FACTOID # 30: If Alaska were its own country, it would be the 26th largest in total area, slightly larger than Iran.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Iceland" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Iceland
Lýðveldið Ísland
Republic of Iceland
Flag of Iceland
Flag Coat of arms
AnthemLofsöngur
Location of Iceland
Location of Iceland (green) in Europe (grey)
Capital
(and largest city)
Reykjavík
64°08′N, 21°56′W
Official languages Icelandic (de facto)
Demonym Icelander
Government Parliamentary republic
 -  President Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson
 -  Prime Minister Geir H. Haarde
Independence from Denmark 
 -  Home rule 1 February 1904 
 -  Sovereignty 1 December 1918 
 -  Republic 17 June 1944 
Area
 -  Total 103,000 km² (107th)
39,770 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 2.7
Population
 -  October 2007 estimate 312,8511 (172nd)
 -  December 1980 census 229,187 
 -  Density 3,1/km² (195th)
7.5/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2006 estimate
 -  Total $12.172 billion (132nd)
 -  Per capita 40,277 (2005) (5th)
GDP (nominal) 2006 estimate
 -  Total $16.579 billion (93rd)
 -  Per capita $54,858 (4th)
HDI (2007) 0.968 (high) (1st)
Currency Icelandic króna (ISK)
Time zone GMT (UTC+0)
Internet TLD .is
Calling code +354
1 Statistics Iceland:Key figures. www.statice.is (1 October 2007).

Iceland, officially the Republic of Iceland (Icelandic: Ísland or Lýðveldið Ísland; IPA: [ˈliðvɛltɪð ˈistlant]) is a country in northern Europe, comprising the island of Iceland and its outlying islets in the North Atlantic Ocean between the rest of Europe and Greenland.[1] It is the least populous of the Nordic countries and the second smallest; it has a population of about 313,000 and a total area of 103,000 km². Its capital and largest city is Reykjavík. Iceland can mean: Iceland - a European country located in the northern Atlantic Ocean Iceland (supermarket) - a chain of supermarkets in the United Kingdom and Ireland This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iceland. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The civil flag of Iceland. ... The Coat of arms of Iceland, or Skjaldamerkið, depicts the four protectors of Iceland (landvættir) standing on a pahoehoe lava block with the Icelandic flag in the front. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Lofsöngur (Icelandic: Hymn), also known as Ó Guð vors lands or Our Countrys God, is the national anthem of Iceland. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 574 pixelsFull resolution (1748 × 1254 pixels, file size: 96 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Most Icelanders are descendants of Norwegian settlers and Celts from Ireland, brought over as slaves during the age of settlement. ... Location in Iceland Coordinates: , Constituency Government  - Mayor (Borgarstjóri) Dagur B. Eggertsson Area  - City 274. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Parliamentary republics around the world, shown in Orange (Parliamentary republics with a non-executive President) and Green (Parliamentary republics with an executive President linked to Parliament). ... List of Presidents of Iceland Sveinn Björnsson (1944-1952) Ásgeir Ásgeirsson (1952-1968) Kristján Eldjárn (1968-1980) Vigdís Finnbogadóttir (1980-1996) Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson (1996-present) See also: Politics of Iceland, list of Prime Ministers of Iceland, list of Icelandic rulers, lists of incumbents... Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson ( ) (born 14 May 1943, in Ísafjörður, Iceland) is the fifth and current President of Iceland, from 1996 to present, re-elected unopposed in 2000, and was re-elected for a third term in 2004. ... List of Prime Ministers of Iceland (the Minister of Iceland 1904-1917) Note about the coloring: Every combination which appears at least twice has been assigned a color. ... Geir Hilmar Haarde (born April 8, 1951) is an Icelandic politician. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... The purchasing power parity (PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their purchasing power. ... One thousand million (1,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... One thousand million (1,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. ... Countries by nominal GDP. Source: IMF (2005) This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita for the year 2006. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2006). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... Króna (plural krónur) is the name of the currency used in Iceland. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... GMT redirects here. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .is is the Internet country code top-level domain ( ccTLD) for Iceland. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Location in Iceland Coordinates: , Constituency Government  - Mayor (Borgarstjóri) Dagur B. Eggertsson Area  - City 274. ...


Due to its location on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Iceland is volcanically and geologically active on a large scale; this defines the landscape in various ways. The interior mainly consists of a plateau characterized by sand fields, mountains and glaciers, while many big glacial rivers flow to the sea through the lowlands. Because of the Gulf Stream, Iceland has a temperate climate relative to its latitude and provides a habitable environment and nature. Courtesy USGS The ridge was central in the breakup of Pangaea that began some 180 million years ago. ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... For other meanings, see Plateau (disambiguation). ... This article is about arid terrain. ... For other uses, see Mountain (disambiguation). ... This article is about the geological formation. ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... For the album by Ocean Colour Scene, see North Atlantic Drift (album) The Gulf Stream is orange and yellow in this representation of water temperatures of the Atlantic. ... In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ... This article is about the geographical term. ...


Iceland has a history of habitation since about the year 874 when, according to Landnámabók, the Norwegian chieftain Ingólfur Arnarson became the first permanent Norwegian settler on the island.[2] Others had visited the island earlier and stayed over winter. Over the next centuries, people of Nordic and Gaelic origin settled in Iceland. Until the twentieth century, the Icelandic population relied on fisheries and agriculture, and was from 1262 to 1944 a part of the Norwegian and later the Danish monarchies. In the twentieth century, Iceland's economy and welfare system developed quickly. Landnámabók (the book of settlement), is one of the strangest of the works of Icelandic literature. ... statue of Ingólfur Arnarson by Einar Jónsson Ingólfur Arnarson is recognized as the first permanent Nordic settler of Iceland. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... “Gael” redirects here. ... Language(s) Icelandic Religion(s) The vast majority of Icelanders are Lutherans. ... A social welfare provision refers to any government program which seeks to provide a minimum level of income, service or other support for disadvantaged groups such as the poor, elderly, disabled and students. ...


As the most developed country in the world,[3] and the fourth most productive per capita,[4] Iceland is among the most prosperous countries in the world. It is based upon a mixed economy where service, finance, fishing and various industries are the main sectors. Iceland is a member of the UN, NATO, EFTA, EEA and OECD, but not of the European Union. World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2006). ... Countries by nominal GDP. Source: IMF (2005) This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... This article is about GDP in the context of economics. ... A mixed economy is an economy that has a mix of economic systems. ... The tertiary sector of industry, also called the service sector or the service industry, is one of the three main industrial categories of a developed economy, the others being the secondary industry (manufacturing and primary goods production such as agriculture), and primary industry (extraction such as mining and fishing). ... Finance studies and addresses the ways in which individuals, businesses, and organizations raise, allocate, and use monetary resources over time, taking into account the risks entailed in their projects. ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) was established on May 3, 1960 as an alternative for European states that were not allowed or did not wish to join the European Community (now the European Union). ...  EFTA countries (except Switzerland)  EU countries Together these form the EEA. The European Economic Area (EEA) came into being on January 1, 1994 following an agreement between the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and the European Union (EU). ... The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ...

Contents

Geography

Main article: Geography of Iceland
Iceland, as seen from space on January 29, 2004. Source: NASA
Iceland, as seen from space on January 29, 2004. Source: NASA

Iceland is a large island with extensive volcanic and geothermal activity located on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in the North Atlantic Ocean east of Greenland immediately south of the Arctic Circle. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 780 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2600 × 2000 pixel, file size: 869 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description and alternative versions http://visibleearth. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 780 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2600 × 2000 pixel, file size: 869 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description and alternative versions http://visibleearth. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (IPA [ˈnæsə]) is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nations public space program. ...

Topography

Strokkur, a geyser in the process of erupting. Lying on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Iceland is one of the most geologically active areas on Earth.
Strokkur, a geyser in the process of erupting. Lying on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Iceland is one of the most geologically active areas on Earth.

Iceland is located in the North Atlantic Ocean just south of the Arctic Circle, which passes through the small island of Grímsey off Iceland's northern coast, but not through mainland Iceland. Unlike neighbouring Greenland, Iceland is considered to be a part of Europe, not of North America, though geologically, the island belongs to both continents. Because of cultural, economic and linguistic similarities, Iceland in many contexts is also included in Scandinavia. The closest bodies of land are Greenland (287 km) and the Faroe Islands (420 km). The closest distance to the mainland of Europe is 970 km (to Norway). Image File history File linksMetadata Img_2678. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Img_2678. ... Strokkur, or The Churn in Iceland, is a geyser that is situated in the geothermic region beside the Hvitá River in Iceland at . A group of steaming, hot water and bubbling mud is located in this area and the Stóri Geysir, or Great Gusher, once the most powerful geyser... Strokkur geyser, Iceland A geyser is a type of hot spring that erupts periodically, ejecting a column of hot water and steam into the air. ... For the fast food restaurant chain, see Arctic Circle Restaurants. ... Grímsey north of Iceland Grímsey is a small island 40 km north off the northern coast of Iceland, situated directly on the arctic circle, at 66°3317N, 018°0103W, with a highest elevation of 105 meters. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ...


Iceland is the world's eighteenth-largest island, and Europe's second largest island following Great Britain. The country is 103,000 km² (39,768.5 sq mi) in size, of which 62,7 percent is wasteland. Lakes and glaciers cover a total of 14,3 percent. Only 23 percent is vegetated. [5] The largest lakes are Þórisvatn (Reservoir): 83–88 km² (32–34 sq mi) and Þingvallavatn: 82 km² (32 sq mi); other important lakes include Lögurinn and Mývatn. Öskjuvatn is the deepest lake at 220 m (722 ft). This is a list of islands in the world ordered by area. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... The biggest lake of Iceland, Þórisvatn, is situated at the south end of Sprengisandur highland road within the highlands of Iceland. ... The Ashokan Reservoir, located in Ulster County, New York, USA. It is one of 19 that supplies New York City with drinking water. ... The lake in autumn Þingvallavatn is a lake in the south-west of Iceland. ... The lake Lagarfljót (also called Lögurinn) is situated in the east of Iceland near Egilsstaðir. ... Lake Mývatn, with groups of grass-covered pseudocraters. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...

A map of Iceland with major towns marked.
A map of Iceland with major towns marked.

Many fjords punctuate its extensive coastline, which is also where most towns are situated because the island's interior, the Highlands of Iceland, is a cold and uninhabitable combination of sands and mountains. The major towns are the capital Reykjavík, Keflavík, where the international airport is situated, and Akureyri. The island of Grímsey on the Arctic Circle contains the northernmost habitation of Iceland.[6] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Fjord in Sunnmøre, Norway Geirangerfjord, Norway A fjord (or fiord) is a long, narrow estuary with steep sides, made when a glacial valley is filled by rising sea water levels. ... The Highlands of Iceland cover most of the interior of Iceland. ... Location in Iceland Coordinates: , Constituency Government  - Mayor (Borgarstjóri) Dagur B. Eggertsson Area  - City 274. ... Keflavík on the Reykjanes peninsula of Iceland Keflavík is a town of around 10,200 inhabitants in the Reykjanes region in southwest Iceland (64°01′N 22°34′W). ... Nickname: Location of Akureyri in Iceland Coordinates: , Constituency Northeast Area  - City 125 km²  (48. ... Grímsey north of Iceland Grímsey is a small island 40 km north off the northern coast of Iceland, situated directly on the arctic circle, at 66°3317N, 018°0103W, with a highest elevation of 105 meters. ... For the fast food restaurant chain, see Arctic Circle Restaurants. ...


Iceland has four national parks: Jökulsárgljúfur National Park, Skaftafell National Park, Snæfellsjökull National Park, and Þingvellir National Park. Karl og Kerling Jökulsárgljúfur National Park is situated in the north of Iceland around the river Jökulsá á Fjöllum. ... Morning sunlight on Skaftafellsjökull The Svartifoss The Svartifoss in the Winter Skaftafell National Park is situated between Kirkjubæjarklaustur, typically referred to as Klaustur, and Höfn in the south of Iceland. ... Snæfellsjökull is a stratovolcano with a glacier (Icelandic: jökull) covering its summit [1]. The name of the mountain is actually Snæfell, but it is normally called Snæfellsjökull to discern it from two other mountains with this name. ... (Icelandic: : parliament, : plains) is a place in the southwest of Iceland near the peninsula of Reykjanes and the Hengill volcanic area. ...


Geological activity

A geologically young land, Iceland is located on both a geological hot spot, thought to be caused by a mantle plume, and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, which runs right through it. This combined location means that geologically the island is extremely active, having many volcanoes, notably Hekla, Eldgjá, and Eldfell. The volcanic eruption of Laki in 1783–1784 caused a famine that killed nearly a quarter of the island's population;[7] the eruption caused dust clouds and haze to appear over most of Europe and parts of Asia and Africa for several months after the eruption. In geology, a hotspot is a location on the Earths surface that has experienced active volcanism for a long period of time. ... A lava lamp illustrates the basic concept of a mantle plume. ... Courtesy USGS The ridge was central in the breakup of Pangaea that began some 180 million years ago. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... Hekla is a stratovolcano located in the south of Iceland at , with a height of 1,488 m (4,882 ft). ... Eldgjá is a volcanic canyon in Iceland. ... Lava fountains tower over Heimaey in the early stages of the Eldfell eruption Eldfell is a cinder cone volcano just over 200 metres (650 feet) high on the Icelandic island of Heimaey. ... Laki (Icelandic: Lakagígar) is a volcanic fissure situated in the south of Iceland, not far from the canyon of Eldgjá and the small town Kirkjubæjarklaustur, in Skaftafell National Park. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ...


There are also many geysers in Iceland, including Geysir, from which the English name is derived. With this widespread availability of geothermal power, and also because of the numerous rivers and waterfalls that are harnessed for hydroelectricity, most residents have hot water and home heat for a low price. The island itself is composed primarily of basalt, a low-silica lava associated with effusive volcanism like Hawaii. There is, however, a variety of different kinds of volcanoes in Iceland, many of which produce more evolved lavas such as rhyolite and andesite. Strokkur geyser, Iceland A geyser is a type of hot spring that erupts periodically, ejecting a column of hot water and steam into the air. ... The erupting Great Geysir Geysir (sometimes known as The Great Geysir), in the Haukadalur valley, Iceland, is the oldest known geyser and one of the worlds most impressive examples of the phenomenon. ... Krafla Geothermal Station in northeast Iceland Geothermal power (from the Greek words geo, meaning earth, and therme, meaning heat) is energy generated by heat stored beneath the Earths surface. ... Hydroelectricity is electricity produced by hydropower. ... For the cities, see Basalt, Colorado and Basalt, Idaho. ... Look up lava, Aa, pahoehoe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This page is about a volcanic rock. ... A sample of andesite (dark groundmass) with amygdaloidal vesicules filled with zeolite. ...

Dettifoss, the most powerful waterfall in Europe, is located in north-eastern Iceland.
Dettifoss, the most powerful waterfall in Europe, is located in north-eastern Iceland.

Iceland controls Surtsey, one of the youngest islands in the world. It rose above the ocean in a series of volcanic eruptions between November 8, 1963 and June 5, 1968.[6] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1506x2078, 1555 KB) Summary The Dettifoss in Iceland on 31 Jul 1972. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1506x2078, 1555 KB) Summary The Dettifoss in Iceland on 31 Jul 1972. ... Dettifoss The face of the waterfall from the left bank This is not the highest waterfall in europe - powerscourt, ireland is - see http://www. ... For other uses, see Waterfall (disambiguation). ... Surtsey, sixteen days after the onset of the eruption Surtsey (Icelandic: Surturs island) is a volcanic island off the southern coast of Iceland. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Climate

Main article: Climate of Iceland

The climate of Iceland's coast is cold oceanic. The warm North Atlantic Current ensures generally higher annual temperatures than in most places of similar latitude in the world. The winters are mild and windy while the summers are damp and cool. Regions in the world with similar climate include the Aleutian Islands, Alaska Peninsula and Tierra del Fuego although these regions are closer to the equator. Despite its proximity to the Arctic, the island's coasts remain ice-free through the winter. Ice incursions are rare, last having occurred on the north coast in 1969.[8] Heavy snows in Iceland in winter The climate of Iceland is cold oceanic (Köppen climate classification: Cfc) near the coast. ... World map showing the oceanic climate zones. ... Schematic of the worlds ocean currents. ... This article is about the geographical term. ... Aleutians seen from space The Aleutian Islands (possibly from Chukchi aliat, island) are a chain of more than 300 small volcanic islands forming an island arc in the Northern Pacific Ocean, occupying an area of 6,821 sq mi (17,666 km²) and extending about 1,200 mi (1,900... Volcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula The Alaska Peninsula is a peninsula extending about 800 km (500 miles) to the southwest from the mainland of Alaska and ending in the Aleutian Islands. ... Tierra del Fuego Cerro Sombrero Village, Chile. ...


There are some variations in the climate between different parts of the island. Very generally speaking, the south coast is warmer, wetter and windier than the north. Low lying inland areas in the north are the most arid. Snowfall in winters is more common in the north than the south. The Central Highlands are the coldest part of the country. The Highlands of Iceland cover most of the interior of Iceland. ...


The highest air temperature recorded was 30.5 °C (86.9 °F) on 22 June 1939 at Teigarhorn on the south-eastern coast. The lowest temperature was -38 °C (-36.4 °F) on 22 January 1918 at Grímsstaðir and Möðrudalur in the interior of northeast. The temperature records for Reykjavík are 24.8 °C (76.6 °F) on 11 August 2004, and -24.5 °C (-12.1 °F) on 21 January 1918. is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Location in Iceland Coordinates: , Constituency Government  - Mayor (Borgarstjóri) Dagur B. Eggertsson Area  - City 274. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...

Mean daily maximum and minimum temperatures (°C) (1961–1990)[9]
Location Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec All
Reykjavík[10] 1.9 2.8 3.2 5.7 9.4 11.7 13.3 13.0 10.1 6.8 3.4 2.2 High 7.0
-3.0 -2.1 -2.0 0.4 3.6 6.7 8.3 7.9 5.0 2.2 -1.3 -2.8 Low 1.9
Akureyri[11] 0.9 1.7 2.1 5.4 9.5 13.2 14.5 13.9 9.9 5.9 2.6 1.3 High 6.7
-5.5 -4.7 -4.2 -1.5 2.3 6.0 7.5 7.1 3.5 0.4 -3.5 -5.1 Low 0.2

For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... Location in Iceland Coordinates: , Constituency Government  - Mayor (Borgarstjóri) Dagur B. Eggertsson Area  - City 274. ... Nickname: Location of Akureyri in Iceland Coordinates: , Constituency Northeast Area  - City 125 km²  (48. ...

Flora and fauna

Iceland has very few mineral or agricultural resources. The short time since the last ice age, 10,000 years ago, has provided very little time for plants and animals to immigrate from elsewhere or evolve locally. There are around 1,300 known species of insects in Iceland, which is rather low compared with other countries (there are about 925,000 known species in the world). The only native land mammal when humans arrived was the arctic fox. It came to the island at the end of the ice age, walking over the frozen sea. There are no native reptiles or amphibians on the island. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (855x600, 589 KB) Icelandic Sheep. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (855x600, 589 KB) Icelandic Sheep. ... Icelandic lamb and ewe Icelandic sheep A polled Icelandic ewe The Icelandic sheep or Kind on icelandic, is a breed of domestic sheep. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Symphypleona - globular springtails Subclass Archaeognatha (jumping bristletails) Subclass Dicondylia Monura - extinct Thysanura (common bristletails) Subclass Pterygota Diaphanopteroidea - extinct Palaeodictyoptera - extinct Megasecoptera - extinct Archodonata - extinct Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Blattodea (cockroaches) Mantodea (mantids) Isoptera (termites) Zoraptera Grylloblattodea Dermaptera (earwigs) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets... This article is about the animal. ...


Approximately three-quarters of the island are barren of vegetation; plant life consists mainly of grassland which is regularly grazed by livestock. The only tree native to Iceland is the northern birch Betula pubescens Permanent human settlement has caused great disturbance to an isolated ecosystem with thin, volcanic soils and limited species diversity. The forests were heavily exploited over the centuries for firewood and timber. Deforestation resulted in a loss of critical top soil due to erosion, greatly reducing the ability of birches to grow back. Today, only a few small birch stands can be found in isolated drainages. The planting of new forests has increased the number of trees since, but this can not be compared with the original forests. Some of those planted forests have included new foreign species. The Konza tallgrass prairie in the Flint Hills of northeastern Kansas. ... Binomial name Betula pubescens Ehrh. ...


The animals of Iceland include the Icelandic sheep, cattle, and the sturdy Icelandic horse. Many varieties of fish live in the ocean waters surrounding Iceland, and the fishing industry is a main contributor to Iceland’s economy, accounting for more than half of its total exports. Wild mammals include the arctic fox, mink, mice, rats, rabbits and reindeer. Before and around the 1900s polar bears occasionally visited the island, traveling on icebergs from Greenland. Birds, especially sea birds, are a very important part of Iceland's animal life. Puffins, skuas, and kittiwakes all nest on its sea cliffs. Though Iceland no longer has a commercial whaling fleet (as of August, 2007) it does still allow scientific whale hunts, which are not supported by the Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission (IWC). Icelandic lamb and ewe Icelandic sheep A polled Icelandic ewe The Icelandic sheep or Kind on icelandic, is a breed of domestic sheep. ... The Icelandic Cow is a breed of cow that came to Iceland with settlers around 1000 AD. [1] Icelandic cows are an especially colorful breed. ... Icelandic horsie in winter The Icelandic horse is a breed of horsie that has lived in Iceland since the mid-800s, having been brought to the island by Viking settlers. ... This article is about the animal. ... Species Fratercula arctica Fratercula corniculata Fratercula cirrhata The puffin is an auk (or alcid) of the genus Fratercula (Latin: Little Brother - probably a reference to their black and white plumage resembling monastic robes) with a brightly colored beak in the breeding season. ... Species Rissa tridactyla Rissa brevirostris The Kittiwakes (genus Rissa) are two closely related seabird species in the gull family Laridae. ...

See also: Whaling in Iceland

Iceland has a long tradition of subsistence whaling; whaling of one form or another has been conducted from the island since it became populated more than eleven hundred years ago. ...

History

Main article: History of Iceland
A 19th century depiction of a meeting of the Alþingi at Þingvellir.
A 19th century depiction of a meeting of the Alþingi at Þingvellir.

// Thule as Tile on the Carta Marina by Olaus Magnus. ... Image File history File links W.G. Collingwood 19th Century Alþing in session File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links W.G. Collingwood 19th Century Alþing in session File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Althing (Modern Icelandic Alþingi; Old Norse Alþing) is the national parliament: literally, the all-thing (or General Assembly) of Iceland. ... (Icelandic: : parliament, : plains) is a place in the southwest of Iceland near the peninsula of Reykjanes and the Hengill volcanic area. ...

Age of settlement

See also: Icelandic commonwealth

The first people thought to have inhabited Iceland were Irish monks or hermits who came in the eighth century, but left with the arrival of Norsemen, who systematically settled Iceland in the period 870 - 930 A.D. However, there is still no tangible evidence beyond the written word to support the theory of monk inhabitation yet, as well, any writings supporting the theory are conflicted.[12] The first known permanent Norse settler was Ingólfur Arnarson, who built his homestead in Reykjavík in 874. Ingólfur was followed by many other emigrant settlers, largely Norsemen and their Irish slaves. By 930, most arable land had been claimed and the Althing, a legislative and judiciary parliament, was founded as the political hub of the Icelandic Free State. Christianity was peacefully adopted in 1000. The Free State lasted until 1262, at which point the political system devised by the original settlers proved unable to cope with the increasing power of Icelandic chieftains. The Icelandic Commonwealth or the Icelandic Free State (Icelandic: Þjóðveldisöld) was the state existing in Iceland between the establishment of the Althing in 930 and the pledge of fealty to the Norwegian king in 1262. ... It has been suggested that Schottenklöster be merged into this article or section. ... Norseman redirects here; for the town of the same name see Norseman, Western Australia. ... statue of Ingólfur Arnarson by Einar Jónsson Ingólfur Arnarson is recognized as the first permanent Nordic settler of Iceland. ... Location in Iceland Coordinates: , Constituency Government  - Mayor (Borgarstjóri) Dagur B. Eggertsson Area  - City 274. ... Slave redirects here. ... The Alþing, commonly Anglicized as Althing (Modern Icelandic Alþingi; Old Norse Alþing) is the national parliament: literally, the all-thing of Iceland. ... The Icelandic Commonwealth refers to the state existing in Iceland between 930 (the establishment of the Althing) and 1262 (the pledge of fealty to the Norwegian king). ... Iceland converted to the Christian religion in 1000 AD. In Icelandic, this event is known as the kristnitaka. ...


Middle ages

The internal struggles and civil strife of the Sturlung Era led to the signing of the Old Covenant, which brought Iceland under the Norwegian crown. Possession of Iceland passed to Denmark-Norway in the late 14th century when the kingdoms of Norway and Denmark were united in the Kalmar Union. In the ensuing centuries, Iceland became one of the poorest countries in Europe. Infertile soil, volcanic eruptions and an unforgiving climate made for harsh life in a society whose subsistence depended almost entirely on agriculture. In 1402–1404 and 1494–1495, the Black Death swept Iceland, each epidemic killing approximately half the population.[13] Around the middle of the 16th century, King Christian III of Denmark began to impose Lutheranism on all his subjects. The last Catholic bishop in Iceland was beheaded in 1550, after which the country became fully Lutheran. Lutheranism has remained the dominant religion ever since. In the 1600s and 1700s, Denmark imposed harsh trade restrictions on Iceland, while pirates from England, Spain and Algeria raided Iceland's coasts. The Age of the Sturlungs or the Sturlung Era (Icelandic Sturlungaöld) was a 42-44 year period of internal strife in mid 13th century Iceland. ... The Old Covenant (Icelandic Gamli sáttmáli ) was the name of the agreement which effected the union of Iceland and Norway. ... The Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, consisting of Denmark and Norway, including Norways possessions Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands, is a term used for the two united kingdoms after their amalgamation as one state in 1536. ... The Kalmar Union flag. ... This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... Christian III Christian III (August 12, 1503–January 1, 1559), king of Denmark and Norway, was the son of Frederick I of Denmark and his first consort, Anne of Brandenburg. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... Pirates may refer to: A group of people committing any of these activities: Piracy at sea or on a river/lake. ...

Jón Sigurðsson, leader of the Icelandic independence movement
Jón Sigurðsson, leader of the Icelandic independence movement

Image File history File links Jon_Sigurdsson. ... Image File history File links Jon_Sigurdsson. ... Einar Jonssons statue of Jon Sigurdsson in Reykjavik. ...

Independence and recent history

In 1814, following the Napoleonic Wars, Denmark-Norway was broken up into two separate kingdoms via the Treaty of Kiel. Iceland, however, remained a Danish dependency. The country's climate worsened during the 19th century, causing mass emigration to North America, largely Canada. Meanwhile, a new independence movement arose under the leadership of Jón Sigurðsson, inspired by the romantic and nationalist ideologies of mainland Europe. In 1874, Denmark granted Iceland home rule, which was expanded in 1904. The Act of Union, an agreement with Denmark signed on December 1, 1918, recognized Iceland as a fully sovereign state under the Danish king. Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... The Treaty of Kiel, was a settlement between Sweden and Denmark-Norway on January 14, 1814, whereby the Danish king, a loser in the Napoleonic wars, ceded Norway to the king of Sweden, in return for the Swedish holdings in Pomerania. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Einar Jonssons statue of Jon Sigurdsson in Reykjavik. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


During World War II, the German occupation of Denmark on April 9, 1940 severed communications between Iceland and Denmark. A month later, British military forces sailed into Reykjavík harbour, violating Icelandic neutrality. Allied occupation of Iceland lasted throughout the war. In 1941, responsibility for the occupation was taken over by the United States Army. Following a plebiscite, Iceland formally became an independent republic on June 17, 1944. The occupation force left in 1946. Iceland became a member of NATO on March 30, 1949, amid domestic controversy and riots and on May 5, 1951, a defence agreement was signed with the United States -- American troops returned and stayed as part of the defence agreement throughout the Cold War and until the autumn of 2006. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Headquarters of the Schalburgkorps, a Danish SS unit, after 1943. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the 1940 invasion. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Icelandic NATO riot of March 30, 1949 in one of the most famous riots in Icelandic history. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


The immediate post-war period was followed by substantial economic growth, driven by industrialization of the fishing industry and by the rebuilding, Marshall aid and Keynesian government management of the economies of Europe, all of which promoted trade. The 1970s were marked by the Cod Wars – several disputes with the United Kingdom over Iceland's extension of its fishing limits. The economy was greatly diversified and liberalised following Iceland's joining of the European Economic Area in 1992. U.S. postage stamp issued 1997 honoring the 50th anniversary of the Marshall Plan. ... Keynesian economics, or Keynesianism, is an economic theory based on the ideas of John Maynard Keynes, as put forward in his book The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, published in 1936 in response to the Great Depression of the 1930s. ... The Cod Wars (also called the Iceland Cod Wars) were a series of confrontations between the United Kingdom and Iceland over Icelands claims of authority over tracts of ocean off their coastline as being their exclusive fishery zone. ...  EFTA countries (except Switzerland)  EU countries Together these form the EEA. The European Economic Area (EEA) came into being on January 1, 1994 following an agreement between the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and the European Union (EU). ...


Government

Main article: Politics of Iceland
Stjórnarráðið, the seat of the executive branch
Stjórnarráðið, the seat of the executive branch

Iceland is a representative democracy and a parliamentary republic. The modern parliament, called "Alþingi" (English: Althing), was founded in 1845 as an advisory body to the Danish king. It was widely seen as a reestablishment of the assembly founded in 930 in the Commonwealth period and suspended in 1799. It currently has sixty-three members, each of whom is elected every four years. Politics of Iceland takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Iceland is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 440 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,020 × 1,661 pixels, file size: 567 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Stjórnarráðið, Reykjavik, Iceland. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 440 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,020 × 1,661 pixels, file size: 567 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Stjórnarráðið, Reykjavik, Iceland. ... The executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law and running the day-to-day affairs of the government or state. ... Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... Parliamentary republics around the world, shown in Orange (Parliamentary republics with a non-executive President) and Green (Parliamentary republics with an executive President linked to Parliament). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Alþing, commonly Anglicized as Althing (Modern Icelandic Alþingi; Old Norse Alþing) is the national parliament: literally, the all-thing of Iceland. ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... The Icelandic Commonwealth or the Icelandic Free State (Icelandic: Þjóðveldisöld) was the state existing in Iceland between the establishment of the Althing in 930 and the pledge of fealty to the Norwegian king in 1262. ...


The president of Iceland is a largely ceremonial office that serves as a diplomat, figurehead and head of state, but who can also block a law voted by the parliament and put it to a national referendum. The current president is Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson. The head of government is the prime minister, who, together with the cabinet, takes care of the executive part of government. The cabinet is appointed by the president after general elections to Althing; however, this process is usually conducted by the leaders of the political parties, who decide among themselves after discussions which parties can form the cabinet and how its seats are to be distributed, under the condition that it has a majority support in Althing. Only when the party leaders are unable to reach a conclusion by themselves in reasonable time does the president exercise this power and appoint the cabinet himself. This has not happened since the republic was founded in 1944, but in 1942 the regent of the country (Sveinn Björnsson, who had been installed in that position by the Althing in 1941) did appoint a non-parliamentary government. The regent had, for all practical purposes, the position of a president, and Björnsson in fact became the country's first president in 1944. The President of Iceland (Icelandic: forseti Íslands) is Icelands elected head of state. ... This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson ( ) (born 14 May 1943, in Ísafjörður, Iceland) is the fifth and current President of Iceland, from 1996 to present, re-elected unopposed in 2000, and was re-elected for a third term in 2004. ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Sveinn Björnsson (IPA: ) (27 February 1881 – 25 January 1952), son of Björn Jónsson (editor and later minister) and Elísabet Sveinsdóttir, was the first president of the Republic of Iceland. ...

The House of Parliament in Reykjavík next to the cathedral to the left
The House of Parliament in Reykjavík next to the cathedral to the left

The governments of Iceland have almost always been coalitions with two or more parties involved, due to the fact that no single political party has received a majority of seats in Althing in the republic period. The extent of the political powers possessed by the office of the president is disputed by legal scholars in Iceland; several provisions of the constitution appear to give the president some important powers but other provisions and traditions suggest differently. Iceland elected the world's first female president, Vigdís Finnbogadóttir in 1980 and she retired from office in 1996. Elections for the office of town councils, parliament and presidency are all held every four years. The next elections are going to be held in 2010, 2011 and 2008, respectively. Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Location in Iceland Coordinates: , Constituency Government  - Mayor (Borgarstjóri) Dagur B. Eggertsson Area  - City 274. ... Vigdís Finnbogadóttir (born 15 April 1930) was the 4th president of Iceland from 1980 to 1996. ...


Subdivisions

Iceland is divided into regions, constituencies, counties, and municipalities. There are eight regions which are primarily used for statistical purposes; the district court jurisdictions also use an older version of this division.[1] Until 2003, the constituencies for the parliament elections were the same as the regions, but by an amendment to the constitution, they were changed to the current six constituencies: // Main article: Municipalities of Iceland There are 98 municipalities in Iceland which govern most local matters like schools, transport and zoning. ... A region can be any area that has some unifying feature. ... A constituency is any cohesive corporate unit or body bound by shared structures, goals or loyalty. ... Originally, a county was the land under the jurisdiction of a count (in Great Britain, an earl, though the original earldoms covered larger areas) by reason of that office. ... A municipality or general-purpose district (compare with: special-purpose district) is an administrative local area generally composed of a clearly defined territory and commonly referring to a city, town, or village government. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

The redistricting change was made in order to balance the weight of different districts of the country, since a vote cast in the sparsely populated areas around the country would count much more than a vote cast in the Reykjavík city area. The imbalance between districts has been reduced by the new system, but still exists.[1] Iceland is divided into 6 constituencies for the purpose of selecting representatives to the Alþingi (parliament). ... Iceland is divided into 6 constituencies for the purpose of selecting representatives to the Alþingi (parliament). ... Iceland is divided into 6 constituencies for the purpose of selecting representatives to the Alþingi (parliament). ... This cites very few or no references or sources. ... Iceland is divided into 6 constituencies for the purpose of selecting representatives to the Alþingi (parliament). ... Iceland is divided into 6 constituencies for the purpose of selecting representatives to the Alþingi (parliament). ... Iceland is divided into 6 constituencies for the purpose of selecting representatives to the Alþingi (parliament). ...


Iceland's twenty-three counties are, for the most part, historical divisions. Currently, Iceland is split up among twenty-six magistrates that represent government in various capacities. Among their duties are running the local police (except in Reykjavík, where there is a special office of police commissioner), tax collection, administering bankruptcy declarations, and performing civil marriages.[1] A magistrate is a judicial officer. ...


There are seventy-nine municipalities in Iceland which govern local matters like schools, transportation and zoning. These are the actual second-level subdivisions of Iceland, as the constituencies have no revelance exept in elections and for statistical purposes. Reykjavík is by far the most populous municapility, about four times more populous than Kópavogur, the second one. [1]
Administrative division is a generic term for an administrative region within a country — on an arbitrary level below that of the sovereign state — typically with a local government encompassing multiple municipalities, counties, or provinces with a certain degree of autonomy. ... Location in Iceland Coordinates: , Constituency Government  - Mayor (Borgarstjóri) Dagur B. Eggertsson Area  - City 274. ... Location in Iceland Coordinates: Constituency Southwest Area    - City 83. ...

Geir H. Haarde, the current prime minister of Iceland
Geir H. Haarde, the current prime minister of Iceland

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Geir Hilmar Haarde (born April 8, 1951) is an Icelandic politician. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ...

Politics

Iceland has a typical left-right multi-party system. The biggest party is the right wing Independence Party (’’Sjálfstæðisflokkurinn’’), while the second largest one is the social democratic Alliance (‘’Samfylkingin’’). Following the May 2007 parliamentary elections, these two formed a coalition, enjoying a strong majority in Althing, with 43 out of 63 members supporting it. Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Left-Right politics or the Left-Right political spectrum is a common way of classifying political positions, political ideologies, or political parties along a one-dimensional political spectrum. ... A multi-party system is a type of party system. ... “Right wing” redirects here. ... The Independence Party (Sjálfstæðisflokkurinn) is a center-right political party in Iceland. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... The Social Democratic Alliance (Samfylkingin) is a political party in Iceland. ... The 2007 Icelandic general election will be held on 12 May 2007. ...


Other political parties that have a seat in Althing are the centrist Progressive Party (‘’Framsóknarflokkurinn’’), which had been in government with the Independence Party for 12 years before the 2007 election, the Left-Green Movement (‘’Vinstrihreyfingin - grænt framboð’’), founded in 1999, and the Centre-right Liberal Party. Many other parties exist on the municipal level, most of which only run locally in a single municipality. In politics, centrism usually refers to the political ideal of promoting moderate policies which land in the middle ground between different political extremes. ... The Progressive Party (Icelandic: Framsóknarflokkurinn) is an agrarian and liberal party in Iceland. ... The Left-Green Movement (Vinstrihreyfingin - grænt framboð) is a political party in Iceland. ... This article is about the year. ... The centre-right is a political term commonly used to describe or denote political parties or organizations (such as think tanks) that stretch from the centre to the right on the left-right spectrum, excluding far right stances. ... The Liberal Party (Frjálslyndi flokkurinn) is a liberal party in Iceland. ...


Foreign relations

Iceland maintains diplomatic and commercial relations with practically all nations, but its ties with the Nordic countries, the US, and with the other NATO nations are particularly close. Icelanders remain especially proud of the role Iceland played in hosting the historic 1986 Reagan-Gorbachev summit in Reykjavík, which set the stage for the end of the Cold War. Iceland's principal historical international disputes involved disagreements over fishing rights. Conflict with Britain led to the so-called Cod Wars in 1952-1956 because of extension of Fishing zone from 3 to 4 nautical miles (6 to 7 km), 1958-1961 because of extending the fishing zone to 12 nautical miles (22 km) in 1972-1973 because of extension to 50 nautical miles and in 1975 to 1976 because of extension to 200 nautical miles (370 km). Iceland maintains diplomatic and commercial relations with practically all nations, but its ties with other Nordic states, with the US, and with the other NATO nations are particularly close. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... United States may refer to: Places: United States of America SS United States, the fastest ocean liner ever built. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... The Reykjavik Summit was a summit meeting between U.S. president Ronald Reagan and Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev, held in the famous house of Höfði in Reykjavík, the capital city of Iceland, on 11 October-12, 1986. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The Cod Wars (also called the Iceland Cod Wars) were a series of confrontations between the United Kingdom and Iceland over Icelands claims of authority over tracts of ocean off their coastline as being their exclusive fishery zone. ...


Iceland has no standing military; its defenses are manned by NATO and American forces. The Agreed Minute is a statute governing the nature of the U.S. military presence in Iceland. From the 1940s the U.S. Air Force maintained four to six interceptors at the Keflavík base, until 2006 when they were withdrawn. Iceland supported the 2003 invasion of Iraq. This has been very much condemned in Iceland; in January 2005, a declaration was published in the New York Times where Iraqis were apologized for Iceland’s support of the invasion. One of the most important issues of the Social Democratic Alliance when it formed a coalition with the Independence Party following the 2007 election was to withdraw Iceland’s support. This article is about the military alliance. ... The Agreed Minute is a statute governing the nature of the U.S. military presence in Iceland. ... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ... Seal of the Air Force. ... Naval Air Station Keflavik is the host Command for the NATO Base in Keflavík, Iceland. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... 2005 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- &#8594; Deaths in January &#8226; 29 Ephraim Kishon &#8226; 25 Philip Johnson &#8226; 23 Johnny Carson &#8226; 22 Parveen Babi &#8226; 20 Jan Nowak-Jeziora&#324;ski &#8226; 17 Virginia Mayo &#8226; 17 Zhao Ziyang &#8226; 15... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...


Demographics

Citizenship of Iceland residents (Dec. 2006)[citation needed]
Iceland 289,109
Poland 5,996
Lithuania 998
Germany 945
Denmark 936
Ex-Yugoslavia 783
Philippines 778
China (PRC) 755
Portugal 748
United States 646
others 5,978

The original population of Iceland was of Nordic and Celtic origin. This is evident by literary evidence from the settlement period as well as from later scientific studies such as blood type and genetic analysis. One such genetics study has indicated that the majority of the male settlers were of Nordic origin while the majority of the women were of Celtic origin.[14] The modern population of Iceland is often described as a "homogeneous mixture of descendants of Norse and Irish Celts" but some history scholars reject the alleged homogeneity as a myth that fails to take into account the fact that Iceland was never completely isolated from the rest of Europe and actually has had a lot of contact with traders and fishermen from many nations through the ages. Most Icelanders are descendants of Norwegian settlers and Celts from Ireland, brought over as slaves during the age of settlement. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... For other uses, see Norway (disambiguation). ... This article is about the European people. ... This article is about human blood types (or blood groups). ... This article is about the general scientific term. ...

Suburban Reykjavík. Over 60% of Icelanders live in the Reykjavík Metropolitan Area
Suburban Reykjavík. Over 60% of Icelanders live in the Reykjavík Metropolitan Area

Iceland has extensive genealogical records dating back to the late 1600s and fragmentary records extending back to the Age of Settlement. The biopharmaceutical company deCODE Genetics has funded the creation of a genealogy database which attempts to cover all of Iceland's known inhabitants. It sees the database, called Íslendingabók, as a valuable tool for conducting research on genetic diseases, given the relative isolation of Iceland's population. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,560 × 1,920 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,560 × 1,920 pixels, file size: 2. ... Location in Iceland Coordinates: , Constituency Government  - Mayor (Borgarstjóri) Dagur B. Eggertsson Area  - City 274. ... Map showing the (partial) relation of the seven municipalities of the greater Reykjavík area. ... // The First Explorers/Settlers Irish monks Medieval monk The first written source to mention the existence of the Iceland is a book by the Irish monk Dicuil, De mensura orbis terrae, which dates back to 825. ... deCODE genetics, Inc. ...


The population of the island is believed to have varied from 40,000 to 60,000 in the period from initial settlement until the mid-19th century. During that time, cold winters, ashfall from volcanic eruptions, and plagues adversely affected the population several times. The first census was carried out in 1703 and revealed that the population of the island was then 50,358. After the destructive volcanic eruptions of the Laki volcano during 1783–1784 the population reached a low of about 40,000. Improving living conditions triggered a rapid increase in population from the mid-19th century to the present day - from about 60,000 in 1850 to 313,000 in 2007. The bubonic plague or bubonic fever is the best-known variant of the deadly infectious disease caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis (Pasteurella pestis). ... The name Laki has more than one meaning:- A town called Laki in Plovdiv district in Bulgaria. ...


In December 2006, 30,387 people (9.9% of the total population) who were living in Iceland had been born abroad, including children of Icelandic parents living abroad. 18,563 people (6% of the total population) held foreign citizenship. Poles make up the far largest minority nationality (see table on the right for more details). The recent surge in immigration has been credited to a labor shortage because of the booming economy while restrictions on the movement of people from the Eastern European countries that joined the EU/EEA in 2004 have been lifted. Large-scale construction projects in the east of Iceland (see Kárahnjúkar Hydropower Project) have also brought in many people whose stay is expected to be temporary. A Labor shortage is an economic condition in which there are insufficient qualified candidates (employees) to fill the market-place demands for employment at any price. ...  EFTA countries (except Switzerland)  EU countries Together these form the EEA. The European Economic Area (EEA) came into being on January 1, 1994 following an agreement between the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and the European Union (EU). ... Building site Building site The Kárahnjúkar Hydropower Project involves damming two rivers in eastern Iceland (the Jökulsá í Fljótsdal - source to the famous Milky Lake of Lagarfljót, and the Jökulsá á Dal (aka Jókulsá á Bru)) to produce hydroelectricity to power a new aluminium smelting plant...


The south-west corner of Iceland is the most densely populated region, It is also the location of the capital Reykjavík, the northernmost capital in the world. The largest towns outside the capital region are Akureyri and Reykjanesbær. Location in Iceland Coordinates: , Constituency Government  - Mayor (Borgarstjóri) Dagur B. Eggertsson Area  - City 274. ... Nickname: Location of Akureyri in Iceland Coordinates: , Constituency Northeast Area  - City 125 km²  (48. ... Reykjanesbær is a municipality on the Reykjanes peninsula in Iceland, it is made up of the towns Keflavík, Njarðvík and Hafnir. ...


Language

Main article: Icelandic language

Iceland's official written and spoken language is Icelandic, a North Germanic language descended from Old Norse. It has changed less from Old Norse than the other Nordic languages, has preserved more verb and noun inflection, and has to a considerable extent developed new vocabulary based on native roots rather than borrowings from English. It is the only living language to retain the runic letter Þ. The closest living language to Icelandic is Faroese. In education, the use of Icelandic Sign Language for the Deaf in Iceland is regulated by the National Curriculum Guide. Icelandic ( ) is a North Germanic language, the official language of Iceland and the mother tongue of the Icelandic people. ... The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the East Germanic languages. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... Inflection of the Spanish lexeme for cat, with blue representing the masculine gender, pink representing the feminine gender, grey representing the form used for mixed-gender, and green representing the plural number. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Þþ The letter Þ (miniscule: þ), which is also known as thorn or þorn is a letter in the Anglo-Saxon and Icelandic alphabets. ... The icelandic sign language is the sign language of the deaf community in Iceland. ...


English is widely spoken, and many Icelanders speak it at an almost native level. Danish is also widely understood. Studying both these languages is a mandatory part of the compulsory school curriculum.[15] Other commonly spoken languages are German, Norwegian and Swedish. Danish is mostly spoken in a way largely comprehensible to Swedes and Norwegians – it is often referred to as "Scandinavian" in Iceland. Look up English, english in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In addition to Icelandic, many immigrants speak their respective native languages. Polish is arguably the most widespread of them.[citation needed]


Religion

Hallgrímskirkja, Church of Hallgrímur, in Reykjavík, Iceland.
Hallgrímskirkja, Church of Hallgrímur, in Reykjavík, Iceland.
Main article: Religion in Iceland

Icelanders enjoy freedom of religion under the constitution, though there is no separation of church and state. The National Church of Iceland, a Lutheran body, is the state church and all Icelanders are automatically registered as members of it and therefore the following numbers do not represent actual belief.[citation needed] The national registry keeps account of the religious affiliation of every Icelandic citizen. In 2005, Icelanders divided into religious groups as follows:[16] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 338 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 338 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Hallgrímskirkja The Hallgrímskirkja (literally, the church of Hallgrímur) is a church in Reykjavík, Iceland. ... Religion in Iceland was initially the Viking religion that believed in Norse mythology. ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ... Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... The National Church of Iceland, or Þjóðkirkjan, formally called the Evangelical Lutheran Church, is the state church in Iceland. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... See also civil religion. ...

  • 82.1% members of the National Church of Iceland.
  • 4.7% members of the Free Lutheran Churches of Reykjavík and Hafnarfjörður.
  • 2.6% not members of any religious group.
  • 2.4% members of the Roman Catholic Church, which has a Diocese of Reykjavík (see also Bishop of Reykjavik (Catholic))
  • 5.5% members of unregistered religious organisations or with no specified religious affiliation

The remaining 2.7% is mostly divided between around 20–25 other Christian denominations and sects, with less than 1% of the population in non-Christian religious organisations although polls have shown that 43% of the population never attends religious events and only 10% attends regularly.[citations needed] The largest of the aforementioned denominations and sects being Íslenska Ásatrúarfélagið, a neo-pagan group.[17] Catholic Church redirects here. ... The Diocese of Reykjavík is a Roman Catholic diocese which covers the whole of the country of Iceland, which has about 5,000 Catholics. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... The Íslenska Ásatrúarfélagið Icelandic fellowship of Æsir faith (Ásatrú) is an Icelandic new religious movement with the purpose of reviving the pre-Christianization religion of Scandinavia. ...

A classroom in the Hraðbraut gymnasium.
A classroom in the Hraðbraut gymnasium.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,600 × 1,200 pixels, file size: 605 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (I (the Author) hereby release this into the public domain) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,600 × 1,200 pixels, file size: 605 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (I (the Author) hereby release this into the public domain) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared... Menntaskólinn hraðbraut is an Icelandic gymnasium established in 2003 that allows students to get a gymnasium diploma in only two years, contrary to normal period of four years. ... A gymnasium (pronounced with or, in Swedish, as opposed to ) is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English Grammar Schools and U.S. High Schools. ...

Social structure

Iceland is the most developed society in the world, ranked first on the United NationsHuman Development Index. Icelanders are the second longest-living nation with a life expectancy at birth of 81.8 years. This is a list of countries by Human Development Index, included in the United Nations Development Programme Report 2005. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


Iceland is a very technologically advanced society. In 1999, 82,3 percent of Icelanders had access to a computer, [18] and this figure has not declined in the last years. Iceland also had 1,007 cell phone subscribtions per 1,000 people in 2006, the 16th highest in the world. [19] The social structure of Iceland is very dependent upon transportation, especially the personal automobile; Icelanders have on average one car per inhabitant older than 17 years, [20] one of the highest figures in the world. Most Icelanders travel by car to work, school or other activities.


Social system

Iceland is a welfare state and its population enjoys a wide range of benefits, for example old-age pensions and unemployment benefits. Icelanders also have access to exellent healthcare and education. This means that Iceland has very high taxation, like other Nordic countries. The Ministry of Health runs the healthcare system. The Ministry of Education, Science and Culture is responsible for the policies and methods that schools must use, and they issue the National Curriculum Guidelines. However, the playschools and the primary and lower secondary schools are funded and administered by the municipalities. There are three main interpretations of the idea of a welfare state: the provision of welfare services by the state. ... The Ministry of Education, Science and Culture (Icelandic: Menntamálaráðuneyti) is an Icelandic government office divided into three departments: the Department of Education, the Department of Science and the Department of Cultural Affairs. ...


Playschool or leikskóli, is non-compulsory education for those under the age of six, and is the first step in the education system. The current legislation concerning playschools was passed in 1994. They are also responsible for ensuring that the curriculum is suitable so as to make the transition into compulsory education as easy as possible. Child picking up book. ... Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Compulsory education is education which children are required by law to receive and governments to provide. ...


Compulsory education or grunnskóli (lit. “basic school”), is the period of education which is compulsory for all. It comprises primary and lower secondary education, which often takes place at the same institution. The law states that education is mandatory for children and adolescents between the ages of 6 and 16. The school year lasts nine months, and begins between August 21 and September 1, ending between May 31 and June 10. The minimum number of school days is 170, but after a new teachers’ wage contract, this will increase to 180. Lessons take place five days a week. A primary school in ÄŒeský Těšín, Poland Primary education is the first stage of compulsory education. ... Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Akureyri is the largest town in Iceland outside of the Reykjavík area. Most rural towns are based on the fishing industry, which provides 40% of Iceland's export.
Akureyri is the largest town in Iceland outside of the Reykjavík area. Most rural towns are based on the fishing industry, which provides 40% of Iceland's export.

Upper secondary education or framhaldsskóli (lit. “continued school”), follows lower secondary education. These schools are also known as gymnasia in English. It is not compulsory, but everyone who has had their compulsory education has the right to upper secondary education. This stage of education is governed by the Upper Secondary School Act of 1996. Like all other schools in Iceland, upper secondary schools are mixed sex. Image File history File links Akureyri seen from Vaðlaheiði. ... Image File history File links Akureyri seen from Vaðlaheiði. ... Nickname: Location of Akureyri in Iceland Coordinates: , Constituency Northeast Area  - City 125 km²  (48. ... Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... A gymnasium (pronounced with or, in Swedish, as opposed to ) is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English Grammar Schools and U.S. High Schools. ... Compulsory education is education which children are required by law to receive and governments to provide. ...


Economy and infrastructure

Main article: Economy of Iceland

Iceland is the fourth most productive country in the world based on nominal gross domestic product per capita (54,858 USD), but due in part to heavy taxation, it ranks the fifth most productive country in the world based on GDP at purchasing power parity (40,112 USD). Except for its abundant hydro-electric and geothermal power, Iceland lacks natural resources; historically its economy has depended heavily on the fishing industry, which still provides almost 40% of export earnings and employs 8% of the work force. The economy is vulnerable to declining fish stocks as well as to drops in world prices for its main material exports: fish and fish products, aluminium, and ferrosilicon. Although the Icelandic economy still relies heavily on fishing its importance is diminishing as the travel industry and other service, technology and various other industries grow. Economic growth slowed between 2000 and 2002, but the economy expanded by 4.3% in 2003 and grew by 6.2% in 2004. The unemployment rate of ~1.0% (2007 est.) is among the lowest in the European Economic Area. The economy of Iceland is small but well-developed, with a gross domestic product estimated at US $10. ... Here is a list of countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year, divided by population as of 1 July for the same year. ... The purchasing power parity (PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their purchasing power. ... Hydroelectricity is electricity produced by hydropower. ... Krafla Geothermal Station in northeast Iceland Geothermal power (from the Greek words geo, meaning earth, and therme, meaning heat) is energy generated by heat stored beneath the Earths surface. ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... Ferrosilicon, or ferrosilicium, is a ferroalloy an alloy of iron and silicon with between 15 and 90% silicon. ...  EFTA countries (except Switzerland)  EU countries Together these form the EEA. The European Economic Area (EEA) came into being on January 1, 1994 following an agreement between the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and the European Union (EU). ...


Even though Iceland is a very developed country, it is still one of the most newly-industrialized ones in Europe. Until the twentieth century, it was probably the poorest country in Western Europe. The fast economic growth that the country has experienced in the last decades is only recently allowing for upgrading of infrastructure such as transportation. The government coalition plans to continue its generally neo-liberal policies of reducing the budget and current account deficits, limiting foreign borrowing, containing inflation, revising agricultural and fishing policies, diversifying the economy, and privatising state-owned industries. The government remains opposed to EU membership, primarily because of Icelanders' concern about losing control over their fishing resources. The term neoliberalism is used to describe a political-economic philosophy that had major implications for government policies beginning in the 1970s &#8211; and increasingly prominent since 1980 &#8211; that de-emphasizes or rejects positive government intervention in the economy, focusing instead on achieving progress and even social justice by... Privatization (sometimes privatisation, denationalization, or &#8212; especially in India &#8212; disinvestment) is the process of transferring property, from public ownership to private ownership. ...


Iceland's economy has been diversifying into manufacturing and service industries in the last decade, and new developments in software production, biotechnology, and financial services are taking place. The tourism sector is also expanding, with the recent trends in ecotourism and whale-watching. Iceland's agriculture industry consists mainly of potatoes, turnips, green vegetables (in greenhouses), mutton and dairy products.[21] Borgartún is the financial center in Reykjavik, hosting a large number of companies and three investment banks. Iceland's stock market, the Iceland Stock Exchange (ISE), was established in 1985. Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... The structure of insulin Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... Tourist redirects here. ... Tapanti National Park in Costa Rica Ecotourism, also known as ecological tourism, is a form of tourism which appeals to the ecologically and socially conscious. ... This article is about the animal. ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... Trinomial name Brassica rapa rapa L. For similar vegetables also called turnip, see Turnip (disambiguation). ... Vegetables on a market Vegetable is a nutritional and culinary term denoting any part of a plant that is commonly consumed by humans as food, but is not regarded as a culinary fruit, nut, herb, spice, or grain. ... The Royal Greenhouses of Laeken. ... An unweaned lamb Legs of lamb in a supermarket cabinet The terms lamb, hoggett or mutton are culinary names for the meat of a domestic sheep. ... A dairy farm near Oxford, New York in the United States. ... Borgartún is a street in Reykjavík, Iceland that has in the recent years become the citys financial district. ... Iceland Stock Exchanges headquarters in Reykjavík Iceland Stock Exchange (Icelandic: Kauphöll Íslands; also known as ICEX) was established in 1985 as a joint venture of several banks and brokerage firms on the initiative of the central bank. ...

The Ring Road of Iceland and some towns it passes through: 1.Reykjavík, 2.Borgarnes, 3.Blönduós, 4.Akureyri, 5.Egilsstaðir, 6.Höfn, 7.Selfoss
The Ring Road of Iceland and some towns it passes through: 1.Reykjavík, 2.Borgarnes, 3.Blönduós, 4.Akureyri, 5.Egilsstaðir, 6.Höfn, 7.Selfoss

The primary currency of Iceland is the Icelandic Króna (ISK). Iceland's then foreign minister Valgerður Sverrisdóttir said in an interview on 15 January 2007 that she seriously wished to look into whether Iceland can join the Euro without being a member of the EU. She believes it is difficult to maintain an independent currency in a small economy on the open European market.[22] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 350 × 253 pixelsFull resolution (350 × 253 pixel, file size: 27 KB, MIME type: image/png)the ring road of Iceland, picture made by myself Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 350 × 253 pixelsFull resolution (350 × 253 pixel, file size: 27 KB, MIME type: image/png)the ring road of Iceland, picture made by myself Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU... The Ring Road of Iceland and some towns it passes through: (1) Reykjavík; (2) Borgarnes; (3) Blönduós; (4) Akureyri; (5) Egilsstaðir; (6) Höfn; (7) Selfoss Route 1 or the Ring Road (Icelandic: Þjóðvegur 1 or Hringvegur) is a main road in Iceland that runs... Location in Iceland Coordinates: , Constituency Government  - Mayor (Borgarstjóri) Dagur B. Eggertsson Area  - City 274. ... Town of Borgarnes in wintertime with Mt. ... Location in Iceland. ... Nickname: Location of Akureyri in Iceland Coordinates: , Constituency Northeast Area  - City 125 km²  (48. ... Egilsstaðir in eastern Iceland Egilsstaðir is a town in East Iceland on the banks of Lagarfljót river. ... Höfn in Hornafjörður is an icelandic fishery town in the southeastern part of the country. ... Selfoss is a town in southern Iceland on the banks of Ölfusá river. ... Króna (plural krónur) is the name of the currency used in Iceland. ... Valgerður Sverrisdóttir (born March 23, 1950) has been the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Iceland since June 15, 2006. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ...  EFTA countries (except Switzerland)  EU countries Together these form the EEA. The European Economic Area (EEA) came into being on January 1, 1994 following an agreement between the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and the European Union (EU). ...


Transportation

The main mode of transport in Iceland is by road. Iceland has 13,034 km of administered roads, 4,617 km of which are paved and 8,338 km of which are not. This small proportion of paved roads can be explained by the fact that until the second half of the twentieth century, Iceland did not have the economic capability to build paved roads outside the biggest towns at all. Today, however, roads are being improved all around the country and freeways are being built inside and around Reykjavík. Still, Iceland has no railroads. Iceland has no railroads. ...

The Nesjavellir Geothermal Power Plant services the Greater Reykjavík Area's hot water needs.
The Nesjavellir Geothermal Power Plant services the Greater Reykjavík Area's hot water needs.

Route 1 or the Ring Road (Icelandic: Þjóðvegur 1 or Hringvegur) is a main road in Iceland that runs around the island and connects all habitable parts of the country together (the interior of the island being uninhabited). The total length of the road is 1339 km (840 miles). For almost all its length, the road is two lanes wide with one lane in each direction except when it passes through larger towns and cities where it may be expanded to more lanes as well as in the Hvalfjörður Tunnel. Most smaller bridges are single lane and made of wood and/or steel. The road is paved with asphalt for most of its length but there are still stretches of it in the east part of the country that are unpaved and with gravel surface. The main hub for international transportation is Keflavík International Airport, which serves Reykjavík and the country in general. There is a total of 86 airport runways in Iceland, most of them are unpaved and located in rural areas. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2400 × 1600 pixel, file size: 993 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The author of this work, Gretar Ivarsson, geologist at Nesjavellir, after being contacted by user Palthrow, has agreed to release this photograph into the public domain... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2400 × 1600 pixel, file size: 993 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The author of this work, Gretar Ivarsson, geologist at Nesjavellir, after being contacted by user Palthrow, has agreed to release this photograph into the public domain... The Nesjavellir Power Plant Nesjavellir is the largest geothermal power plant in Iceland. ... Map showing the (partial) relation of the seven municipalities of the greater Reykjavík area. ... Keflavík International Airport (Icelandic: Keflavíkurflugvöllur) (IATA: KEF, ICAO: BIKF) is the largest airport in Iceland and the countrys main hub for international transportation. ...


Energy

Renewable energy provides over 70% of the nation's primary energy.[23] Over 99% of the country's electricity is produced from hydropower and geothermal energy, and the country expects to be energy-independent by 2050.[24] The country's largest geothermal power plant is located in Nesjavellir, while the Kárahnjúkar dam will be the country's largest hydroelectric power plant. However, Icelanders still emit 10.0 tonnes of CO2 equivalent of greenhouse gasses per capita, higher than for example France and Spain. This can be explained with the great use of personal transport in Iceland. Iceland is the only nation in the world that has filling stations dispensing hydrogen fuel for cars powered by fuel cells. It is also one of only a few nations currently capable of producing hydrogen in adequate quantities at reasonable cost, because Iceland has plentiful geothermal energy. Geothermal borehole outside Reykjavík. ... Undershot water wheels on the Orontes River in Hama, Syria Saint Anthony Falls Hydropower is the capture of the energy of moving water for some useful purpose. ... Geothermal power is electricity generated by utilizing naturally occurring geological heat sources. ... The Nesjavellir Power Plant Nesjavellir is the largest geothermal power plant in Iceland. ... Building site Building site The Kárahnjúkar Hydropower Project involves damming two rivers in eastern Iceland (the Jökulsá í Fljótsdal - source to the famous Milky Lake of Lagarfljót, and the Jökulsá á Dal (aka Jókulsá á Bru)) to produce hydroelectricity to power a new aluminium smelting plant... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ... Geothermal power is electricity generated by utilizing naturally occurring geological heat sources. ...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Iceland

Icelandic culture has its roots in Viking and Norse traditions. Icelandic literature is popular, in particular the sagas and eddas which were written around the time of the island’s settlement. Icelanders generally have a traditional liberal Nordic outlook, similar to other Nordic countries such as Norway and Sweden. Until the Christianization of Iceland, many traditional Viking beliefs held strong, remnants of which remain today. For example, some Icelanders either believe in elves or are unwilling to rule out their existence.[25] Iceland ranks very high on the Human Development Index, and was recently ranked the fourth happiest country in the world.[26] The National Theatre, Iceland, Reykjavík. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Icelanders sagas (Icelandic: Íslendingasögur) or family sagas are prose histories describing mostly events that took place in Iceland during the Age of Settlement (870-930) and the following century. ... The term Edda (Plural: Eddas or Icelandic plural: Eddur) applies to the Old Norse Poetic Edda and Prose Edda, both of which were written down in Iceland during the 13th century, although some of the poems included in them may be centuries older. ... // The First Explorers/Settlers Irish monks Medieval monk The first written source to mention the existence of the Iceland is a book by the Irish monk Dicuil, De mensura orbis terrae, which dates back to 825. ... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... Iceland converted to the Christian religion in 1000 AD. In Icelandic, this event is known as the kristnitaka. ... For alternate meanings, see Lightning (disambiguation). ...

An example from Brennu-Njáls saga. The sagas are a significant part of the Icelandic heritage.
An example from Brennu-Njáls saga. The sagas are a significant part of the Icelandic heritage.

Iceland is liberal in terms of LGBT matters. In 1996, Parliament passed legislation to create registered partnerships for same-sex couples, covering nearly all the rights and benefits of marriage. In 2006, by unanimous vote of Parliament, further legislation was passed, granting same-sex couples the same rights as different-sex couples in adoption, parenting and assisted insemination treatment. Image File history File links Möðruvallabók_f13r. ... Image File history File links Möðruvallabók_f13r. ... Njals Saga (also known as Brennu-Njáls saga or The Story of the burning of Njáll) is arguably the most famous of the Sagas of Icelanders. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The initialism LGBT also GLBT is in use (since the 1990s) to refer collectively to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender people. ... LGBT rights Around the world By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      As unregistered cohabitation Recognised in some regions Recognised prior to legalisation of same-sex marriage Netherlands (nationwide) (1998) Spain (12 of 17 communities) (1998) South Africa (nationwide... Matrimony redirects here. ...


Literature and the arts

Main articles: Icelandic literature and Art of Iceland

Iceland's best-known classical works of literature are the Icelanders' sagas, prose epics set in Iceland's age of settlement. The most famous of these include Njáls saga, about an epic blood feud, and Grænlendinga saga and Eiríks saga, describing the discovery and settlement of Greenland and Vinland (modern Newfoundland). Egils saga, Laxdæla saga, Grettis saga, Gísla saga and Gunnlaugs saga ormstungu are also notable and popular Icelanders' sagas. In 1262, Iceland united to the Norwegian monarchy, and lost its independence, starting a decline in literature. A great translation of the Bible was published in the sixteenth century. Important compositions of the time from the 15th century to the 19th centure include sacred verse, most famously the Passíusálmar of Hallgrímur Pétursson, and rímur, rhymed epic poems with alliterative verse that consist in two to four verses per stanza, popular until the end of the nineteenth century. In recent times, Iceland has produced many great writers, best-known of them is arguably Halldór Laxness, who received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1955. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about Icelands visual arts. ... The Icelanders sagas (Icelandic: Íslendingasögur) or family sagas are prose histories describing mostly events that took place in Iceland during the Age of Settlement (870-930) and the following century. ... Njáls saga (also known as The Story of Burnt Njál) is an epic of Icelandic literature from the 13th century that describes the progress of a 50-year blood feud. ... GrÅ“nlendinga saga or the Saga of the Greenlanders is an Icelandic saga. ... Eiríks saga rauða or the Saga of Eric the Red is a saga on the Norse exploration of North-America. ... For the historical novel by George Mackay Brown, which depicts Leif Eiríkssons voyage, see Vinland (novel). ... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Egill Skallagrímsson in a 17th century manuscript of Egils Saga Egils saga is an epic Icelandic saga possibly by Snorri Sturluson (1179-1241 A.D.), who may have written the account between the years 1220 and 1240 A.D. It is an important representative of the sagas and has... Laxdæla saga is the saga of the clan/family of Laxdal. ... Grettis saga or Grettla is an Icelandic saga detailing the life of Grettir Ásmundarson, an Icelandic viking who became an outlaw. ... Gísla saga is a Norse saga, an epic of Icelandic literature. ... Gunnlaugs saga ormstungu or the Saga of Gunnlaugr Serpent-Tongue[1] is one of the Icelanders sagas. ... The Icelanders sagas (Icelandic: Íslendingasögur) or family sagas are prose histories describing mostly events that took place in Iceland during the Age of Settlement (870-930) and the following century. ... Halldór Laxness Halldór Kiljan Laxness (born Halldór Guðjónsson) (April 23, 1902 – February 8, 1998) was a 20th century Icelandic author of such novels as Independent People, The Atom Station, Paradise Reclaimed, Icelands Bell, The Fish Can Sing and World Light. ... The Nobel Prize in literature is awarded annually to an author from any country who has produced the most outstanding work of an idealistic tendency. The work in this case generally refers to an authors work as a whole, not to any individual work, though individual works are sometimes... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ...


The distinctive rendition of the Icelandic landscape by its painters can be linked to nationalism and the movement toward home rule and independence, which was very active in this period. Other landscape artists quickly followed in the footsteps of Þorláksson and Jónsson. These included Jóhannes Kjarval, Jón Stefánsson, and Júlíana Sveinsdóttir. Kjarval in particular is noted for the distinct techniques in the application of paint that he developed in a concerted effort to render the characteristic volcanic rock that dominates the Icelandic environment. Contemporary Icelandic painting is typically traced to the work of Þórarinn Þorláksson, who, following formal training in art in the 1890s in Copenhagen, returned to Iceland to paint and exhibit works from 1900 to his death in 1924, almost exclusively portraying the Icelandic landscape. Þorláksson was not the only Icelandic artist learning in Denmark at that time: there were several Icelanders, both men and women, at the Academy in the closing years of the century, and these included Ásgrímur Jónsson, who together with Þorláksson created a distinctive portrayal of their home country's landscape in a romantic naturalistic style. Icelandic architecture draws from Scandinavian influences and, traditionally, was influenced by the lack of native trees on the island. As a result, grass- and turf-covered houses were developed. The original grasshouses constructed by the original settlers of Iceland were based on Viking longhouses. // Thule as Tile on the Carta Marina by Olaus Magnus. ... Jóhannes Sveinsson Kjarval (15 October 1885 - 13 April 1972) was an Icelandic painter. ... Júlíana Sveinsdóttir (1889-1966) was one of Icelands first woman painters and textile artists. ... Ignimbrite is a deposit of a pyroclastic flow. ... Þingvellir Þórarinn B. Þorláksson (February 14, 1867 – July 10, 1924[1]) was one of Icelands first contemporary painters, the first Icelander to exhibit their painting in Iceland, and recipient of the first public grant that country made to a painter. ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... Ásgrímur Jónsson (1876 – 1958) was an Icelandic painter. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Grass (disambiguation). ... Turf may refer to Sod, the surface layer of ground consisting of a matt of grass and grass roots, sometimes used as a construction material AstroTurf, or any variety of artificial turf made to resemble grass A colloquialism for the world of horse-racing Slang for territory claimed by a... The Icelandic turf house was the product of a difficult climate and, most importantly, a lack of timber suitable for major constructions. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... In archaeology and anthropology, a long house or longhouse is a type of long, narrow single room building built by peoples in various parts of the world including Asia, Europe and North America. ...


Music

Main article: Music of Iceland

Icelandic music is related to Nordic music forms, and includes vibrant folk and pop traditions, including medieval music group Voces Thules, alternative rock band The Sugarcubes, singers Björk and Emiliana Torrini; and Sigur Rós. The national anthem of Iceland is "Lofsöngur", written by Matthías Jochumsson, with music by Sveinbjörn Sveinbjörnsson [27]. Icelandic music is related to Nordic music forms, and includes vibrant folk and pop traditions, including medieval music group Voces Thules, alternative rock band The Sugarcubes, singers Björk and Emiliana Torrini; and Sigur Rós. ... Nordic music includes a diverse array of popular, folk and classical styles found in a number of Northern European, especially Scandinavian, countries. ... Folk song redirects here. ... For other uses, see Pop music (disambiguation). ... VOCES THULES was formed in the year 1992. ... The Sugarcubes were an Icelandic rock-pop band formed in 1986 and disbanded in 1992. ... This article is about the musician. ... Emiliana Torrini. ... Sigur Rós ( ) is an Icelandic post-rock band with melodic, classical, experimental, and minimalist elements. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Lofsöngur (Icelandic: Hymn), also known as Ó Guð vors lands or Our Countrys God, is the national anthem of Iceland. ... Matthías Jochumsson - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Sveinbjörn Sveinbjörnsson - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

Björk is one of the most famous people from Iceland
Björk is one of the most famous people from Iceland

Traditional Icelandic music is strongly religious in character. Hallgrímur Pétursson wrote numerous Protestant hymns in the 17th century. This music was further modernized in the 19th century, when Magnús Stephensen brought pipe organs, which were followed by harmoniums. Epic alliterative and rhyming ballads called rímur are another vital tradition of Icelandic music. Rímur are epic tales, usually a cappella, which can be traced back to the Viking Age Eddic poetry of the Skalds, using complex metaphors and cryptic rhymes and forms. Some of the most famous rímur were written from the 18th to the early 20th century, by poets like Hannes Bjarnason (1776-1838), Jón Sigurðsson (1853-1922) and Sigurður Breiðfjörð (1798-1846). Rímur were, for a long time, officially banned by the Christian church, though they remained popular throughout the period. A modern revitalization of the tradition began in 1929 with the formation of the organization Iðunn [28]. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x756, 189 KB) Björk at the w:Hurricane Festival Photographer: Zach Klein (http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x756, 189 KB) Björk at the w:Hurricane Festival Photographer: Zach Klein (http://www. ... This article is about the musician. ... Hallgrímur Pétursson (1614 – October 27, 1674) was one of Icelands most famous poets and a priest at Hvalneskirkja and Saurbær in Hvalfjörður. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... For other uses, see Hymn (disambiguation). ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century &#8212; 19th century &#8212; 20th century &#8212; more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The baroque organ in Roskilde Cathedral, Denmark The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by forcing pressurized air (referred to as wind) through a series of pipes. ... A Harmonium is a free-standing musical keyboard instrument similar to a Reed Organ or Pipe Organ. ... Rimur - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This article is about the vocal technique. ... Viking Age is the term denoting the years from about 800 to 1066 in Scandinavian History[1][2][3]. // The Vikings have been much maligned in European history, due in large part to their violent attacks on Christians in the first centuries of their excursions out of Scandinavia. ... The term Edda (Plural: Eddas or Icelandic plural: Eddur) applies to the Old Norse Poetic Edda and Prose Edda, both of which were written down in Iceland during the 13th century, although some of the poems included in them may be centuries older. ... The skald was a member of a group of courtly poets, whose poetry is associated with the courts of Scandinavian and Icelandic leaders during the Viking age, who composed and performed renditions of aspects of what we now characterise as Old Norse poetry. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901&#8211;2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900&#8211;1999... For other uses, see 1776 (disambiguation). ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Einar Jonssons statue of Jon Sigurdsson in Reykjavik. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sigurður Breiðfjörð (1798 – 1846) was an Icelandic poet. ... Year 1798 (MDCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Icelandic contemporary music consists of a big group of bands, ranging from pop-rock groups such as Sálin hans Jóns míns, Á móti sól (Rockstar: Supernova Magni's band), Írafár, Í Svörtum Fötum, Quarashi, Bang Gang, Amiina, and Skítamórall,to solo ballad singers like Bubbi Morthens, Megas, Björgvin Halldórsson and Páll Rósinkranz. The indie-scene is also very strong in Iceland, bands such as Múm, Sigur Rós and the solo artist Mugison are fairly well-known outside Iceland. Many Icelandic artists and bands have had great success internationally, most notably Björk and Sigur Rós but also Quarashi, Ampop, Mínus and múm. The main music festival is arguably Iceland Airwaves, a yearly event on the Icelandic music scene, where Icelandic bands along with foreign ones occupy the clubs of Reykjavík for a week. For other uses, see Pop rock (disambiguation). ... Guðmundur Magni Ásgeirsson (born December 1, 1978 in Egilsstaðir, Iceland), is currently the frontman for the Icelandic pop band Á Móti Sól. ... Quarashi was a rap/hip-hop group from Reykjavík, Iceland. ... The Bang Gang is an Icelandic band, that consists of Barði Jóhannson. ... Amiina (formerly Amína and Aníma) is an Icelandic quartet comprising Hildur Ársælsdóttir, Edda Rún Ólafsdóttir, Maria Huld Markan Sigfúsdóttir and Sólrún Sumarliðadóttir. ... Bubbi Morthens (born June 6, 1956 in Reykjavík, Iceland), is one of the most popular singers and songwriters in Iceland. ... // Magnús Þór Jónsson (Megas) This article is about Magnús Þór Jónsson, better known as Megas. ... Björgvin Helgi Halldórsson (born on April 16, 1951) is a famous Icelandic pop singer from Hafnarfjörður. ... múm (pronounced moom; in IPA, /mu:m/) is an experimental Icelandic musical group whose music is characterized by soft vocals, electronic glitch beats and effects, and a variety of traditional instruments. ... Sigur Rós ( ) is an Icelandic post-rock band with melodic, classical, experimental, and minimalist elements. ... Mugison (or Örn Elías Guðmundsson) is an Icelandic musician and singer who usually performs as a one man band using a guitar and computer. ... This article is about the musician. ... Sigur Rós ( ) is an Icelandic post-rock band with melodic, classical, experimental, and minimalist elements. ... Quarashi was a rap/hip-hop group from Reykjavík, Iceland. ... Ampop is an Icelandic melodic-pop/rock band from Reykjavík, Iceland. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... múm (pronounced moom; in IPA, /mu:m/) is an experimental Icelandic musical group whose music is characterized by soft vocals, electronic glitch beats and effects, and a variety of traditional instruments. ... Iceland Airwaves is an annual music festival held in Reykjavík, Iceland on the third weekend of October. ... Location in Iceland Coordinates: , Constituency Government  - Mayor (Borgarstjóri) Dagur B. Eggertsson Area  - City 274. ...

  • "Icelandic rímur"
    A rimur from the Library of Congress' California Gold: Northern California Folk Music from the Thirties Collection; performed by Sigurd Bardarson on April 29, 1940 in Carmel, California'
  • Problems playing the files? See media help.

Image File history File links Rimur. ... In the literature of Iceland, a ríma (pl. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Carmel-by-the-Sea is a city located in Monterey County, California. ...

Media

Iceland’s largest television stations are the state-run Sjónvarpið and the privately owned Stöð 2. The third largest station is Skjár einn. Other smaller stations exist, many of them locally. Radio is broadcast throughout the country, including some parts of the interior. The main radio stations are Rás 1, Rás 2 and Bylgjan. There are three newspaper published on a daily basis in Iceland, Fréttablaðið Morgunblaðið and 24 stundir (formerly Blaðið). Icelanders are a very technologically advanced nation and a large portion of the nation keeps a blog. The most popular websites are Vísir and Mbl.is, both of them news sites. [29] This article is about a television transmitting location or company. ... Sjónvarpið (English: The Television) is the television channel of the National Icelandic Broadcasting Service (RÚV), launched in 1966. ... Stöð 2 (English: Channel 2) is an Icelandic television channel of 365 ljósvakamiðlar founded in 1986. ... Skjár einn is an Icelandic TV channel owned by Iceland Telecom. ... Rás 1 (English: Channel 1) is an Icelandic radio station of RÚV, the National Icelandic Broadcasting Service. ... Rás 2 (English: Channel 2) is an Icelandic radio station of RÚV, the National Icelandic Broadcasting Service. ... Fréttablaðið is an Icelandic daily newspaper, distributed to homes across the country free of charge. ... Morgunblaðið is a newspaper published in Iceland, founded by Vilhjálmur Finsen. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Iceland is home to the television station Nick Jr.'s animated program LazyTown (Icelandic: Latibær), a children's television program created by Magnús Scheving. It has become a very popular program for children and adults, and is shown in over 98 countries, including the US, Canada, Sweden and Latin America.[30] The LazyTown Studios are located in Garðabær. Nick Jr. ... LazyTown is an Icelandic childrens television program (where it is known as Latibær) that features a cast and crew from Iceland, the United Kingdom and the United States. ... Scheving as Sportacus Magnús Scheving (born November 10, 1964) is a writer, producer, entrepreneur, comedian and a famous Icelandic athlete. ... Garðabær is a municipality in the Greater Reykjavík area of Iceland. ...

See also: Cinema of Iceland
The puffin is common, especially in the southern part of Iceland, and is a part of Iceland's traditional cuisine.
The puffin is common, especially in the southern part of Iceland, and is a part of Iceland's traditional cuisine.

Iceland has had a notable cinema industry for some time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 641 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (834 × 780 pixel, file size: 102 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 641 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (834 × 780 pixel, file size: 102 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Species Fratercula arctica Fratercula corniculata Fratercula cirrhata For prehistoric species, see article text. ...

Cuisine

Main articles: Cuisine of Iceland and Þorramatur

The majority of the national foods of Iceland are based around fish, lamb and dairy products. Þorramatur is a national food, consisting of many different dishes; this is not consumed on a daily basis but usually around the month of Þorri. Traditional dishes include skyr, cured ram scrota, cured shark, singed sheep heads and black pudding. The modern Icelandic diet is very diverse, and includes cuisines from all over the world. Still, the normal Icelandic breakfast and meal is casual and may include bread, cereal and fruits, for example. The dinner is more diverse. Like in other Western societies, fast food restaurants are widespread. Casual dining is popular as well. Þorramatur, the Icelandic national food. ... Þorramatur, the Icelandic national food. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Lambing be merged into this article or section. ... A dairy farm near Oxford, New York in the United States. ... Þorramatur, the Icelandic national food. ... Look up Month in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Skyr with strawberry taste from the Icelandic dairy product company Norðurmjólk Skyr is an Icelandic soured dairy product, thicker than yoghurt. ... In some male mammals, the scrotum is a protuberance of skin and muscle containing the testicles. ... For other uses, see Shark (disambiguation). ... Species See text. ... Black pudding (Boudin noir), before cooking Black pudding or less often blood pudding is a sausage made by cooking blood with a filler until it is thick enough to congeal when cooled. ... Fast food is food prepared and served quickly at a fast-food restaurant or shop at low cost. ... A casual dining restaurant is a restaurant that serves moderately-priced food in a casual atmosphere. ...


Sports

Main article: Sport in Iceland

Sport is an important part of the Icelandic culture. The main traditional sport in Iceland is Glíma, a form of wrestling, thought to have originated with the Vikings. It is still played in Iceland. Though changing in the past years, Icelanders remain a very healthy nation and children and teenagers participate in various types of leisure activities. Popular sports today are mainly football, track and field, handball and basketball. Sports such as golf, tennis, swimming, chess and horseback riding on Icelandic horses are also popular. Team handball is often referred to as a national sport, Iceland's team is one of the top ranked teams in the world, and Icelandic women are surprisingly good at football compared to the size of the country, the national team ranked the eighteenth best by FIFA. Iceland has excellent conditions for ice and rock climbing, although mountain climbing and hiking is preferred by the general public. The oldest sport association in Iceland is the Reykjavik Shooting Association, founded 1867. Rifle shooting became very popular in the 19th century and was heavily encouraged by politicians and others pushing for Icelandic independence. Shooting remains popular and all types of shooting with small arms practiced in the country. [31] A basketball game in Iceland Sports in Iceland are very popular. ... Glíma is the Icelandic national style of amateur Folk wrestling. ... A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... A womens 400 m hurdles race on a typical outdoor red rubber track in the Helsinki Olympic Stadium in Finland. ... Handball is the name of several different sports: Team handball, or Olympic/European Handball is a game somewhat similar to association football, but the ball is played with the hand, not the foot. ... This article is about the sport. ... This article is about the sport. ... For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... Swimmer redirects here. ... This article is about the Western board game. ... horse, see Horse (disambiguation). ... Icelandic horsie in winter The Icelandic horse is a breed of horsie that has lived in Iceland since the mid-800s, having been brought to the island by Viking settlers. ... Handball player leaps towards the goal prior to throwing the ball, while the goalkeeper extends himself trying to stop it. ... World Handball Championship Appearances 10 (First in 1961) Best result Quarter final, 1997 European Championship Appearances 4 (First in 2000) Best result Semifinal, 2002 The Iceland national handball team is the national handball team of Iceland and is controlled by the Icelandic Handball Association. ... This article is about an international football organization. ... Mountaineering is an umbrella term that can variously be used to describe the actions of climbing, hillwalking and scrambling. ... Two hikers in the Mount Hood National Forest Eagle Creek hiking Hiking is a form of walking, undertaken with the specific purpose of exploring and enjoying the scenery. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The shooting sports include those competitive sports involving tests of accuracy and speed when shooting various types of guns, including airguns. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


See also

Wikinews
Wikinews has a related section:

Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ...

Geography

// This is a list of the extreme points of Europe, the points that are farther north, south, east or west than any other location in Europe. ... This is a list of the extreme points of Iceland, the points that are farther north, south, east or west than any other location. ... The (most important) Fjords of Iceland Faxaflói Hvalfjörður Borgarfjörður Breiðafjörður Hvammsfjörður Ísarfjarðardjúp Húnaflói Skagafjörður Eyjafjörður Skjálfandi (bay) Öxarfjörður Vopnafjörður Héraðsflói Seyðisfjörður... Iceland is a large island with extensive volcanic and geothermal activity located on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in the North Atlantic Ocean east of Greenland immediately south of the Arctic Circle. ... The Nesjavellir Geothermal Power Plant Because of the special geological situation in Iceland with the high concentration of volcanoes, geothermal energy is very often used for heating and production of electricity. ... The Iceland Plume is an upwelling of anomalously hot rock in the Earths mantle beneath Iceland whose origin probably lies at the boundary between the core and the mantle in ca. ... Lakes of Iceland partially indicating surface or depth Þórisvatn 83-88 km², 114 m Þingvallavatn 82 km², 114 m Lagarfljót(Lögurinn) 53 km², 112 m Mývatn 37 km², 4,5 m Hvitárvatn 30 km², 84 m Hóp 29 - 44 km², depending on tides Langisjór... This is a list of islands off Iceland. ... This is a list of active and extinct volcanoes in Iceland. ... Rivers of Iceland On an island like Iceland, rivers are never very long. ... Eruption at Eldfell volcano, just outside a town of 5000 people, in 1973 Iceland has a very high number of active volcanoes due to its unique geological conditions. ... Gullfoss, in southern Iceland Iceland is unusually suited for waterfalls. ...

Politics

Political parties in Iceland lists political parties in Iceland. ... List of Presidents of Iceland Sveinn Björnsson (1944-1952) Ásgeir Ásgeirsson (1952-1968) Kristján Eldjárn (1968-1980) Vigdís Finnbogadóttir (1980-1996) Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson (1996-present) See also: Politics of Iceland, list of Prime Ministers of Iceland, list of Icelandic rulers, lists of incumbents... The Prime Minister of Iceland (Icelandic: Forsætisráðherra Íslands) is Icelands head of government. ... Iceland maintains diplomatic and commercial relations with practically all nations, but its ties with other Nordic states, with the US, and with the other NATO nations are particularly close. ... Iceland is not a member state of the European Union (EU) and has never applied for membership. ...

Economy

Iceland has a long tradition of subsistence whaling; whaling of one form or another has been conducted from the island since it became populated more than eleven hundred years ago. ... The Nesjavellir Geothermal Power Plant Because of the special geological situation in Iceland with the high concentration of volcanoes, geothermal energy is very often used for heating and production of electricity. ... Over 80% of the energy in Iceland is generated in hydroelectric power stations. ... A hydrogen economy is a hypothetical economy in which the energy needed for motive power (for automobiles or other vehicle types) or electricity (for stationary applications) is derived from reacting hydrogen (H2) with oxygen. ... Geothermal borehole outside Reykjavík. ...

Culture

This article is about Icelands visual arts. ... Art has existed in Iceland since the first settlements, but it was only at the beginning of the 20th century that Icelandic artists came to an international reputation. ... Brennivín is an Icelandic schnapps, considered the countrys signature alcoholic beverage. ... The Center for Icelandic Art (CIA.IS) is the platform for Icelandic visual art activities. ... Registered Partnership 1996. ... Although beer was banned in Iceland until 1989, the country has several natively brewed beer brands. ... Icelandic ( ) is a North Germanic language, the official language of Iceland and the mother tongue of the Icelandic people. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Jólasveinar (sometimes known as Christmas boys) are an Icelandic Christmas myth, comparable to Santa Claus. ... LGBT rights Around the world · By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      Iceland, as in the rest of Scandinavia, is a very liberal country concerning gay rights. ... A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Þ A Álfrun Gunnlaugsdóttir Arnaldur Indridason B D E Einar Már Guðmundson Einar Kárason F G Gunnar Gunnarsson Guðbergur Bergsson Gu... List of Icelandic language poets is a list of poets that write or have written in the Icelandic language, either in Old Norse or a more modern form of Icelandic. ... Atli Heimir Sveinsson (1938 - ) Kjartan Ólafsson Sigurður Nordal (1886—1974) Sveinbjörn Sveinbjörnsson (1847 - 1927) Tryggvi M. Baldvinsson (1965 - ) Category: ... The following is a list of notable films produced in Iceland by Icelanders. ... A Á B D Ð E É F G H I Í J K L M N O Ó P R S T U Ú V X Y Ý Þ Æ Ö A Arnaldur Indriðason Auður Jónsdóttir Á Álfrun Gunnlaugsdóttir Árni Bergmann Árni Þórarinsson B Birgir Sigurðsson Bjarni Bjarnason Björn Th. ... This is a list of music videos shot in Iceland ordered by year descending. ... Icelandic music is related to Nordic music forms, and includes vibrant folk and pop traditions, including medieval music group Voces Thules, alternative rock band The Sugarcubes, singers Björk and Emiliana Torrini; and Sigur Rós. ...

Other

Telephones - main lines in use: 196,984 (2001) Telephones - mobile cellular: 248,131 (221,231 GSM, 26,900 NMT) (2001) Telephone system: extensive domestic service domestic: the trunk network consists of coaxial and fiber-optic cables and microwave radio relay links international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Icelandic names differ from most Western family name systems by being patronymic (and sometimes matronymic) in that they reflect the immediate father (or mother) of the child and not the historic family lineage. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a list of people from Iceland, arranged in categories and ordered alphabetically by first name (cf. ... List of universities in Iceland: Bifröst School of Business Reykjavík University University of Akureyri University of Iceland Iceland University of Education Iceland Academy of Arts The Technical University of Iceland (TUI) Categories: Lists of colleges and universities | Education in Iceland ... 40-aurar stamp of 1930 This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of Iceland. ... Iceland has no railroads. ... Bandalag Íslenskra Skáta (BIS, Icelandic Boy and Girl Scout Association) is the national Scouting and Guiding organization of Iceland. ... The Icelandic turf house was the product of a difficult climate and, most importantly, a lack of timber suitable for major constructions. ... New Iceland(Nýja Ísland) is the area where people from Iceland in 19th century mainly settled. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e CIA - The World Fact book -- Iceland. Government. United States Government (July 20, 2006). Retrieved on August 6, 2006.
  2. ^ History of Medieval Greenland
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ [2]
  5. ^ National Land Survey of Iceland. www.statice.is (Unknown Publish Date). Retrieved on 6 August 2006.
  6. ^ a b CIA - The World Factbook -- Iceland. Geography. United States Government (July 20, 2006). Retrieved on August 6, 2006.
  7. ^ Late Holocene climate
  8. ^ Climate, History and the Modern World; Lamb H. , 1995, Longman Publ.
  9. ^ Icelandic Climatic Data (English introduction), Veðurstofa Íslands (Icelandic Meteorological Office)
  10. ^ Reykjavík weather station (#1) climatic means chart from above site
  11. ^ Akureyri weather station (#422) climatic means chart from above site
  12. ^ [3]
  13. ^ 6th-10th century AD
  14. ^ Helgason, Agnar et al. (2000). Estimating Scandinavian and Gaelic Ancestry in the Male Settlers of Iceland. American Journal of Human Genetics, 67:697–717, 2000. Institute of Biological Anthropology, University of Oxford.
  15. ^ Iceland Export Directory[http://www.icelandexport.is/english/about_iceland/icelandic_language/
  16. ^ CIA - The World Factbook -- Iceland. Demographics. United States Government (July 20, 2006). Retrieved on August 6, 2006.
  17. ^ Hagstofa Íslands
  18. ^ [4]
  19. ^ CIA - The World Factbook -- Iceland. Demographics. United States Government (November 15, 2007). Retrieved on November 29, 2007.
  20. ^ [5]
  21. ^ CIA - The World Factbook -- Iceland. Demographics. United States Government (July 20, 2006). Retrieved on July 20, 2007.
  22. ^ Spongenberg, Helena. "Slovenia celebrates full entry into euro club", 2007-01-15. Retrieved on 2007-01-16. 
  23. ^ Gross energy consumption by source 1987–2005, Statistics Iceland, accessed 2007-05-14
  24. ^ Gross energy consumption by source 1987–2005, Statistics Iceland, accessed 2007-05-14
  25. ^ www.nytimes.com/2005/07/13/international/europe/13elves.html?ex=1278907200&en=5e99759b563f81fe&ei=5090&partner=rssuserland&emc=rss.
  26. ^ www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/11/061113093726.htm.
  27. ^ The Icelandic National Anthem. musik og saga. Retrieved on November 11, 2005.
  28. ^ Cronshaw, pgs. 168-169
  29. ^ [ http://www.visindavefur.hi.is/svar.php?id=5456], accessed 2007-11-29
  30. ^ entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/stage/theatre/article2055496.ece.
  31. ^ Skotfélag Reykjavíkur. Retrieved on September 2, 2007.

The government of the United States, established by the United States Constitution, is a federal republic of 50 states, a few territories and some protectorates. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The government of the United States, established by the United States Constitution, is a federal republic of 50 states, a few territories and some protectorates. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The government of the United States, established by the United States Constitution, is a federal republic of 50 states, a few territories and some protectorates. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The government of the United States, established by the United States Constitution, is a federal republic of 50 states, a few territories and some protectorates. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The government of the United States, established by the United States Constitution, is a federal republic of 50 states, a few territories and some protectorates. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Find more information on Iceland by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource
Images and media from Commons
News stories from Wikinews
Learning resources from Wikiversity
Iceland Portal
  • Official Gateway of Iceland
  • Daily news from Iceland in English from Iceland Review online
  • The Icelandic Government's website in English
  • Iceland Information
  • History of Iceland: Primary Documents
Geographic locale
International membership

Of the emerging democracies in central and eastern Europe, Czechia has one of the most developed industrialized economies. ... Tourism, petroleum transhipment, and offshore finance are the mainstays of the Netherlands Antillean economy, which is closely tied to the outside world. ... The United Kingdom has the fifth largest gross domestic product in the world in terms of market exchange rates and the sixth largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). ... A Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the Peoples Republic of China is an administrative division of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iceland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Liechtenstein. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) was established on May 3, 1960 as an alternative for European states that were not allowed or did not wish to join the European Community (now the European Union). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Germanic languages are a group of related languages constituting a branch of the Indo-European (IE) language family. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ...  Officially monolingual Finnish-speaking municipalities (Sami bilingual municipalities not shown)  Bilingual municipalities with Finnish as the majority language  Bilingual municipalities with Swedish as the majority language  Monolingual Swedish-speaking municipalities (including Ã…land) More than 17,000 Swedish Finns live in officially monolingual Finnish municipalities, and are thus not represented on... Image File history File links Europe_germanic-languages. ... The Executive (government) of the German-speaking Community meets in Eupen Flag of the German-speaking community in Belgium The German-speaking Community of Belgium (German: , short DGB) is one of the three federal communities in Belgium. ... The Alsace-Moselle is the current legal name of the France that was part of Germany from 1871 to 1919 (and then from 1940 to 1944_1945), consisting of the départements of Haut-Rhin and Bas-Rhin (both of which make up Alsace), and the département of Moselle (itself... The Autonomous Province of Bolzano-Bozen[1][2] (Italian: ; German: ; Ladin: Provinzia autonòma de Balsan), also called Alto Adige (Italian: Alto Adige; German: Hochetsch or Oberetsch; Ladin: Adesc Aut[3] ) or South Tyrol (Italian: Sudtirolo; German: Südtirol; Ladin: Sudtirol), is an autonomous province of Italy. ... The German speaking part of Switzerland (German: Deutschschweiz) comprises about 65 % of Switzerland (North Western Switzerland, Eastern Switzerland, Central Switzerland, most of the Swiss plateau and the greater part of the Swiss Alps) In most Swiss cantons, German is the only official language (Aargau, Appenzell, Basel, Glarus, Lucerne, Nidwalden, Obwalden... The Flemish region is one of the three official regions of the Kingdom of Belgium (alongside the Walloon Region and the Brussels-Capital Region). ... Westhoek (Dutch for west corner) or Maritime Flanders (French: ) is a region in Belgium and France and includes the following areas: Location of Belgian Westhoek in West Flanders Belgian Westhoek (Dutch: Belgische Westhoek) including the West Flanders arrondissements of Diksmuide, Ypres, and Veurne including the cities of Veurne, Poperinge, Wervik... The Lower Rhine region in North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany The Lower Rhine region The Lower Rhine region or Niederhein is a region around the river Rhine in Germany between approximately Neuss and Düsseldorf and the Dutch border around Emmerich. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the Frisian languages, as spoken in the north of the Netherlands and Germany. ... North Frisia is the northernmost portion of Frisia, located primarily in Germany. ... Saterland (Saterland Frisian: Seelterlound) is a municipality in the German federal state of Lower Saxony. ... Capital Leeuwarden Queens Commissioner drs. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Iceland - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3367 words)
Iceland, officially the Republic of Iceland (Icelandic: Ísland or Lýðveldið Ísland IPA: [ˈlið̠vɛldɪð̠ ˈisland) is an island nation, a volcanic island in the northern Atlantic Ocean between Greenland, Norway, Ireland, the United Kingdom, and the Faroe Islands.
Iceland was one of the last large islands uninhabited by humans until it was discovered and settled by immigrants from Scandinavia, Ireland and Scotland during the 9th and 10th centuries.
Icelanders enjoy freedom of religion as stated by the constitution; however, church and state are not separated and the National Church of Iceland, a Lutheran body, is the state church.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Iceland (4894 words)
The breeding of sheep and horses is the principal occupation in Iceland.
Iceland was most disastrously affected in the beginning of the fifteenth century by internal unrest, factional conflicts, earthquakes, and epidemics which struck men and beasts alike.
Iceland was colonized in the ninth and tenth centuries by Norwegians who left their native land when Harold Harfagri, forced all Norway to submit to his sway (A.D. Iceland, though politically independent until 1262, remained in close contact with the mother country; its language also remained Norse.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m