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Encyclopedia > Iceberg
Icebergs at Cape York, Greenland
Icebergs at Cape York, Greenland
Icebergs at Cape York, Greenland
Icebergs at Cape York, Greenland
Iceberg at Cape York, Greenland
Iceberg at Cape York, Greenland
Iceberg, Témpanos, ' Patagonia, Argentina.
Iceberg calved from the Ross Ice Shelf
Iceberg calved from the Ross Ice Shelf

An iceberg is a large piece of freshwater ice that has broken off from a snow-formed glacier or ice shelf and is floating in open water[1] Iceberg may refer to any of the following: Iceberg, a large piece of ice that has broken off from a snow-formed glacier or ice shelf and is floating in open water Iceberg (Doctor Who), a Doctor Who novel Iceberg (novel), a Dirk Pitt adventure novel by Clive Cussler Iceberg... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3456 × 2304 pixel, file size: 4. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3456 × 2304 pixel, file size: 4. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 527 pixelsFull resolution (3412 × 2246 pixel, file size: 4. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 527 pixelsFull resolution (3412 × 2246 pixel, file size: 4. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1728 × 1152 pixel, file size: 367 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Iceberg inGreenland Photograped by Mila Zinkova in September of 2005 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1728 × 1152 pixel, file size: 367 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Iceberg inGreenland Photograped by Mila Zinkova in September of 2005 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1333 pixel, file size: 585 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Iceberg Metadata This file contains additional... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1333 pixel, file size: 585 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Iceberg Metadata This file contains additional... Patagonia, as most commonly defined (in orange). ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Ross Ice Shelf in 1997. ... This article is about water ice. ... This article is about the geological formation. ... Ross Ice Shelf An ice shelf is a thick, floating platform of ice that forms where a glacier or ice sheet flows down to a coastline and onto the ocean surface. ...


Since the density of pure water ice is ca. 920 kg/m³, and that of sea water ca. 1025 kg/m³, typically, only one ninth of the volume of an iceberg is above water. The shape of the remainder under the water can be difficult to surmise from looking at what is visible above the surface. This has led to the expression "tip of the iceberg", generally applied to a problem or difficulty, meaning that the visible trouble is only a small manifestation of a larger problem. Sea water is water from a sea or ocean. ...


The word iceberg is a partial loan translation from Dutch ijsberg, literally meaning mountain of ice,[2] cognate to Danish Isbjerg, Swedish Isberg, Low Saxon Iesbarg and German Eisberg. Calque In linguistics, a calque ([kælk]) or loan translation (itself a calque of German Lehnübersetzung) consists of the borrowing of a phrase from one language into another, in the process of which individual words native to the borrowing language semantically match the individual words in the source language. ... Low Saxon (in Low Saxon, Nedersaksisch, Neddersassisch) is any of a variety of Low German (Nedderdüütsch in Low Saxon) dialects spoken in northern Germany and the Netherlands. ...


Icebergs generally range from 1 to 75 metres (about 3 to 250 ft) above sea level and weigh 100,000 to 200,000 metric tonnes (about 110,000-220,000 short tons). The tallest known iceberg in the North Atlantic was 168 meters (about 551 ft) above sea level, making it the height of a 55-story building. Despite their size, the icebergs of Newfoundland move an average of seventeen kilometers (about ten miles) a day[3]. These icebergs originate from the glaciers of western Greenland, and may have an interior temperature of -15 to -20 °C (5 to -4 °F). [4] The short ton is a unit of mass equal to 907. ... For other uses, see Atlantic (disambiguation) The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. ...


Though usually confined by winds and currents to move close to the coast, the largest icebergs recorded are calved, or broken off from, the Ross Ice Shelf of Antarctica. Iceberg B-15 photographed by satellite in 2000 measured 295km (183 miles) long and 37km (23 miles) wide, with a surface area of 11,000 km² (4,250 square miles). The mass was estimated around 3,000,000,000 metric tonnes. Ross Ice Shelf in 1997. ... The iceberg B-15A in the last years, updated March 2006. ...


When an iceberg melts, it makes a fizzing sound called "Bergie Seltzer." This sound is made when compressed air bubbles trapped in the iceberg pop. The bubbles come from air trapped in snow layers that later become glacial ice. [4] Bubbles in carbonated water float to the surface. ...

Contents

Classification

Size

Only one ninth is above the surface
Only one ninth is above the surface

This size classification is used by the International Ice Patrol:[5] Image File history File links Wikisourcelogo. ... Image File history File links Wikisourcelogo. ... The International Ice Patrol monitors the presence of icebergs in the northern Atlantic Ocean and reports their movements for safety purposes. ...

Size Category Height Length
Growler Less than 1 metre (3 ft) Less than 5 metres (16 ft)
Bergy Bit 1-4 meters (3-13 ft) 5-14 meters (15-46 ft)
Small 5-15 meters (14-50 ft) 15-60 meters (47-200 ft)
Medium 16-45 meters (51-150 ft) 61-122 meters (201-400 ft)
Large 46-75 meters (151-240 ft) 123-213 meters (401-670 ft)
Very Large Over 75 meters (240 ft) Over 213 meters (670 ft)

Shape

Adélie penguins on iceberg in Ross Sea, Antarctica
Adélie penguins on iceberg in Ross Sea, Antarctica

In addition to the above size classification, there is also a type of classification based on shape. The two basic types of iceberg forms are tabular and non-tabular. Tabular icebergs have steep sides and a flat top, much like a plateau, with a length-to-height ratio of more than 5:1[6]. Non-tabular icebergs have different shapes, and include[7]: Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 487 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,777 × 1,082 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 487 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,777 × 1,082 pixels, file size: 1. ... Binomial name (Hombron & Jacquinot, 1841) Adélie Penguins at Cape Adare The Adélie Penguin, Pygoscelis adeliae, is a type of penguin common along the entire Antarctic coast and nearby islands. ... This article is about penguin birds. ... Map of Antarctica (click to enlarge) Ice in the Ross Sea, Antarctica The Ross Sea is a deep bay of the Southern Ocean in Antarctica between Victoria Land and Marie Byrd Land. ... For other meanings, see Plateau (disambiguation). ...

  • Dome: An iceberg with a rounded top.
  • Pinnacle: An iceberg with one or more spires.
  • Wedge: An iceberg with a steep edge on one side and a slope on the opposite side.
  • Dry-Dock: An iceberg that has eroded to form a slot or channel.
  • Blocky: An iceberg with steep, vertical sides and a flat top. It differs from tabular icebergs in that its shape is more like a block than a flat sheet.

A modern spire on the Lancaster University Chaplaincy Centre A spire is a tapering conical or pyramidal structure on the top of a building, particularly a church tower. ... For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ... In physical geography, a channel is the physical confine of a river, slough or ocean strait consisting of a bed and banks. ...

History

The first to explain the formation of icebergs was the Russian prodigy Mikhail Lomonosov. In the 20th century, several scientific bodies were established to study and monitor the icebergs. The International Ice Patrol, formed in 1914 in response to the Titanic disaster, monitors iceberg dangers near the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and provide the "limits of all known ice" in that vicinity to the maritime community. For other uses, see Lomonosov (disambiguation). ... The International Ice Patrol monitors the presence of icebergs in the northern Atlantic Ocean and reports their movements for safety purposes. ... For other uses, see Titanic (disambiguation). ...


Monitoring

An iceberg near Newfoundland
An iceberg near Newfoundland
Cruise ship and iceberg in Antarctica
Cruise ship and iceberg in Antarctica

Icebergs are monitored worldwide by the U.S. National Ice Center (NIC), established in 1995, which produces analyses and forecasts of Arctic, Antarctic, Great Lakes, and Chesapeake Bay ice conditions. More than 95% of the data used in its sea ice analyses are derived from the remote sensors on polar-orbiting satellites that survey these remote regions of the Earth. Iceberg sighting in St Anthony, near Lanse aux Meadows in the northwesternmost corner of the island of Newfoundland This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Iceberg sighting in St Anthony, near Lanse aux Meadows in the northwesternmost corner of the island of Newfoundland This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 520 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,000 × 650 pixels, file size: 414 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Cruise ship and iceberg in Antarctica. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 520 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,000 × 650 pixels, file size: 414 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Cruise ship and iceberg in Antarctica. ... A cruise ship or a cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the ships amenities are considered an essential part of the experience. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... The National Ice Center is a tri-agency operational center whose mission is to provide world-wide navigational ice analyses for the armed forces of the United States and allied nations, U.S. government agencies, and the private sector. ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ... Greek ἀνταρκτικός, opposite the arctic) is a continent surrounding the Earths South Pole. ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... The Chesapeake Bay - Landsat photo The Chesapeake Bay where the Susquehanna River empties into it. ...


The NIC is the only organization that names and tracks all Antarctic Icebergs. It assigns each iceberg larger than 10 nautical miles (18 km) along at least one axis a name composed of a letter indicating its point of origin and a running number. The letters used are as follows: A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of length. ...

Iceberg B15, which calved from the Ross Ice Shelf in 2000 and initially had an area of 11 000 km², was the largest iceberg ever recorded. It broke apart in November 2002. The largest remaining piece of it, iceberg B-15A, with an area of 3000 km², was still the largest iceberg on Earth until it ran aground and split into several pieces October 27, 2005. It has been determined that the cause of the breakup was an ocean swell generated by an Alaskan storm 6 days earlier and 13,500 kilometers (8,370 miles) away![8] Longitude is the east-west geographic coordinate measurement most commonly utilized in cartography and global navigation. ... The Bellingshausen Sea (71°00′S 085°00′W) is an area along the west side of the Antarctic Peninsula between Alexander Island and Thurston Island. ... The Weddell Sea is part of the Southern Ocean. ... The Amundsen Sea, named for Norwegian polar explorer Roald Amundsen, is an arm of the Southern Ocean off Marie Byrd Land in western Antarctica. ... Map of Antarctica (click to enlarge) Ice in the Ross Sea, Antarctica The Ross Sea is a deep bay of the Southern Ocean in Antarctica between Victoria Land and Marie Byrd Land. ... The Amery Ice Shelf () is a broad ice shelf at the head of Prydz Bay between the Lars Christensen Coast and Ingrid Christensen Coast. ... The iceberg B-15A in the last years, updated March 2006. ... Ross Ice Shelf in 1997. ... Iceberg B-15A, January 2005. ...


Technology history

Sunset Icebergs in Arctic
Sunset Icebergs in Arctic

There was no system in place before 1912 to track icebergs to guard against ship collisions. The sinking of the RMS Titanic, which caused the death of more than 1,500 of its 2,223 passengers, created the demand for a system to observe icebergs. For the remainder of the ice season of that year, the United States Navy patrolled the waters and monitored ice flow. In November 1913, The International Conference on the Safety of Life at Sea met in London to devise a more permanent system of observing icebergs. Within three months, the participating maritime nations had formed the International Ice Patrol (IIP). The goal of the IIP was to collect data on meteorology and oceanography in order to measure currents, iceflow, ocean temperature, and salinity levels. They published their first records in 1921, which allowed for a year-by-year comparison of iceberg movement. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3456 × 2304 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3456 × 2304 pixel, file size: 3. ... For other uses, see Titanic (disambiguation). ... USN redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The International Ice Patrol monitors the presence of icebergs in the northern Atlantic Ocean and reports their movements for safety purposes. ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... Thermohaline circulation Oceanography (from Ocean + Greek γράφειν = write), also called oceanology or marine science, is the branch of Earth Sciences that studies the Earths oceans and seas. ...


New technologies continued to be deployed to help monitor icebergs. Aerial surveillance of the seas first took hold in the early 1930s, which allowed for the development of charter systems that could accurately detail the ocean currents and iceberg locations. In 1945 experiments were conducted to test the effectiveness of radar in detecting icebergs. A decade later numerous oceanographic monitoring outposts were established for the purpose of collecting data; these outposts continue today to serve an important role in environmental study. A computer was first installed on a ship for the purpose of oceanographic monitoring in 1964, which allowed for a faster evaluation of data. By the 1970s, Icebreaking ships were equipped with automatic transmission of satellite photographs of ice in Antarctica. Systems for optical satellites had been developed, but at this point were still limited by weather conditions. In the 1980s, drifting buoys were used in Antarctic waters for oceanographic and climate research. They are equipped with sensors that measure ocean temperature and currents. Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) made it possible to acquire images regardless of weather conditions. On 4 November 1995, Canada launched RADARSAT-1. Developed by the Canadian Space Agency, it provides images of Earth for both scientific and commercial purposes. This system was the first to use Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), which sends microwave energy to the ocean surface and records the reflections to track icebergs. The European Space Agency launched ENVISAT on 1 March 2002, an environmental satellite which uses Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR). This can detect changes in surface height with a high degree of accuracy. The Canadian Space Agency is currently readying RADARSAT-2, which is scheduled to be launched in mid 2007. It will utilize SAR and multipolarization modes and will follow the same orbit path as RADARSAT-1.[9] For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... US Coast Guard icebreakers near McMurdo Station, February 2002 An icebreaker is a special purpose ship designed to move through ice covered marine environments. ... For other uses, see Satellite (disambiguation). ... A seal on a buoy in San Diego Harbor A buoy is a stationary floating device that can have various purposes: sea mark - aids pilotage by marking a maritime channel, hazard and administrative area to allow boats and ships to navigate safely. ... Climatology is the science that studies climates and investigates their phenomena and causes. ... RADARSAT-1 is Canadas first commercial Earth observation satellite. ... The Canadian Space Agency (CSA or, in French, lAgence spatiale canadienne, ASC) is the Canadian government space agency responsible for Canadas space program. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... The surface of Venus, as imaged by the Magellan probe using SAR Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a form of radar in which sophisticated post-processing of radar data is used to produce a very narrow effective beam. ... This article is about the type of Electromagnetic radiation. ... ESA redirects here. ... Model of Envisat The Envisat (Environmental Satellite) satellite is an Earth-observing satellite built by the European Space Agency. ... RADARSAT-2 is an Earth observation satellite scheduled for launch in 2005 by the Canadian Space Agency. ... Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ...

Tabletop icebergs at sunrise in Antarctica

Download high resolution version (1000x208, 82 KB)Tabletop icebergs in Antarctica. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

For other uses, see Titanic (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Icebreaker (disambiguation). ... Project Habbakuk was a plan by the British in World War II to construct an unsinkable aircraft carrier out of ice, for use against German U-boats in the mid-Atlantic, which was out of range of land-based planes. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and in most cases recover aircraft, acting as a sea... Pykrete is a composite material made of approximately 14% sawdust (or, less frequently, wood pulp) and 86% water by weight then frozen, invented by Max Perutz and proposed during World War II by Geoffrey Pyke to the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom as a candidate material for making a... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

References

  1. ^ Numerous definitions of the word "Iceberg" URL accessed December 20, 2006.
  2. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary. iceberg. URL accessed March 29, 2006.
  3. ^ http://www.wordplay.com/tourism/icebergs/ URL accessed June 16, 2007
  4. ^ a b Canadian Geographic Facts on Icebergs URL accessed December 20, 2006.
  5. ^ Iceberg FAQ URL accessed December 20, 2006.
  6. ^ Clarification on the Sizes and Shapes of Icebergs URL accessed December 20, 2006.
  7. ^ Iceberg Physiology URL accessed December 20, 2006
  8. ^ Alaskan storm cracks giant iceberg to pieces in faraway Antarctica
  9. ^ Canadian Geographic. Tracking Monsters. URL accessed March 29, 2006.

External links


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The interior temperature of icebergs off the coast of Newfoundland and Labrador is in the range of −15 to −20°C. Ninety-three percent of the world's mass of icebergs is found surrounding the Antarctic.
Icebergs are monitored worldwide by the U.S. National Ice Center (NIC), established in 1995, which produces analyses and forecasts of Arctic, Antarctic, Great Lakes, and Chesapeake Bay ice conditions.
Iceberg B15, which calved from the Ross Ice Shelf in 2000 and initially had an area of 11 000 km², was the largest iceberg ever recorded.
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