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Encyclopedia > Ice wine
Grapes for ice wine, still frozen on the vine.

Icewine (or ice wine or, in German, Eiswein) is a type of dessert wine produced from grapes that have been frozen while still on the vine. The sugars and other dissolved solids do not freeze, but the water does, so the result is a concentrated, often very sweet wine. In the case of ice wines, the freezing happens before the fermentation, not afterwards. Unlike the grapes from which other dessert wines, such as Sauternes, Tokaji, or Trockenbeerenauslese, are made, ice wine grapes should not be affected by Botrytis cinerea or noble rot. Only healthy grapes keep in good shape until the opportunity for ice wine harvest, which may be in the next calendar year. This gives ice wine its characteristic refreshing sweetness balanced by high acidity. When the grapes are free of Botrytis, they are said to come in "clean". Image File history File links Ice_wine_grapes. ... Image File history File links Ice_wine_grapes. ... Dessert wines (or pudding wines) are sweet wines typically served with dessert, such as Sauternes and Tokaji Aszú. Despite the name, they are often best appreciated alone, or with fruit or bakery sweets. ... This article is about the fruits of the genus Vitis. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely traded commodity. ... Fermenting must. ... A half bottle of Sauternes from Château dYquem Sauternes is a type of dessert wine made from Sémillon, Sauvignon Blanc, and Muscadelle grapes that have been affected by Botrytis cinerea, also known as noble rot. ... Tokaj cellar Tokaji, meaning of Tokaj in Hungarian, is used to label wines from the wine region of Tokaj-Hegyalja in Hungary. ... Trockenbeerenauslese is a German and Austrian wine term and type of dessert wine meaning selected dried berries. ... Binomial name Botryotinia fuckeliana (de Bary) Whetzel 1945 Botrytis cinerea is a fungus that affects many plant species, although its most economically important hosts are wine grapes[]. In viticulture, it is commonly known as botrytis bunch rot; in horticulture, it is usually called grey mould or gray mold. ... Noble rot (French: La Pourriture Noble) is the benevolent form of a grey fungus, Botrytis cinerea, affecting wine grapes. ...

Contents

Icewine producers

Vineyard in Ontario.
Vineyard in Ontario.

The most famous (and expensive) ice wines are German Eiswein and Canadian ice wine, but apart from these, ice wine is also made in the United States, Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Hungary, Australia, France, New Zealand and Israel in smaller quantity. Eiswein is part of the QmP category in the German wine classification, and Icewine in Canada must follow VQA protocol to be labelled as such. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 1379 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ice wine User:Chensiyuan Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 1379 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ice wine User:Chensiyuan Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... German wine is officially classified by the ripeness of the grapes, rather than an attempt to classify terroirs as in the French Appellation dOrigine Contrôlée system, vinification methods and grape varieties as in Italy, or region as in American Viticultural Area. ... Vintners Quality Alliance, or VQA, is a regulatory system that guarantees the quality of wines in Canada. ...


In contrast to most other wine-producing regions, Canada, particularly the Niagara Peninsula, has very consistent freezes in winter and has become the largest ice wine producer in the world. Ice wine production in Canada is regulated by the Vintners Quality Alliance in the provinces of British Columbia and Ontario. If sugar in the grapes measures less than 35 brix, then they cannot be made into icewine. These are often downgraded to a lower designation, such as Special Select Late Harvest or Select Late Harvest. Although Niagara-on-the-Lake's Inniskillin is traditionally considered the largest producer in term of volume, many smaller New World wineries in the Niagara Region have made their presence known with high quality products that have won awards around the world. Henry of Pelham Family Estate Winery's 2004 Riesling Icewine was recently acknowledged by Jancis Robinson of the Financial Times (London) and the Oxford Companion to Wine as one of Canada's 10 best wines. To add to the prestige factor, in November 2006, the most expensive bottle of ice wine to date, was sold at CAD 30,000 by Royal DeMaria, a small winery in Beamsville that specializes in making icewine. Vintners Quality Alliance, or VQA, is a regulatory system that guarantees the quality of wines in Canada. ... It has been suggested that Öchsle scale and Baumé scale be merged into this article or section. ... Categories: Canada geography stubs | Ontario communities | Coastal towns of Canada ... Niagara Regional Municipality (2001 population 410,574), also known as Niagara Region, Regional Niagara, or the Regional Municipality of Niagara, is an area covering 12 municipalities, including th cities of Niagara Falls, Port Colborne, St. ... Jancis Mary Robinson (born in Cumbria on April 22, 1950) is a British wine writer and journalist. ... The Financial Times (FT) is a British international business newspaper. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Production

Natural ice wines require a hard freeze (by law in Canada a minimum of −8 °C (17 °F) and in Germany a minimum of −7 °C (19 °F)) to occur sometime after the grapes are ripe, which means that the grapes may hang on the vine for several months following the normal harvest. If a freeze does not come quickly enough, the grapes may rot and the crop will be lost. If the freeze is too severe, no juice can be extracted. Vineland Winery in Ontario once broke their pneumatic press in the 1990s while pressing the frozen grapes because they were too hard (the temperature was close to −20 °C).[citation needed] The longer the harvest is delayed, the more fruit will be lost to wild animals and dropped fruit. Since the fruit must be pressed while it is still frozen, pickers often must work at night or very early in the morning, harvesting the grapes within a few hours, while cellar workers must work in unheated spaces. In physics and chemistry, freezing is the process whereby a liquid turns to a solid. ... Ripening is a process in fruit that causes them to become more edible. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


In Austria, Germany and Canada, the grapes must freeze naturally to be called ice wine. Some winemakers use cryoextraction (that is, mechanical freezing) to simulate the effect of a frost and typically do not leave the grapes to hang for extended periods as is done with a natural ice wine. These non-traditional ice wines are sometimes referred to as "icebox wines".[citation needed] An example is Bonny Doon's Vin de Glacière. Cryoextraction is the process by which grapes are frozen with refrigeration and pressed. ...


The high sugar level in the must leads to a slower than normal fermentation. It may take months to complete the fermentation (compared to days or weeks for regular wines) and special strains of yeasts should be used. Because of the lower yield of grape musts and the difficulty of processing, ice wines are significantly more expensive than table wines. They are often sold in half-bottle volume (375 ml) or the even smaller 200ml bottle. New World wineries in particular sometimes bottle 200 ml and 50 ml gift packages. For must meaning compulsion, see wikt:must. ... In the United States, table wine is used as a legal definition to differentiate standard wine from stronger (higher alcohol content) fortified wine or sparkling wine[1]. In the European Union it is meant to designate the lowest quality level of wine produced, one that qualifies for neither an appellation...


Varietal grapes

Red ice wines
Red ice wines

Typical grapes used for ice wine production are Riesling, considered to be the most noble variety by Germans; Vidal, highly popular in British Columbia and Ontario, Canada; and, interestingly, the red grape Cabernet Franc. Many vintners, especially from the New World, are experimenting with making ice wine from other varieties: whites such as Seyval Blanc, Chardonnay, Kerner, Gewürztraminer, chenin blanc, Pinot Blanc, and Ehrenfelser; or reds such as Merlot, Pinot Noir, and even Cabernet Sauvignon. Pillitteri Estates Winery from the Niagara-on-the-Lake region of Ontario recently claimed to be the first winery in the world producing Shiraz (Syrah) ice wine. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 568 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Canadian Icewine The Reds - Ice wines made from red grapes are rarer and more precious it seems. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 568 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Canadian Icewine The Reds - Ice wines made from red grapes are rarer and more precious it seems. ... Riesling is a white grape variety and varietal appellation of wines grown historically in Germany (see German wine), Alsace (France), Austria, and northern Italy. ... Vidal Blanc is a cross of Ugni Blanc and Seibel 4986. ... Cabernet Franc is a red wine grape variety similar to and a parent of Cabernet Sauvignon. ... Seyval Blanc (aka Seyve-villard 5276) is a hybrid wine grape variety used to make white wines. ... Oak-aged Chardonnay is particularly popular in the United States. ... Andreas Kerner (1786-1862), a lyric poet of the Swabian school Justinus (Andreas Christian) Kerner Karl Theodor Kerner Nena Kerner Otto Kerner Kerner Commissionm, named after Otto Kerner See also Körner (Koerner) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same... Gewürztraminer grapes on the vine Gewürztraminer (IPA: , sounds like guh-VERTS-truh-MEE-ner; IPA: in German; Croatian: ; Hungarian: ), sometimes referred to as Gewürz or Traminer, is a white wine grape variety that performs best in cooler climates. ... Chenin Blanc (or often simply Chenin) is a widely grown wine grape variety, also known as Steen in South Africa, Pineau de la Loire in the Loire region of France. ... Pinot Blanc is a white wine grape. ... Ehrenfelser is a white wine grape that is a German cross of the Riesling and Sylvaner grapes that was first created in 1929. ... Merlot grapes on the vine. ... Pinot noir (pi no nwar) is a red wine grape variety of the species Vitis vinifera. ... Old vine Cabernet Sauvignon at Chateau Montelena in Napa Valley. ... Shiraz grapes have a characteristicly deep purple color that is reflected in their wine. ...


Ice wines from white varieties tend to be pale yellow or light gold in color when they are young and can maderise (acquiring a deep amber-golden color) as they age. The red varieties tend to have a light burgundy or even pink color like that of rosé wines. Maderisation (American English: maderization) is a process that involves the heating and oxidisation of a wine. ...


Some vintners in Canada have taken a step forward in experimenting with sparkling ice wine. Sparkling ice wines have texture similar to other sparkling wines, such as champagne or asti, but with fuller body, and a significantly higher sugar level balanced with high acidity. A glass of sparkling wine A Sparkling wine cork It has been suggested that Spumante, Frizzante, Sekt and Cremant be merged into this article or section. ... Champagne is often consumed as part of a celebration Champagne is a sparkling wine produced by inducing the in-bottle secondary fermentation of wine to effect carbonation. ... A glass of sparkling wine A Sparkling wine cork It has been suggested that Spumante, Frizzante, Sekt and Cremant be merged into this article or section. ...


Characteristics

Even though it is normal for residual sugar content in ice wine to run from 180 g/L up to as high as 320 g/L (with a mean in the 220 g/L range), ice wine is very refreshing (as opposed to cloying) due to high acidity. (The titratable acidity in ice wine is almost always above 10 g/L.) Ice wine usually has a medium to full body, with a long lingering finish. The nose is usually reminiscent of peach, pear, dried apricot, honey, citrus, figs, caramel, green apple, etc., depending on the varietal. The aroma of tropical and exotic fruits such as pineapple, mango, or lychee is quite common, especially on white varietals. Binomial name Sonn. ...


Ice wine usually has a slightly lower alcohol content than regular table wine. Some Riesling ice wines from Germany have an alcohol content as low as 6%. Ice wines produced in Canada usually have higher alcohol content, between eight and 13 percent. In most years, ice wines from Canada generally have higher brix degree (must weight) compared to those from Germany. This is largely due to the more consistent winters in Canada. Must with insufficient brix level cannot be made into ice wine, and is thus often sold as "special select late harvest" or "select late harvest" at a fraction of the price that true ice wine commands. It has been suggested that Öchsle scale and Baumé scale be merged into this article or section. ... Must weight is a measure of the amount of sugar in grape juice (must), and hence the amount of alcohol that could potentially be produced if it is all fermented to alcohol, rather than left as residual sugar. ...


Connoisseurs argue[citation needed] about whether ice wine improves with age or is meant to be drunk young. Those who support aging claim that ice wine's very high sugar level (which is often much higher than that of Sauternes) and high acidity preserve the content for many years after bottling. Those who disagree contend that as ice wine ages it loses its distinctive acidity, fruitiness, aroma, and freshness. A half bottle of Sauternes from Château dYquem Sauternes is a type of dessert wine made from Sémillon, Sauvignon Blanc, and Muscadelle grapes that have been affected by Botrytis cinerea, also known as noble rot. ...


See also

Areas of grape cultivation in Canada While most of Canada is too cold for grape growing, Canadian wine is produced in Southern Ontario and southern British Columbia. ...

External links

  • ICEWINE REVIEW Information and Ratings
  • Okanagan Winter/Icewine Festival Jan 17-20, 2008
  • Niagara Winery Information and Ratings
  • Niagara Wines shipped worldwide

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Mediadrome - Food - Vin de Glaciere: Ice Wine (871 words)
Ice wine coats a crystal goblet with a thin layer of golden sheen that is nearly the consistency of maple syrup.
Ice wine must be naturally produced -- if a vintner is found to be using artificial means to “fast-freeze” his grapes, the VQA will cast off the rebel and relegate him back to to making simple table wines.
Ice wine can be made using either red or white grapes, yet the Germans have taught us that Riesling and Gewurztraminer grape varieties make the best ice wines, owing in part to their incredible constitution and ability to withstand the most inhospitable cold winter conditions.
Ice wine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1056 words)
Ice wine (or icewine or Eiswein in German) is a type of dessert wine produced from grapes that have been frozen.
Natural ice wines require a hard freeze (by law in Canada a minimum of -8 °C/ 17 °F and in Germany a minimum of -7 °C/ 19 °F) to occur sometime after the grapes are ripe, which means that the grapes may hang on the vine for several months following the normal harvest.
Ice wines from white varieties tend to be pale yellow or light gold in color when they are young and can maderise (acquiring deep amber-golden color) as they age.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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