical recipient of a vision from Saint Demetrius of Thessaloniki apparently specified that the saint resembled the "more ancient" images of him - presumably the seventh century mosaics still in Hagios Demetrios. Another, an African bishop, had been rescued from Arab slavery by a young soldier called Demetrios, who told him to go to his house in Thessaloniki. Having discovered that most young soldiers in the city seemed to be called Demetrios, he gave up and went to the largest church in the city, to find his rescuer on the wall.[6] Saint Nilus the Elder, of Sinai (also known as Neilos, Nilus of Sinai, Nilus of Ancyra; died c. ... 12th-century mosaic depicting St Demetrios, from the Golden-Roofed Monastery in Kiev. ... St Demetrios with children: one of several Byzantine mosaics that escaped destruction from the hands of the Iconoclasts. ...

During this period the church began to discourage all non-religious human images - the Emperor and donor figures counting as religious. This became largely effective, so that most of the population would only ever see religious images and those of the ruling class. The word icon referred to all and any images, not just religious ones, but there was barely a need for a separate word for these. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Pantokrator (disambiguation). ... A 6th-century encaustic icon from Saint Catherines Monastery, Mount Sinai. ... St. ... For the Biblical Mount Sinai, and a discussion of its possible locations, see Biblical Mount Sinai. ...


Luke's portrait of Mary

It is in a context attributed to the fifth century that the first mention of an image of Mary painted from life appears, though earlier paintings on cave walls bear resemblance to modern icons of Mary. Theodorus Lector, in his sixth-century History of the Church 1:1[7] stated that Eudokia (wife of Theodosius II, died 460) sent an image of “the Mother of God” named Icon of the Hodegetria from Jerusalem to Pulcheria, daughter of the Emperor Arcadius: the image was specified to have been “painted by the Apostle Luke.” In later tradition the number of icons of Mary attributed to Luke would greatly multiply;[8] the Salus Populi Romani , the Theotokos of Vladimir, the Theotokos Iverskaya of Mount Athos, the Theotokos of Tikhvin, the Theotokos of Smolensk and the Black Madonna of Częstochowa are examples, and another is in the cathedral on St Thomas Mount, which is believed to be one of the seven painted by St.Luke the Evangelist and brought to India by St. Thomas. [9] Ethiopia has at least seven more.[10] A procession in the catacomb of Callistus. ... Theodorus Lector was a historian of sixth century Constantinople. ... Theodosius II Flavius Theodosius II (April, 401 - July 28, 450 ). The eldest son of Eudoxia and Arcadius who at the age of 7 became the Roman Emperor of the East. ... Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek: , translit. ... Icon of the Hodegetria which means She who shows the way is the template used for icons which depicted the Theotokos or Virgin Mary holding the child of Jesus Christ on her side while pointing to the Christ as the source of salvation for mankind. ... Pulcheria (January 19, 399 – 453) was the daughter of the Eastern Roman Emperor Arcadius and Aelia Eudoxia. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Theotokos of Vladimir The Theotokos of Vladimir, also known as Our Lady of Vladimir, the Virgin of Vladimir or Vladimirskaya (Russian: ), is one of the most venerated Orthodox icons. ... Capital Karyes Official languages Koine Greek, Church Slavonic, Modern Greek, Russian, Serbian, Georgian, Bulgarian, Romanian (both liturgical and civil use), Modern Greek (civil use) Government  -  Head of State2 Dora Bakoyannis  -  Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I Area  -  Total 390 km²  150 sq mi  Population  -   estimate 2,250  Demonyms: Athonite, Hagiorite (English); Αθωνίτης, Αγιορίτης (Greek). ... Black Madonna, Fleur de lys of CzÄ™stochowa, Poland The Black Madonna of CzÄ™stochowa, (Czarna Madonna or Matka Boska CzÄ™stochowska in Polish) icon was, according to legend, painted by St. ... St. ... Luke the Evangelist (לוקא, Greek: Loukas) is said by tradition to be the author of both the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles, the third and fifth books of the New Testament. ... Subscript text == Headline text ==dfgdfgdsfgfdgdf Insert non-formatted text here Saint Thomas the Apostle, Judas Thomas or Didymus, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. ...


Acheiropoieta: "images not painted by hands"

Main article: Acheiropoieta

The tradition of acheiropoieta (αχειροποίητα, literally "not-made-by-hand") accrued to icons that are alleged to have come into existence miraculously, not by a human painter. Such images functioned as powerful relics as well as icons, and their images were naturally seen as especially authoritative as to the true appearance of the subject: naturally and especially because of the reluctance to accept mere human productions as embodying anything of the divine, a commonplace of Christian deprecation of man-made "idols". Like icons believed to be painted directly from the live subject, they therefore acted as important references for other images in the tradition. Beside the developed legend of the mandylion or Image of Edessa, was the tale of the Veil of Veronica, whose very name signifies "true icon" or "true image", the fear of a "false image" remaining strong. Image of the Saviour Not Made by Hand: a traditional Orthodox iconography in the interpretation of Simon Ushakov (1658). ... For other uses, see Relic (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... According to the legend, King Abgarus received the Image of Edessa from the apostle Thaddeus. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Theology of icons

Orthodox Christian usually say their prayers in front of an Eastern-facing wall covered with icons, or an icon corner.
Orthodox Christian usually say their prayers in front of an Eastern-facing wall covered with icons, or an icon corner.

Christianity teaches that the immaterial God took flesh in the form of Jesus Christ, making it possible to depict in human form the Son of God. It is on this basis that the Old Testament prescriptions against making images were overturned for the early Christians by their belief in the Incarnation. Also, the concept of archetype was redefined by the early church fathers in order to better understand that when a person shows veneration toward an image, the intention is rather to honor the person depicted, not the substance of the icon. As St. Basil the Great says, "The honor shown the image passes over to the archetype." He also illustrates the concept by saying, "If I point to a statue of Caesar and ask you 'Who is that?', your answer would properly be, 'It is Caesar.' When you say such you do not mean that the stone itself is Caesar, but rather, the name and honor you ascribe to the statue passes over to the original, the archetype, Caesar himself." So it is with an Icon. Download high resolution version (477x636, 68 KB)Copyright © 2004 by Andrew Stephen Damick. ... Download high resolution version (477x636, 68 KB)Copyright © 2004 by Andrew Stephen Damick. ... A fairly elaborate Orthodox Christian icon corner as would be found in a private home The Icon Corner (Greek: Ikonostasi) is a small worship space prepared in the homes of Eastern Orthodox or Greek-Catholic Christians. ... Christ en majesté, Matthias Grünewald, 16th c. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Archetype (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers... Basil (ca. ... Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ...


In the Eastern Orthodox tradition, only flat or bas relief images are used. The Greeks, having a long, pagan tradition of statuary, found the sensual quality of three dimensional representations did more to glorify the human aspect of the flesh rather than the divine nature of the spirit and so prohibitions were created against statuary. The Romans, on the other hand, did not adopt these prohibitions and so there is still statuary among the Roman Catholics to this day. Because the Greeks rejected statuary, the Byzantine style of iconography was developed in which figures were stylized in a manner that emphasized their holiness rather than their humanity. Symbolism allowed the icon to present highly complex material in a very simple way, making it possible to educate even the illiterate in theology. The interiors of Orthodox Churches are often completely covered in icons. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Catholic Church redirects here. ...


Stylistic developments

Although there are earlier records of their use, no panel icons earlier than the few from the 6th century preserved at the Greek Orthodox Monastery of St. Catherine at Sinai survive.[11] The surviving evidence for the earliest depictions of Christ, Mary and saints therefore comes from wall-paintings, mosaics and some carvings. They are realistic in appearance, in contrast to the later stylization. They are broadly similar in style, though often much superior in quality, to the mummy portraits done in encaustic wax and found at Fayum in Egypt. As we may judge from such items, the first depictions of Jesus were generic rather than portrait images, generally representing him as a beardless young man. It was some time before the earliest examples of the long-haired, bearded face that was later to become standardized as the image of Jesus appeared. When they did begin to appear there was still variation. Augustine of Hippo (354-430)[12] said that no one knew the appearance of Jesus or that of Mary, though it should be noted that Augustine was not a resident of the Holy Land and therefore was not familiar with the local populations and their oral traditions. Gradually, paintings of Jesus took on characteristics of portrait images. Image File history File links Petersinai. ... Image File history File links Petersinai. ... A 6th-century encaustic icon from Saint Catherines Monastery, Mount Sinai. ... St. ... The Ghent Altarpiece: The Adoration of the Mystic Lamb, interior view, 1432. ... Greek Orthodox Church can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches: the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, headed by the Patriarch of Constantinople, who is also the first among equals of the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... St. ... This article is about a decorative art. ... Portrait of a young woman, A.D. 110–20 Encaustic on wood; 43. ... Encaustic painting, also called hot wax painting, involves using heated beeswax to which colored pigments are added. ... Augustinus redirects here. ...


At this time the manner of depicting Jesus was not yet uniform, and there was some controversy over which of the two most common icons was to be favored. The first or “Semitic” form showed Jesus with short and “frizzy” hair; the second showed a bearded Jesus with hair parted in the middle, the manner in which the god Zeus was depicted. Theodorus Lector remarked[13] that of the two, the one with short and frizzy hair was “more authentic.” To support his assertion, he relates a story (excerpted by John of Damascus) that a pagan commissioned to paint an image of Jesus used the “Zeus” form instead of the “Semitic” form, and that as punishment his hands withered.


Though their development was gradual, we can date the full-blown appearance and general ecclesiastical (as opposed to simply popular or local) acceptance of Christian images as venerated and miracle-working objects to the sixth century, when, as Hans Belting writes,[14] "we first hear of the church's use of religious images." "As we reach the second half of the sixth century, we find that images are attracting direct veneration and some of them are credited with the performance of miracles"[15] Cyril Mango writes,[16] "In the post-Justinianic period the icon assumes an ever increasing role in popular devotion, and there is a proliferation of miracle stories connected with icons, some of them rather shocking to our eyes". However, the earlier references by Eusebius and Irenaeus indicate veneration of images and reported miracles associated with them as early as the second century. It must also be noted that what might be shocking to our contemporary eyes may not have been viewed as such by the early Christians. Acts 5:15 reports that "people brought the sick into the streets and laid them on beds and mats so that at least Peter's shadow might fall on some of them as he passed by."


The Iconoclast period

Main article: Byzantine Iconoclasm
Angel the Golden Locks, a 12th-century icon from Novgorod.
Angel the Golden Locks, a 12th-century icon from Novgorod.

There was a continuing opposition to misuse of images within Christianity from very early times. "Whenever images threatened to gain undue influence within the church, theologians have sought to strip them of their power"[17] Further,"there is no century between the fourth and the eighth in which there is not some evidence of opposition to images even within the Church[18] Nonetheless, popular favor for icons guaranteed their continued existence, while no systematic apologia for or against icons, or doctrinal authorization or condemnation of icons yet existed. Image File history File links 12th-century icon of Archangel Gabriel from Novgorod, called Golden-Locked Angel, currently exhibited in the State Russian Museum. ... Image File history File links 12th-century icon of Archangel Gabriel from Novgorod, called Golden-Locked Angel, currently exhibited in the State Russian Museum. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ...


The use of icons was seriously challenged by Byzantine Imperial authority in the eighth century. Though by this time opposition to images was strongly entrenched in Judaism and Islam, attribution of the impetus toward an iconoclastic movement in Eastern Orthodoxy to Muslims or Jews "seems to have been highly exaggerated, both by contemporaries and by modern scholars"[19]


Though significant in the history of religious doctrine, the Byzantine controversy over images is not seen as of primary importance in Byzantine history. "Few historians still hold it to have been the greatest issue of the period..."[20]


The Iconoclastic Period began when images were banned by Emperor Leo III the Isaurian sometime between 726 and 730. Under his son Constantine V, a council forbidding image veneration was held at Hieria[21] near Constantinople in 754. Image veneration was later reinstated by the Empress Regent Irene, under whom another council was held reversing the decisions of the previous iconoclast council and taking its title as Seventh Ecumenical Council. The council anathemized all who hold to iconoclasm, i.e. those who held that veneration of images constitutes idolatry. Then the ban was enforced again by Leo V in 815. And finally icon veneration was decisively restored by Empress Regent Theodora. Leo the Isaurian and his son Constantine V. Leo III the Isaurian or the Syrian (Greek: Λέων Γ΄, Leōn III ), (c. ... Constantine V with his father Leo III the Isaurian. ... This solidus struck under Irene reports the legend bASILISSH, Basilissa. ... The Second Council of Nicaea was the seventh ecumenical council of Christianity; it met in 787 CE in Nicaea (site of the First Council of Nicaea) to restore the honoring of icons (or, holy images), which had been suppressed by imperial edict inside the Byzantine Empire during the reign of... Contemporary coin of Leo V. Leo V, surnamed The Armenian (775 – December 24, 820), was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 813 to 820, after first distinguishing himself as a general in the reigns of Nicephorus I and Michael I Rhangabes. ... Theodora depicted as ruler on this coin, with her son Michael, nominally emperor, and her daughter Thecla on the reverse. ...


From then on all Byzantine coins had a religious image or symbol on the reverse, usually an image of Christ for larger denominations, with the head of the Emperor on the obverse, reinforcing the bond of the state and the divine order.[6] The term obverse, and its opposite, reverse, describe the two sides of units of currency and many other kinds of two-sided objects, most often in reference to coins, but also to medals, drawings, old master prints and other works of art. ...

The "Theotokos of Vladimir" icon (12th century)
The "Theotokos of Vladimir" icon (12th century)

Download high resolution version (456x681, 221 KB)Our Lady of Vladimir (12th century), the holy protectress of Russia, now in the Tretyakov Gallery. ... Download high resolution version (456x681, 221 KB)Our Lady of Vladimir (12th century), the holy protectress of Russia, now in the Tretyakov Gallery. ... Theotokos of Vladimir The Theotokos of Vladimir, also known as Our Lady of Vladimir, the Virgin of Vladimir or Vladimirskaya (Russian: ), is one of the most venerated Orthodox icons. ...

Icons in Greek-speaking regions

Today icons are used particularly among Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Coptic and Eastern Catholic Churches. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The term... Jesus Christ in a Coptic icon. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The...


Of the icon painting tradition that developed in Byzantium, with Constantinople as the chief city, we have only a few icons from the eleventh century and none preceding them, in part because of the Iconoclastic reforms during which many were destroyed, and also because of plundering by Venetians in 1204 during the Fourth Crusade, and finally the taking of the city by the Islamic Turks in 1453. Belligerents Crusaders Holy Roman Empire Republic of Venice Montferret Champagne Blois Amiens ÃŽle-de-France Saint-Pol Burgundy Flanders Balkans Byzantine Empire Kingdom of Hungary Croatia Dalmatia Commanders Otto IV Boniface I Theobald I Lois I Alexios V Doukas Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Emeric I The Fourth Crusade...


It was only in the Comnenian period (1081-1185) that the cult of the icon became widespread in the Byzantine world, partly on account of the dearth of richer materials (such as mosaics, ivory, and enamels), but also because an iconostasis a special screen for icons was introduced then in ecclesiastical practice. The style of the time was severe, hieratic and distant. Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus The Comnenus or Komnenos family was an important dynasty in the history of the Byzantine Empire. ... This article is about a decorative art. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In a discussion of art technology, enamel (or vitreous enamel, or porcelain enamel in American English) is the colorful result of fusion of powdered glass to a substrate through the process of firing, usually between 750 and 850 degrees Celsius. ... 17th-century iconostasis of Prophet Elias church, Yaroslavl. ...


In the late Comnenian period this severity softened, and emotion, formerly avoided, entered icon painting. Major monuments for this change include the murals at Daphni (ca. 1100) and Nerezi near Skopje (1164). The Theotokos of Vladimir (ca. 1115, illustration, right) is probably the most representative example of the new trend towards spirituality and emotion. Daphne - From the painting by Deverial. ... Nerezi is a small town in the Republic of Macedonia, approximately fifteen minutes drive from the capital, Skopje, and at an altitude of 771 meters (2532 feet). ... Location of the city of Skopje (green) in Macedonia Country Macedonia Municipality Government  - Mayor Trifun Kostovski Area  - Total 1,854 km² (715. ... Theotokos of Vladimir The Theotokos of Vladimir, also known as Our Lady of Vladimir, the Virgin of Vladimir or Vladimirskaya (Russian: ), is one of the most venerated Orthodox icons. ...


The tendency toward emotionalism in icons continued in the Paleologan period, which began in 1261. Paleologan art reached its pinnacle in mosaics such as those of the Kariye Camii (the former Chora Monastery). In the last half of the 1300s, Paleologan saints were painted in an exaggerated manner, very slim and in contorted positions, that is, in a style known as the Paleologan Mannerism, of which Ochrid's Annunciation is a superb example. The Palaeologus family was the last dynasty ruling the Byzantine Empire. ... The eastern exterior of the Chora Church, Ä°stanbul, showing, from left to right, the small dome above the diaconicon, the buttress supporting the apse, the free-standing minaret, the large, central dome, and the small dome abovethe prothesis. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (447x614, 378 KB)The icon of Annunciation from the Church of St Climent in Ochrid (first quarter of the 14th century). ...


After 1453, the Byzantine tradition was carried on in regions previously influenced by its religion and culture— in the Balkans and Russia, Georgia in the Caucasus, and, in the Greek-speaking realm, on Crete. Georgia ( Georgian: საქართველო Sakartvelo), known from 1991 to 1995 as the Republic of Georgia, is a country to the east of the Black Sea in the southern Caucasus. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ...


Cretan icons

Main article: Cretan School

Crete was under Venetian control from 1204 and became a thriving center of art with eventually a Scuola di San Luca, or organized painter's guild on Western lines. Cretan painting was heavily patronized both by Catholics of Venetian territories and by Eastern Orthodox. For ease of transport, Cretan painters specialized in panel paintings, and developed the ability to work in many styles to fit the taste of various patrons. El Greco, who moved to Venice after establishing his reputation in Crete, is the most famous artist of the school, who continued to use many Byzantine conventions in his works. In 1669 the city of Heraklion, on Crete, which at one time boasted at least 120 painters, finally fell to the Turks, and from that time Greek icon painting went into a decline, with a revival attempted in the 20th century by art reformers such as Photios Kontoglou, who emphasized a return to earlier styles. The term Cretan School describes an important school of icon painting, also known as Post-Byzantine art, which flourished while Crete was under Venetian rule during the late Middle Ages, reaching its climax after the Fall of Constantinople, becoming the central force in Greek painting during the fifteenth, sixteenth and... Jan Gossaert, , c. ... For the Vangelis album, see El Greco (album). ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Photis Kontoglou (Greek: Φώτης Κόντογλου, occasionally signed also as Kontoglous) was a Greek writer, painter and iconographer. ...


Symbolism in icons

In the icons of Eastern Orthodoxy, and of the Early Medieval West, very little room is made for artistic license. Almost everything within the image has a symbolic aspect. Christ, the saints, and the angels all have halos. Angels (and often John the Baptist) have wings because they are messengers. Figures have consistent facial appearances, hold attributes personal to them, and use a few conventional poses. For the hip-hop producer with the same name, see John the Baptist (producer). ... Look up attribute in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Colour too plays an important role. Gold represents the radiance of Heaven; red, divine life. Blue is the color of human life, white is the uncreated essence of God, only used for resurrection and transfiguration of Christ. If you look at icons of Jesus and Mary: Jesus wears red undergarment with a blue outer garment (God become Human) and Mary wears a blue undergarment with a red overgarment (human become like God), thus the doctrine of deification is conveyed by icons. Letters are symbols too. Most icons incorporate some calligraphic text naming the person or event depicted. Even this is often presented in a stylized manner. A diagram of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre based on a german documentary, claimed to be the site of Calvary and the Tomb of Jesus. ... Icon of the Transfiguration (15th century, Novgorod) The Transfiguration of Jesus is an event reported by the Synoptic Gospels in which Jesus was transfigured upon a mountain (Matthew 17:1-9, Mark 9:1-8, Luke 9:28-36). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Eastern Orthodox and...


In later Western depictions, much of the symbolism survives, though there is far less consistency. Artistic license allows the painter much more freedom over the depiction. Examples of this style abound. And yet, despite the imagination and brilliance of Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel, it is still quite easy to identify the saint depicted because the traditional attribute and appearance of Peter is still present. For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... -1... -1...


Icons in Russia

Muscovite Mannerism: Harrowing of Hell, by Dionisius and his workshop.
Muscovite Mannerism: Harrowing of Hell, by Dionisius and his workshop.
Main article: Russian icons

Russian icons are typically paintings on wood, often small, though some in churches and monasteries may be as large as a table top. Many religious homes in Russia have icons hanging on the wall in the krasny ugol, the "red" or "beautiful" corner. There is a rich history and elaborate religious symbolism associated with icons. In Russian churches, the nave is typically separated from the sanctuary by an iconostasis (Russian ikonostás) a wall of icons. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (607x800, 231 KB) Dionisius and his workshop. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (607x800, 231 KB) Dionisius and his workshop. ... The Harrowing of Hell is a doctrine in Christian theology referenced in the Apostles Creed and the Athanasian Creed (Quicumque vult), which states that Jesus descended into Hell. ... Dionysius, also spelled Dionisy or Dionisius the Wise, was acknowledged as a head of the Moscow school of icon painters at the turn of the 15th and 16th centuries. ... Andrei Rublev Trinity c. ... Religious symbolism is the use of symbols, including archetypes, acts, artwork, events, or natural phenomena, by a religion. ... Links to full descriptions of the elements of a Gothic floorplan are also found at the entry Cathedral diagram. ... Ajax prepares to violate the sanctuary of Athena by abducting Cassandra by force: red-figure vase, c. ... 17th-century iconostasis of Prophet Elias church, Yaroslavl. ...

St. Nicholas, seen here flanked by six select saints, is one of the popular subjects in Russian iconography.
St. Nicholas, seen here flanked by six select saints, is one of the popular subjects in Russian iconography.

The use and making of icons entered Kievan Rus' following its conversion to Orthodox Christianity from the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire in 988 A.D. As a general rule, these icons strictly followed models and formulas hallowed by usage, some of which had originated in Constantinople. As time passed, the Russians— notably Andrei Rublev and Dionisius— widened the vocabulary of iconic types and styles far beyond anything found elsewhere. The personal, improvisatory and creative traditions of Western European religious art are largely lacking in Russia before the seventeenth century, when Simon Ushakov's painting became strongly influenced by religious paintings and engravings from Protestant as well as Catholic Europe. Image File history File links Russian_icon_Instaplanet_Saint_Nicholas. ... Image File history File links Russian_icon_Instaplanet_Saint_Nicholas. ... Saint Nicholas, also known as Nikolaus in Germany and Sinterklaas (a contracted form of Sint Nicolaas) in the Netherlands and Flanders, is the common name for the historical Saint Nicholas of Myra, who lived in 4th century Byzantine Anatolia, (now in modern Turkey) and had a reputation for secret gift... General definition of saint In general, the term Saint refers to someone who is exceptionally virtuous and holy. ... Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev... Andrei Rublev (Andrey Rublev, Andrey Roublyov, Russian: Андре́й Рублёв) (1360? – 1430?) is considered to be the greatest Russian iconographer. ... Dionysius, also spelled Dionisy or Dionisius the Wise, was acknowledged as a head of the Moscow school of icon painters at the turn of the 15th and 16th centuries. ... Saviour Not Made by Hands, written by Ushakov for the Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra in 1658, is a key painting of the Stroganov School of Muscovite icon-painting. ...


In the mid-seventeenth century, changes in liturgy and practice instituted by Patriarch Nikon resulted in a split in the Russian Orthodox Church. The traditionalists, the persecuted "Old Ritualists" or "Old Believers", continued the traditional stylization of icons, while the State Church modified its practice. From that time icons began to be painted not only in the traditional stylized and nonrealistic mode, but also in a mixture of Russian stylization and Western European realism, and in a Western European manner very much like that of Catholic religious art of the time. The Stroganov movement and the icons from Nevyansk rank among the last important schools of Russian icon-painting. Nikon (Russian: Ни́кон, Old Russian: Нїконъ), born Nikita Minin (Никита Минин; May 7, 1605 Valmanovo, Russia—August 17, 1681), was the seventh patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church. ... In the context of Russian Orthodox church history, the Old Believers (Russian: ) separated after 1666 - 1667 from the hierarchy of the Russian Orthodox Church as a protest against church reforms introduced by Patriarch Nikon. ... Stroganov School (Строгановская школа in Russian) is a conventional name of one of the Russian icon-painting schools of the late 16th - early 17th century. ... Neoclassical cathedral in Nevyansk. ...


Icons in Western Christianity

Until the 13th century, icons followed a broadly similar pattern in West and East - although very few survive from this early from either tradition. Western icons, which are not usually so termed, were largely patterned on Byzantine works, and equally conventional in composition and depiction. From this point on the western tradition came slowly to allow the artist far more flexibility, and a more realist approach to the figures. If only because there was a much smaller number of skilled artists, the quantity of icons, in the sense of panel paintings, was much smaller in the West, and in most Western settings a single diptych as an altarpiece, or in a domestic room, probably stood in place of the larger collections typical of Orthodox "icon corners". Ivory consular diptych of Areobindus, Byzantium, 506 AD, Louvre museum A diptych is any object with two flat plates attached at a hinge. ... A fairly elaborate Orthodox Christian icon corner as would be found in a private home The Icon Corner (Greek: Ikonostasi) is a small worship space prepared in the homes of Eastern Orthodox or Greek-Catholic Christians. ...


Only in the 15th century did production of painted icons begin to approach Eastern levels, and in this century the use of icons in the West was enormously increased by the introduction of prints on paper, mostly woodcuts which were produced in vast numbers (although hardly any survive). They were mostly sold, hand-coloured, by churches, and the smallest sizes (often only an inch high) were affordable even by peasants, who glued or pinned them straight onto a wall. The term Old Master Print is used to describe works of art produced by a printing process within the Western tradition (European or New World). ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer Ukiyo-e woodcut, Ishiyama Moon by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1889) Woodcut is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface... In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: in fact, hunger and harsh winters were realities for the average European in the...


With the Reformation, after an initial uncertainty among early Lutherans, who painted a few "icon"-like depictions of leading Reformers, and continued to paint scenes from Scripture, Protestants came down firmly against icon-like portraits, especially larger ones, even of Christ. Many Protestants found these "idolaterous". Narrative Biblical scenes, especially as book illustrations, remained acceptable, and were encouraged. The Catholics maintained, even intensified the traditional use of icons, both printed and on paper, now using the different styles of the Renaissance and Baroque. Popular Catholic imagery to a certain extent has remained attached to a Baroque style of about 1650, especially in Italy and Spain.


Icon traditions in other regions

A key piece of the Paleologan Mannerism - the Annunciation icon from Ohrid in the Republic of Macedonia.
Main article: Romanian icons

In Romania, icons painted as reversed images behind glass and set in frames were common in the nineteenth century and are still made. The process know as Reverse painting on glass "In the Transylvanian countryside, the expensive icons on panels imported from Moldavia, Wallachia, and Mt. Athos were gradually replaced by small, locally produced icons on glass, which were much less expensive and thus accessible to the Transylvanian peasants..."[22] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (447x614, 378 KB)The icon of Annunciation from the Church of St Climent in Ochrid (first quarter of the 14th century). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (447x614, 378 KB)The icon of Annunciation from the Church of St Climent in Ochrid (first quarter of the 14th century). ... For other uses, see Annunciation (disambiguation). ... City motto : Coordinates Municipality : Ohrid municipality Elevation 695 m Population 55 749 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded Area code +389 46 Postal code 6000 Car plates OH Official Website www. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... In the Romanian Orthodox Church, icons serve much the same purpose as they do in other Eastern Orthodox traditions. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...

Main article: Coptic art

The Egyptian Coptic Church and the Ethiopian Church also have distinctive, living icon painting traditions. Coptic icons have their origin in the Hellenistic art of Egyptian Late Antiquity, as exemplified by the Fayum mummy portraits. Beginning in the 4th century, churches painted their walls and made icons to reflect an authentic expression of their faith. This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Christ - Coptic Art Coptic Orthodox Christianity is the indigenous form of Christianity that, according to tradition, the apostle Mark established in Egypt in the middle of the 1st century AD (approximately AD 60). ... Portrait of a young woman, A.D. 110–20 Encaustic on wood; 43. ...


The Protestant Reformation

The abundant use and veneration historically accorded images in the Roman Catholic Church was a point of contention for Protestant reformers, who varied in their attitudes toward images. In the consequent religious struggles many statues were removed from churches, and there was also destruction of images referred to as Iconoclasm, notably in England and Scotland during the War of Three Nations and in France during the Wars of Religion. Statues in the Cathedral of Saint Martin, Utrecht, attacked in Reformation iconoclasm in the 16th century. ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... The French Wars of Religion were a series of conflicts fought between the Catholic League and the Huguenots from the middle of the sixteenth century to the Edict of Nantes in 1598. ...


Though followers of Zwingli and Calvin were more severe in their rejection, Lutherans tended to be moderate: many of their parishes displayed statues and crucifixes. A joint Lutheran-Orthodox statement [date] in Helsinki reaffirmed the Ecumenical Council decisions on the nature of Christ and the veneration of images: Zwinglis Successor Zwinglis successor, Heinrich Bullinger, was elected on December 9, 1531, to be the pastor of the Great Minster at Zürich, a position which he held to the end of his life (1575). ... Calvin may refer to: Calvin (Calvin and Hobbes) Calvin College, a college in Grand Rapids, Michigan People with the surname Calvin: John Calvin, theologian Melvin Calvin, American chemist Susan Calvin, fictional robopsychologist People with the given name Calvin: Calvin Coolidge, American President Calvin Cheng, fashion mogul Calvin Klein, fashion designer... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ...


"The Seventh Ecumenical Council, the Second Council of Nicaea in 787, which rejected iconoclasm and restored the veneration of icons in the churches, was not part of the tradition received by the Reformation. Lutherans, however, rejected the iconoclasm of the 16th century, and affirmed the distinction between adoration due to the Triune God alone and all other forms of veneration. Through historical research this council has become better known. Nevertheless it does not have the same significance for Lutherans as it does for the Orthodox. Yet, Lutherans and Orthodox are in agreement that the Second Council of Nicaea confirms the christological teaching of the earlier councils and in setting forth the role of images (icons) in the lives of the faithful reaffirms the reality of the incarnation of the eternal Word of God, when it states: "The more frequently, Christ, Mary, the mother of God, and the saints are seen, the more are those who see them drawn to remember and long for those who serve as models, and to pay these icons the tribute of salutation and respectful veneration. Certainly this is not the full adoration in accordance with our faith, which is properly paid only to the divine nature, but it resembles that given to the figure of the honored and life-giving cross, and also to the holy books of the gospels and to other sacred objects" (Definition of the Second Council of Nicaea)."


Icons and images in contemporary Christianity

A modern metal icon of St. Nicholas by the Bulgarian artist Georgi 'Chapa' Chapkanov. This depiction differs radically from traditional Orthodox iconography (Gilbert House, Stanley, Falkland Islands).
A modern metal icon of St. Nicholas by the Bulgarian artist Georgi 'Chapa' Chapkanov. This depiction differs radically from traditional Orthodox iconography (Gilbert House, Stanley, Falkland Islands).

Today attitudes can vary even from church to church within a given denomination, whether Catholic or Protestant. Protestants generally use religious art for teaching and for inspiration, but such images are not venerated as in Orthodoxy, and many Protestant church sanctuaries contain no imagery at all. Map of the Falkland Islands showing position of Stanley. ...


After the Second Vatican Council iconoclasts declared that the use of statues and pictures in churches should be moderate, most statuary was removed and even destroyed from many Catholic Churches. Eastern Catholics and Orthodoxy, however, continues to give such strong importance to the use and veneration of icons that they are often seen as the chief symbol of Orthodoxy. Catholicism has a long tradition of valuing the arts and was the prime patron of artists even after the Renaissance. Present-day imagery within Roman Catholicism varies in style from traditional to modern, and is affected by trends in the art world in general. The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twenty-first Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ...


Icons are often illuminated with a candle or jar of oil with a wick. (Beeswax for candles and olive oil for oil lamps are preferred because they burn very cleanly, although other materials are sometimes used.) The illumination of religious images with lamps or candles is an ancient practice pre-dating Christianity.


Miraculous icons

Our Lady of St. Theodore, a 1703 copy of the 11th-century icon, following the same Byzantine "Tender Mercy" type as the Vladimirkskaya above.
Our Lady of St. Theodore, a 1703 copy of the 11th-century icon, following the same Byzantine "Tender Mercy" type as the Vladimirkskaya above.

In the Eastern Orthodox Christian tradition there are reports of particular, Wonderworking icons that exude myrrh (fragrant, healing oil), or perform miracles upon petition by believers. When such reports are verified by the Orthodox hierarchy, they are understood as miracles performed by God through the prayers of the saint, rather than being magical properties of the painted wood itself. Theologically, all icons are considered to be sacred, and are miraculous by nature, being a means of spiritual communion between the heavenly and earthly realms. However, it is not uncommon for specific icons to be characterised as "miracle-working", meaning that God has chosen to glorify them by working miracles through them. Such icons are often given particular names (especially those of the Virgin Mary), and even taken from city to city where believers gather to venerate them and pray before them. Islands like that of Tinos are renowned for possessing such "miraculous" icons, and are visited every year by thousands of pilgrims. The 10th-century Fedorovskaya icon from Kostroma. ... The 10th-century Fedorovskaya icon from Kostroma. ... A 1703 copy of the original icon. ... 100g of Myrrh. ... For other uses, see Miracle (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Tinos (Greek: Τήνος; Italian: Tine) is a Greek island situated in the Aegean Sea. ... Monument to pilgrims in Burgos, Spain This article is on religious pilgrims. ...


Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic teaching about Icons

Icons are used particularly in Eastern Orthodox, Coptic Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, and Eastern Catholic churches.


The Eastern Orthodox view of the origin of icons is quite different from that of secular scholars and from some in contemporary Roman Catholic circles: "The Orthodox Church maintains and teaches that the sacred image has existed from the beginning of Christianity", Léonid Ouspensky has written.[23] Accounts that some non-Orthodox writers consider legendary are accepted as history within Eastern Orthodoxy, because they are a part of church tradition. Thus accounts such as that of the miraculous "Image Not Made by Hands," and the weeping and moving "Mother of God of the Sign" of Novgorod are accepted as fact: "Church Tradition tells us, for example, of the existence of an Icon of the Savior during His lifetime (the "Icon-Made-Without-Hands") and of Icons of the Most-Holy Theotokos [Mary] immediately after Him."[24] Eastern Orthodoxy further teaches that "a clear understanding of the importance of Icons" was part of the church from its very beginning, and has never changed, although explanations of their importance may have developed over time. This is due to the fact that iconography is rooted in the theology of the Incarnation (Christ being the eikon of God) which didn't change, though its subsequent clarification within the Church occurred over the period of the first seven Ecumenical Councils. Also, icons served as tools of edification for the illiterate faithful during most of the history of Christendom. Léonid Alexandrovich Ouspensky was a famous Russian Iconographer Born in 1902 on his father’s estate in the village of Golaia Snova (now Golosnovka), in the north of the Voronezh region in Russia and died in 1987 [1]. Specialised in Iconography. ...


Eastern Orthodox find the first instance of an image or icon in the Bible when God made man in His own image (Septuagint Greek eikona), in Genesis 1:26-27. In Exodus, God commanded that the Israelites not make any graven image; but soon afterwards, he commanded that they make graven images of cherubim and other like things, both as statues and woven on tapestries. Later, Solomon included still more such imagery when he built the first temple. Eastern Orthodox believe these qualify as icons, in that they were visible images depicting heavenly beings and, in the case of the cherubim, used to indirectly indicate God's presence above the Ark.


In the Book of Numbers it is written that God told Moses to make a bronze serpent, Nehushtan, and hold it up, so that anyone looking at the snake would be healed of their snakebites. In John 3, Jesus refers to the same serpent, saying that he must be lifted up in the same way that the serpent was. John of Damascus also regarded the brazen serpent as an icon. Further, Jesus Christ himself is called the "image of the invisible God" in Colossians 1:15, and is therefore in one sense an icon. As people are also made in God's images, people are also considered to be living icons, and are therefore "censed" along with painted icons during Orthodox prayer services. Moses lifts up the brass snake, curing the Isrealites from Snake Bites. ... Saint John of Damascus (Arabic: يحيى ابن منصور Yaḥyā ibn Manṣūr; Greek: Ιωάννης Δαμασκήνος/Ioannês Damaskinos; Latin: Iohannes Damascenus or Johannes Damascenus also known as John Damascene, Χρυσορρόας/Chrysorrhoas, streaming with gold—i. ...

A somewhat disinterested treatment of the emotional subject and painstaking attention to the throne and other details of the material world distinguish this superb work by a medieval Sicilian master from works by imperial icon-painters of Constantinople.

According to John of Damascus, anyone who tries to destroy icons "is the enemy of Christ, the Holy Mother of God and the saints, and is the defender of the Devil and his demons." This is because the theology behind icons is closely tied to the Incarnational theology of the humanity and divinity of Jesus, so that attacks on icons typically have the effect of undermining or attacking the Incarnation of Jesus himself as elucidated in the Ecumenical Councils. The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ...


The Eastern Orthodox teaching regarding veneration of icons is that the praise and veneration shown to the icon passes over to the archetype (Basil of Caesarea,On the Holy Spirit 18:45: "The honor paid to the image passes to the prototype"). Thus to kiss an icon of Christ, in the Eastern Orthodox view, is to show love towards Christ Jesus himself, not mere wood and paint making up the physical substance of the icon. Worship of the icon as somehow entirely separate from its prototype is expressly forbidden by the Seventh Ecumenical Council; standard teaching in the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches alike conforms to this principle. The Catholic Church accepts the same Councils and the canons therein which codified the teaching of icon veneration. Veneration is a religious symbolic act giving honor to someone by honoring an image of that person, particularly applied to saints. ...


The Latin Church of the West, which after 1054 was to become separate as the Roman Catholic Church, accepted the decrees of the iconodule Seventh Ecumenical Council regarding images. There is some minor difference, however, in the Catholic attitude to images from that of the Orthodox. Following Gregory the Great, Catholics emphasize the role of images as the Biblia Pauperum, the “Bible of the Poor,” from which those who could not read could nonetheless learn. This view of images as educational is shared by most Protestants.


Catholics also, however, accept in principle the Eastern Orthodox veneration of images, believing that whenever approached, images of the cross, saints, etc. are to be reverenced. Though using both flat wooden panel and stretched canvas paintings, Catholics traditionally have also favored images in the form of three-dimensional statuary, whereas in the East statuary is much less widely employed.


Eikon in the Septuagint

The Greek word eikon means an image or likeness of any kind. Anything that represents something else is an eikon. Nothing is implied about sanctity or its absence, or veneration or its absence by the word itself.


The Septuagint is the Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures used by the early Christians, and Eastern Orthodox consider it the only authoritative text of those Scriptures. In it the word eikon is used for everything from man being made in the divine image to the "molten idol" placed by Manasses in the Temple. The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ...

  1. Genesis 1:26-27;
  2. Genesis 5:1-3;
  3. Genesis 9:6;
  4. Deuteronomy 4:16
  5. 1 Samuel (1 Kings) 6:11 (Alexandrian manuscript);
  6. 2 Kings 11:18;
  7. 2 Chronicles 33:7;
  8. Psalm 38:7
  9. Psalm 72:20;
  10. Isaiah 40, 19-20;
  11. Ezekiel 7:20;
  12. Ezekiel 8:5 (Alexandrian manuscript);
  13. Ezekiel 16:17;

Ezekiel 23:14; Daniel 2:31,32,34,35; Daniel 3:1,2,3,5,7,11,12,14,15,18; Hosea 13:2


Be aware that Septuagint numberings and names and the English Bible numberings and names are not uniformly identical.


Eikon in the New Testament

In the New Testament the term is used for everything from Jesus as the image of the invisible God (Colossians 1:15) to the image of Caesar on a Roman coin (Matthew 22:20) to the image of the Beast in the Apocalypse (Revelation 14:19). Here is a complete listing:

  1. Matthew 22:20;
  2. Mark 12:16
  3. Luke 20:24
  4. Romans 1:23
  5. Romans 8:29;
  6. 1 Corinthians 11:7;
  7. 1 Corinthians 15:49
  8. 2 Corinthians 3:18;
  9. 2 Corinthians 4:4;
  10. Colossians 1:15;
  11. Colossians 3:10;
  12. Hebrews 10:1;
  13. Revelation 13:13;
  14. Revelation 13:15;
  15. Revelation 14:9;
  16. Revelation 14:11
  17. Revelation 15:2
  18. Revelation 16:2
  19. Revelation 19:20;
  20. Revelation 20:4.

Other religious traditions

Other religious traditions, such as Hinduism, have a very rich iconography called murti, while others,[citation needed] such as Islam, severely limit the use of visual representations (see Islamic art). Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... A large clay Ganesha murti at Ganesh Chaturthi festival in Mumbai, 2004 In Hinduism, a murti (Devanagari: मूर्ति) typically refers to an image in which the Divine Spirit is murta, or expressed. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Taj Mahal, Agra. ...


See also

For other uses, see Archetype (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christian symbolism... The Crucifix, a cross with corpus, a symbol used in Catholicism in contrast with some other Christian communions, which use only a cross. ... Daniil Chyorny (Russian: Даниил Чёрный) (c. ... For other uses, see Fresco (disambiguation). ... Look up Iconography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Icon of the Hodegetria which means She who shows the way is the template used for icons which depicted the Theotokos or Virgin Mary holding the child of Jesus Christ on her side while pointing to the Christ as the source of salvation for mankind. ... A Chinese character. ... The Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin Idolatry is a major sin in the Abrahamic religions regarding image. ... Look up image in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Isaac Fanous (Arabic: ايزاك فانوس) (December 19, 1919 - January 15, 2007), was an Egyptian artist and scholar, who specialized in Coptic art. ... This article is about a decorative art. ... Chora Church The Chora Church (Turkish Kariye Müzesi, Kariye Camii, or Kariye Kilisesi — the Chora Museum, Mosque or Church) is considered to be one of the most beautiful examples of a Byzantine church. ... Léonid Alexandrovich Ouspensky was a famous Russian Iconographer Born in 1902 on his father’s estate in the village of Golaia Snova (now Golosnovka), in the north of the Voronezh region in Russia and died in 1987 [1]. Specialised in Iconography. ... 18th c. ... 13th c. ... For other uses, see Portrait (disambiguation). ... Prokhor, also known as Prokhor of/from Gorodets (Прохор, Прохор с Городца in Russian) (? - ?) was a Russian painter. ... A proskynetarion (Greek προσκυνησις meaning “oratory” or “place of worship,” plural proskynetaria) is a monumental icon usually of Christ, the Virgin, or the patron saint of a church. ... Father Egon Sendler (born 1923) is a Roman Catholic priest of the Jesuit order and one of the worlds foremost experts on the painting of Eastern Orthodox icons. ... Mikhail Nesterovs painting Vision to Youth Bartholomew (1890) is often taken as a starting point of Russian Symbolism. ... Many Wikipedia articles on religious topics are not yet listed on this page. ... A reconstruction of the templon of St. ...

Notes

  1. ^ The Meaning of Icons, by Vladimir Lossky with Léonid Ouspensky, SVS Press, 1999. (ISBN 0-913836-99-0)
  2. ^ Rev. Dr. Steven Bingham, Early Christian Attitudes Toward Images, Orthodox Research Institute, 2004
  3. ^ Veronica and her Cloth, Kuryluk, Ewa, Basil Blackwell, Cambridge, 1991
  4. ^ John Francis Wilson Caesarea Philippi: Banias, the Lost City of Pan I.B. Tauris, London, 2004.
  5. ^ Fox, Pagans and Christians, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1989).
  6. ^ a b Robin Cormack, "Writing in Gold, Byzantine Society and its Icons", 1985, George Philip, London, ISBN 054001085-5
  7. ^ Excerpted by Nicephorus Callistus Xanthopoulos; this passage is by some considered a later interpolation.
  8. ^ James Hall, A History of Ideas and Images in Italian Art, p111, 1983, John Murray, London, ISBN 0719539714
  9. ^ Father H. Hosten in his book Antiquities notes the following "The picture at the mount is one of the oldest, and, therefore, one of the most venerable Christian paintings to be had in India."
  10. ^ Cormack, Robin (1997). Painting the Soul; Icons, Death Masks and Shrouds. Reaktion Books, London, 46. 
  11. ^ G Schiller, Iconography of Christian Art, Vol. I,1971 (English trans from German), Lund Humphries, London, ISBN 853312702
  12. ^ De Trinitatis 8:4-5.
  13. ^ Church History 1:15.
  14. ^ Belting, Likeness and Presence, University of Chicago Press,1994.
  15. ^ Patricia Karlin-Hayter, The Oxford History of Byzantium, Oxford, 2002.
  16. ^ Mango, The Art of the Byzantine Empire 312-1453, University of Toronto Press, 1986.
  17. ^ Belting, Likeness and Presence, Chicago and London, 1994.
  18. ^ Ernst Kitzinger, The Cult of Images in the Age before Iconoclasm, Dumbarton Oaks, 1954, quoted by Pelikan, Jaroslav; The Spirit of Eastern Christendom 600-1700, University of Chicago Press, 1974.
  19. ^ Pelikan, The Spirit of Eastern Christendom
  20. ^ Patricia Karlin-Hayter, Oxford History of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, 2002.
  21. ^ See Council of Hieria.
  22. ^ Dancu, Juliana and Dumitru Dancu, Romanian Icons on Glass, Wayne State University Press, 1982.
  23. ^ Leonid Ouspensky, Theology of the Icon," St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1978.
  24. ^ These Truths We Hold, St. Tikhon's Seminary Press, 1986.

Vladimir N. Lossky (May 26, 1903–February 7, 1958) was a 20th century Greek or Eastern Orthodox theologian. ... Léonid Alexandrovich Ouspensky was a famous Russian Iconographer Born in 1902 on his father’s estate in the village of Golaia Snova (now Golosnovka), in the north of the Voronezh region in Russia and died in 1987 [1]. Specialised in Iconography. ... I.B. Tauris is a publishing house based in London and specializing in non-fiction. ... The iconoclast Council of Hieria was a Christian council which viewed itself as ecumenical, but was later rejected by the (still united) Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Orthodox

Catholic

The Catholic Encyclopedia is an English-language encyclopedia published in 1913 by the Roman Catholic Church, designed to give authoritative information on the entire cycle of Catholic interests, action and doctrine. Starting in 1993, the encyclopedia (now in the public domain) was placed on the Internet through a world-wide...

Pictures


  Results from FactBites:
 
ICON Supply Chain Management — ICON (276 words)
ICON solutions uniquely enable full pegging of demand to supply down through your entire supply network.
ICON is a global solution provider for Supply Chain Management with headquarters in Karlsruhe, Germany, and subsidiaries in San Jose, USA, and Hong Kong.
ICON excels in demand fulfillment and demand-driven supply networks.
Icon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4312 words)
Early icons such as those preserved at the Monastery of St. Catherine at Sinai are realistic in appearance, in contrast to the later stylization.
The Eastern Orthodox teaching regarding veneration of icons is that the praise and veneration shown to the icon passes over to the archetype (Basil of Caesarea,On the Holy Spirit 18:45: "The honor paid to the image passes to the prototype").
Worship of the icon as somehow entirely separate from its prototype is expressly forbidden by the Seventh Ecumenical Council; standard teaching in the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches alike conforms to this principle.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m